Health Exchanges Bring Cautious Optimism for Many; Concern for Brokers

Adam S. Beck, Esq.

Adam S. Beck, Esq. is Assistant Professor of Health Insurance at The American College, where he teaches courses on the Affordable Care Act. An attorney, he has worked in private sector consulting and for the federal and state governments. Adam.Beck@wcinput.com

The American College sits just a few miles outside Philadelphia, home to the Reading Terminal Market, a large and historic public market where thousands of locals and visitors daily peruse fresh produce, meats, fish, baked goods and almost any specialty food you can imagine. It is a bustling place with long lines at lunch and low prices on basic goods, attracting shoppers from all walks of life. The market makes comparison shopping a dream; customers scout the lowest price for the same items merely by walking a few feet. It also provides a great backdrop for explaining the health insurance exchanges that are now open as full implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) moves forward.

 

The individual and small group exchanges created by the ACA opened on October 1, and plans purchased through the exchange are active beginning January 1, 2014. Many people—insured individuals, employers, insurance agents and the uninsured—have questions about what happens now, including how many people and what demographics will actually seek coverage through the exchanges. Attempting to give conclusive answers to such questions would be like attempting to say definitively how much apples will cost at the market next summer; nobody can say for certain, but both past models and critical analysis give us some good clues.

 

A virtual, varied experience

First, each exchange is unique, including different names and operators. Some states run their own exchanges, some have joint control with the federal government and other states have left everything to the feds. Private insurers have the option of whether to participate, but all plans available must meet certain minimum qualifications and comply with federal regulations. Many are participating now and many are waiting to see what happens. For the 19 states where the federal government is running the exchanges, more than 120 private plans applied to participate, and the White House anticipates that 90 percent of exchange customers will have at least five insurance companies from which to choose. The nation’s largest insurance companies—household names such as Aetna and UnitedHealth—are participating in many exchanges but proceeding with caution, joining only a fraction of the 51 exchanges now enrolling customers. In turn, new insurance companies are emerging to take advantage of being placed side-by-side on a screen next to established giants.

 

Beyond the different names and insurance providers participating, each exchange has its own appearance and functionality. These are all online exchanges (although mail-in and in-person options are available). Expanding on the allegory, rather than walking from one produce vendor to another, consumers will be able to compare plans on their screen and select different options to find the right fit. Think of the exchanges as an Expedia or Priceline.com for health insurance. The eventual goal is to create exchange sites that are user-friendly, easy to navigate and rely on graphic interfaces, but many state exchanges have been pressed for time and today offer only a bare-bones version of the ultimate vision. Once on the site, consumers can enter information about themselves—their age, household size, how much they earn, where they live—and then view and select tiered plans that include bronze, silver, gold and platinum levels.

 

Opportunities for small businesses and the uninsured

The federal government expects 7 million Americans to purchase plans through the exchange next year, increasing annually to 24 million by 2023. That’s a lot of people, but the latter represents only 8 percent of the population, so a relatively small portion of the market. Those who earn up to four times the poverty level will qualify for premium subsidies to make their plans more affordable. Regardless of any subsidy, many exchange plans have lower premiums than nonexchange plans. 

 

Those lower-priced premiums and greater competition are also meant to attract small businesses, which will be able to purchase plans for their employees through a small business marketplace exchange. The law considers small businesses to be those with up to 50 employees, although certain states are including those with up to 100 employees. For the next two years, if a small business purchases plans through an exchange, it can also claim a tax credit for 50 percent of what it spends on premiums. The cost of health insurance also remains tax deductible.

 

Rewards for insurance companies; real risks for insurance brokers

While the prospect of lower premiums for millions of Americans, lower costs for small businesses and more customers for insurance companies may seem like a win-win scenario if all goals are met, the exchanges pose real risks for insurance brokers. For the insurance companies themselves, the increased competition that will drive down premium costs will also result in decreased revenue. This negative impact may be offset by the increased company value for large insurance companies. The brokers who sell their product could find themselves going the way of the travel agent. When consumers log on to the exchange websites, they will find not only price comparisons, but answers to frequently asked questions and will have the ability to tailor plans to meet their needs, replacing many of the tasks now performed by brokers. In theory, brokers could choose to become “navigators” who educate and provide enrollment assistance to those purchasing individual or small business plans through an exchange. However, they could only be compensated by navigator grants, as a navigator cannot receive any compensation from an insurance provider.

 

The larger concern for insurance agents is the potential loss of small group clients, as the portion of the population purchasing through the individual exchange will be relatively small. Take New York State, for example, where 88 percent of small group coverage is purchased through brokers, leading to nearly $700 million annually in commissions. States may set up their exchanges to allow brokers to enroll both individuals and small businesses in plans, and New York is one state that has said it wants to protect brokers and keep them involved in the process. The state has set up guidelines through which licensed brokers can enter into agreements with the exchange. The specifics of how, exactly, that will play out remain unclear. Experts who have looked at two existing exchanges believe there is hope for agents and brokers to retain their small group clients—and perhaps even to expand, particularly for those knowledgeable about the law. Insurance brokers have not gone by the wayside in either Massachusetts or Utah, where exchanges have existed for years.

 

Time will tell

For most people, the opening of the exchanges is not likely to do anything except perhaps drive down the cost of premiums, even for those with nonexchange-based plans. Most Americans will continue to get employer-based coverage outside an exchange or benefit from a government program such as Medicare or Medicaid. A tremendous opportunity, however, exists for small businesses to find plans with lower costs and receive tax credits, not to mention for the self-employed to have access to a wide range of affordable plans. The greatest risk on the horizon is for insurance brokers and agents facing reduced commissions if not obsolescence, but the influx of new small group customers could offer hope. Above all, with the open enrollment period only days old and many exchange websites still troubleshooting page errors, the health insurance exchanges ushered in by the Affordable Care Act now present high ambitions to the unpredictable nature of the free market.

 

Much like at the Reading Terminal Market, some will go home with delicious and fresh produce at a discount, but someone will inevitably bite into a bruised apple. 

Originally published in the Fall 2013 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, It's All About Family. 

Easy Ways to Reframe Rejection

Rosemary Smyth

Rosemary is an author, columnist and an international business coach for financial advisors. She spent her career working at leading investment firms before pursuing her passion for coaching. She lives in Victoria, BC. Visit her website at www.rosemarysmyth.com.

The financial industry is rife with rejection and some advisors deal with it better than others. How do they deal with it? By building up their emotional strength to handle it and not taking it personally. Indeed, it is possible for advisors to desensitize themselves to rejection and become like Teflon. However, if your days are filled with calls and meetings that are going sideways, it’s a good time to consider what you want to start doing differently so you can get better results.

There are essentially two schools of thought when it comes to prospecting. One school considers it a numbers game. The other thinks prospecting is all about quality. For the numbers group, you a certain number of calls, which turns into a certain number of meetings,  which lands you one client. The ratio of calls and meetings to clients is what motivates you to keep playing the odds.

The school concerned with the quality of prospecting claims, you have control over your sales calls with your attitude and are constantly looking for ways to develop communication skills as well as refine your definition of your perfect prospect.  This group spends more time qualifying prospects by asking questions so that each time they contact a prospect, they are continuing to build rapport and trust.

There are countless sales training programs and books on how to handle rejection out there.  Most of them focus on ways to handle the usual objections, such as “I’ll think about it,” or “I’m too busy to talk right now.” It’s great to be prepared and have responses available so you can handle the call professionally.

In the meantime, here are some easy ways to reframe rejection:

  1. It’s about who would be a good fit for you.

Once you have clearly identified who your perfect prospect is, then you can stop wasting valuable time connecting with those who don’t fit your profile. If you know who it is that you’d like to connect with and you have a solution to that person’s biggest problem, then you have a basis for a conversation. Remember, they aren’t turning you down. You are just looking for a specific person and that it isn’t them.

  1. Determine where you are in the process.

If the overarching goal is to make a prospect into a client, (your sales funnel), where are you in that process? Was the goal of the call to build rapport and see if they want to meet for coffee or to qualify them by finding out what is their biggest concern? By focusing on the process, you are essentially eliminating the less-than-ideal prospects from your sales funnel and making room for the right prospects to move through it. This shift in attitude puts you in the driver’s seat and gives you control over which prospects you are focusing your time and efforts on.

  1. Close the expectation gap.

Part of the reason for calls or meetings that don’t land clients is that there is gap in what advisors expect from prospects. For example, if a prospect agrees to a “second opinion meeting” and says they are happy with their current advisor and thanks them for the second opinion, then the meeting for the prospect was just that, a second opinion. However, if the prospect was unhappy with their current advisor and really wants to know if they can get better value somewhere else, then the goal is very different as they are looking for a new advisor. Advisors need to ask themselves, what is the goal for that meeting/call and is that expectation aligned with the prospect?

The next step is to evaluate the call or meeting with some basic questions:

Ø  Did I listen more than I talked?

Ø  Did I follow the agenda?

Ø  Did I have a realistic goal?

Ø  Did I qualify the prospect thoroughly enough before the first meeting?

Ø  What could have worked better?

Ø  What question did they ask that I didn’t know the answer to?

By taking time after each meeting or call to do some self-reflection, you can then start to implement these lessons learned and enhance your prospecting process.

Additional Tips

1. Don’t allow pride or ego to create a high need for approval in you.

2. Resist the temptation to say or write derogatory things about prospects that refuse.  Making them feel guilty that they haven’t taken you up on your offer to make them a lot of money does not make them wrong or stupid.

3. Don’t tell prospects that they are “really hard to get a hold of.” It sets a bad tone for the call.

4. End calls or meetings on a positive note with prospects as they will remember that more that how the meeting/call started.

Small Business Owners Face Realization and Retirement Risks

Peter Klein

Peter Klein is director of Advanced Markets and Underwriting at Secor Advisors Group, LLC. His more than 25 years of experience in capital markets, securities and banking encompasses both public securities and alternative asset classes, including life settlements. Peter.Klein@wcinput.com

According to the Small Business Administration (SBA), in the U.S. economy, small businesses account for nearly half of all private sector employees and pay 43 percent of total U.S. private payroll. Over the past 17 years, they have generated 65 percent of net new jobs and have created more than half of nonfarm private GDP. Overall, they are responsible for hiring 43 percent of high tech workers (scientists, engineers, computer programmers and others).

For many small businesses, the days of slow-moving changes and long-term business niches are over. Even Fortune 500 companies are looking over their shoulders. Imagine being a large public retailer such as Macy’s or Target and in the unenviable position of competing against a high-tech retailer such as Amazon, with no bricks and mortar, whose stock is trading at an all-time high and yet has never made a profit. This means that reliance of small business owners on selling their business to achieve an exit and some sort of a windfall to recover their investment is increasingly becoming an unrealizable event.

Gallup Poll’s survey of small business owners

A Gallup survey of small business owners was taken in the fall of 2011, some two years after the collapse of the economy. Gallup defines a “small business” as a business with less than $20 million in annual sales or fewer than 200 full-time employees. It asked business owners to list and prioritize their challenges. At the top of their list were government regulations; 22 percent of small business owners in the U.S. listed complying with government regulations as their most important problem, followed by consumer confidence in the economy (15 percent) and lack of consumer demand (12 percent). A corresponding 2014 Index of Economic Freedom report reveals that the U.S. has dropped out of the top 10 freest economies in the world. In 2008, the U.S. ranked sixth. Now it ranks 12th.

Approximately one in three small business owners say they are very or moderately worried about going out of business. About the same number are worried about not being able to compete with large or global competitors, not being able to hire the number of employees they need and not being able to pay their employees. Thirty percent worry they will have to reduce their number of employees. On a personal basis, 67 percent of small business owners are worried about not being able to put enough money away for retirement, while 49 percent are concerned about not being able to spend enough time with family or pursuing personal interests.

When asked what they need to see their business thrive, the nation’s small business owners indicated they want a better economy: 15 percent said growth in sales, 14 percent said job creation and 12 percent said fewer government regulations. Small business owners’ outlook continues to be weak; it is down substantially from years prior to 2008-2009.

Bank credit

Compounding their situation is tight bank credit. Prior to 2007, credit was available to fund small businesses, but getting access to credit to purchase a small business is now a far greater challenge. Most small businesses are too small to attract the attention of private equity players while roll-ups (service sector consolidation of small businesses to form a national footprint), which were fashionable in the mid 1990s to early 2000s, have lost their luster and proven to be largely unworkable. The remaining option of selling to the individual buyer is problematic because individuals tend to be undercapitalized, requiring bank credit to complete the purchase. Banks are simply not lending to undercapitalized players. Small business owners face a realization and future liquidity crisis.

Operating in a highly competitive economy places great demands on the business owner. Continued weakness in the economy has amplified competitiveness. In fact, more than 170,000 small businesses closed between 2008 and 2010, according to an analysis by the Business Journals of U.S. Census Bureau data. Competition forces an all-in commitment on the part of the business owner. Whether it’s personal capital, personal guarantees or allocation of time, competitive pressures will impose a total commitment by the owner/operator.

Small business owners face the ongoing challenge of a sole proprietorship. They have to provide the bulk of the seed capital, but given the small size of the private business and the illiquidity factor, they cannot sell an interest in their business to get more cash as needed. If they decide to commingle business and personal assets, they effectively risk more of their worth on the business with no guaranteed rewards.

Asymmetrical and evolving risks

Small business owners face five major asymmetrical or evolving risks:

  • The risk of litigation is always present, but there is no way to anticipate how one’s assets will be exposed to potential court judgment. Business litigation can easily take on a life of its own and ultimately become a personal liability. Consequently, owners don’t risk just the money and assets invested in the business. If anything goes wrong and a suit is filed, the owner is the sole person responsible for damages. Purchasing appropriate general liability insurance and industry-specific coverage can limit some exposure.
  • The risk of unwittingly failing to satisfy a federal, state, county or municipal regulation is omnipresent, while the breadth of state regulations alone can be challenging—licensing and registration requirements, employee labor regulations, safety, insurance requirements, vehicle transport rules, product handling, taxation, environmental, building codes and waste disposal. Federal and state agencies have enormous latitude in assessing penalties and fees for failure to comply, not to mention the legal fees incurred in defending the business from federal and state agencies.
  • The risk of bank covenant violation increases with a poor economy. Fifteen years ago, a bank that required a personal guarantee on a commercial loan was the exception, but not today. Consequently, there can be significant personal exposure to business credit risks.
  • Statistics show that the disability risk for a 25-year-old is a 30 to 50 percent chance of experiencing a disability before age 65 that will keep one out of work for 90 days or more. Most entrepreneurs have the perspective that almost anyone can do what they do, but they make the fatal assumption that their innate knowledge of the business and market is widely known or easily transferable, which is not the case. Given a small business’s typically limited capitalization, the loss of an active owner-operator will likely result in its collapse.
  • The exit strategy for a small business owner has become problematic in the last four years. As discussed earlier, the option to sell a business today is limited. Furthermore, transitioning from running one’s own business to getting a job with a large corporation can be a daunting challenge. On the surface, one would think that an individual who has business ownership experience wouldn’t have much trouble finding a position elsewhere, but many large companies are loath to hire entrepreneurs, believing they may not be team players or fit into a corporate hierarchy.

How can small business owners protect themselves from these risks?

Property casualty insurance can only provide protection to a limited extent to business risk but typically can’t do much to address these asymmetrical risks, including protecting retirement savings.

Accessing a defined benefit plan or defined contribution plan can allow for tax-deferred buildup of retirement savings. The problem is that the tax code requires that tax-qualification retirement plans be designed to treat the business owners and employees the same. In the context of profit-sharing and 401(k) plans, the code prohibits contributions that discriminate in favor of highly compensated participants. Given the cash flow restraints of most small businesses, the sharing requirement of these qualified programs can be insurmountable.

The other problem with conventional retirement accounts such as IRAs, 401(k) and qualified annuities is that once the required withdrawal date is reached, an individual must withdraw a minimum amount from these accounts, known as requirement minimum distribution (RMD). Distribution amounts can be determined by varying methods, including annuity method and life expectancy method. Alternatively, when the owner dies, the income tax liability is passed on to the beneficiaries of a 401(k) or IRA. The beneficiaries must pay income tax as they receive the payments. This is known as income in respect of decedent (IRD). The recipient (beneficiary) must declare the money as IRD for any year in which income is received.

Alternatively, business owners and self-employed individuals can have access to tax-deferred saving opportunities typically not available to employees who do not have an ownership stake. Specifically, owner-employees and the self-employed can adopt and fund retirement plans that, in many cases, offer additional opportunities to put money into deferred retirement accounts over and above what is possible under a 401(k) plan or simplified employee pension (SEP) plan.

Alternative tax-advantaged programs utilize life insurance inside the retirement plan itself. The life insurance inside the plan can be funded with before-tax dollars, which means that funds used to acquire the life insurance come from tax-deductible contributions. A business owner plan participant who acquires life insurance inside his or her plan frees up personal cash flow by the amount of the premium less a very modest income tax amount.

Small business owners or the self-employed should evaluate whether an alternative tax-advantaged plan will allow them greater tax deductions than can be achieved with just a 401(k)/profit-sharing plan or SEP. A qualified advisor familiar with these plan designs can guide the small business owner. The advantage of a life insurance-embedded plan is that the policy and cash value are in a bankruptcy remote entity protected from court judgment and court seizure. The policy can still provide income replacement protection in the event of death and provide funding of the business for succession planning purposes. As a retirement tool, the policy can be moved out of the plan in a transfer in kind transaction with some exposure to taxes and later fund retirement by borrowing against the policy’s cash value tax free.

The “Soft Stuff” Is the Hard Part: Working with a Family Business

Lawrence L. Grypp, CLU®, ChFC®

Lawrence L. Grypp, CLU®, ChFC®, is president of the University of Cincinnati’s Goering Center for Family and Private Business and Co-founder of the Center for Executive Transitions. Larry.Grypp@ wcinput.com

Michael A. Hirschfeld, JD

Michael A. Hirschfeld, JD, is a partner in Graydon Head & Ritchey, LLP, with over 37 years practicing law and counseling hundreds of family and closely held businesses. He was named Best Lawyer and Cincinnati Lawyer of the Year for both corporate and mergers & acquisitions, among other recognitions. He graduated from Kenyon College and the University of Virginia. Michael.Hirschfeld@wcinput.com

Family businesses represent great opportunities for financial and other professional advisors. The Small Business Administration has estimated approximately 90 percent of American businesses are family-owned. They generate approximately 50 percent of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product, according to Forbes Magazine. Experts estimate family businesses valued at approximately $10 trillion will be transitioning over the next decade, representing the largest such transfer of wealth in the history of our country. How can professional advisors best assist their clients to ensure that these transitions go successfully?

 

A recent study indicated less than 10 percent of unsuccessful generational business and wealth transfers were the result of poor tax or estate planning, while 85 percent of such failures resulted from either inadequately prepared heirs or the breakdown of communication and trust within the family unit. In short, the planning is good, but the implementation is not. One cynical conclusion that could be drawn is that attorneys, accountants, insurance and other professional advisors are doing a great job, but their clients are not! It appears that family business leaders tend to devote more time to preparing their business and wealth transition documents than they do to preparing their heirs for the impact of those documents. Simply executing a will and a funded buy/sell agreement does not alone create a successful succession. Like all strategic planning, the success of a plan is ultimately dependent upon its effective acceptability, implementation and adaptability. These all rely more on the qualitative, rather than just the quantitative, elements of the planning process.

 

Both family members and their advisors should look at successful succession in a family business as a holistic process, thoughtfully and purposefully integrating the overlapping and complex issues of leadership, ownership and family. They should ensure the family members understand and willingly accept the plan and its rationale. The key players must be properly prepared and willing to implement the plan when necessary. By understanding and accepting the underlying principles of the plan, they are also prepared to adjust to any changes that may be subsequently made, either deliberately or as a result of evolving circumstances. Good estate planning and wealth transfer documentation is necessary but insufficient on its own. To increase the probability of a successful result, professional advisors need to go beyond their normal planning and documentation activities, and encourage a family leader to devote his or her primary efforts to three key elements:

 

Key 1: Understand the varying roles played

A family leader needs to properly prepare intended successors for not only ownership, but also leadership and management in both the business and the family. Can successors differentiate between the three and adjust to the appropriate role they may be playing at any time? Do they have the right attitude toward work and the family business, i.e., do they perceive being an owner as their birthright or as a privilege? A true owner understands the stewardship aspects of ownership, appreciating both its rights and responsibilities. Do intended successors have the proper training and skill sets to understand business in general and to manage others effectively in the culture of the business? Managing is getting other people to do things right. Most important: Can intended successors be real leaders for the future of the business? Are they able to think strategically and take the business to new levels in the face of a rapidly changing environment? Unlike managing, true leadership is not just helping people to do things right, but to do the right things.

 

Key 2: Communicate effectively

A family leader needs to communicate effectively, both within the business and within the family. Good communication creates alignment and accepted common action among varying groups. Effective communication requires all participants in the conversation to be clear, direct, open and consistent in their interactions. A family leader must model such communication techniques to avoid leaving listeners wondering what was really meant. To ensure good communication, regular opportunities for interaction should be scheduled along with agreed-upon processes and protocols to facilitate communications at such gatherings. “Family business” meetings, involving just those members of the family active in the business, can be held to discuss the business and its impact on the family, including management and succession issues, and to make collective decisions about such issues. Broader “family council” meetings can be called, including other family members, to educate those members of the family not active in the business about the business, and to provide them a forum to express views on family issues affecting the business. Guiding principles for family members in their personal, business and family relationships should be adopted and clearly communicated to reduce the potential for future conflicts. Each family must develop its own set of such principles, but examples include “When one person is talking, all others will listen without interrupting” and “No one can be hired into the family business without working elsewhere for at least three years.” Being open and direct in such interactions is not always easy, particularly with family members, but such communications can be delivered respectfully and in a constructive manner, which ultimately benefits both the receiver and giver.

 

Key 3: Build trust

A family leader needs to work on building trust, primarily among family members but also with nonfamily senior management, suppliers, customers and other key stakeholders. Trust goes beyond just respect and is the foundation for both the fulfillment of one’s respective role at the time and successful communication. A family leader builds trust by focusing on and modeling the three primary components to a trusting relationship:

 

1.      Reliability: Do you do what you say? 

2.      Sincerity: Do you mean what you say?

3.      Competence: Can you accomplish what you say?

 

Only when all three of these building blocks are in place can a mutually trusting relationship exist.

 

How can we as advisors best assist our family business clients in developing these three key elements to optimize the probability of the successful achievement of their goals? It is critical to help clients think beyond the technical details of the tax, estate, insurance and legal aspects of planning, and to also consider the “softer side” issues, including communications, leadership, interpersonal relationships and the involvement of family and nonfamily management in the business. Is it a family business or a business family — is the priority to build the family to last or the business to last? Which is the ultimate goal: preserving the business or growing the family wealth (measured not only in dollars, but also in more intangible ways)? Does the family understand each generation must be able to stand on its own and grow (or at least preserve) its wealth, or the family and its wealth eventually will vanish? Maximizing the wealth to be transferred is often not the ultimate answer — what happens to that wealth and the people who receive it are the critical questions.

 

A competent advisor helps the client gather data, identify goals, consider alternative courses of action, analyze risks and develop documentation to best accomplish the chosen path. But these actions alone do not ensure success. The more effective advisor goes beyond these traditional activities to aid the client in developing the processes that will best prepare the rest of the family, including future generations of ownership, management and leadership, to appreciate and accept these transfers and the responsibilities that accompany them.

 

As independent advisors, we are often in the best position to raise questions and challenge assumptions. This requires some difficult conversations with the client. We all have had clients say, “My kids know what I want to have happen when I’m gone,” but when asked, the kids don’t have a clue. Even more tragic are the clients who say, “When I’m gone, it won’t be my problem.” Our role as advisors is to help optimize the probability of successful legacies, which often means raising the tough questions and assisting clients in preparing for the potentially difficult decisions and conversations they may have with family and others. Remember, “Clients don’t care what you know until they know that you care.” Helping the client appreciate the breadth and depth of the planning process, and assisting them in preparing for its successful implementation, including the “soft stuff,” is the best way to demonstrate that you truly do care.

Planning Retirement in a Rising Tax Environment

Francis J. Lojewski, MSFS, ChFC®, CLU®, LUTCF, AEP

Francis J. Lojewski, MSFS, ChFC®, CLU®, LUTCF, AEP, is a partner in Atlas Advisory Group, LLC, a member firm of M Financial Group. Frank specializes in tax-favored lifetime income planning, IRA/401k distribution and wealth transfer strategies. Frank.Lojewski@wcinput.com

If your clients are among the many planning to leverage their retirement accounts or proceeds from the value of their business for retirement income, the challenges and obstacles in today’s uncertain environment can be overwhelming. More often, it adds complexity to one of the most important financial issues your clients will face in their lifetimes: Will their money outlive them or will they outlive their money?

To seriously address this issue and take proper planning steps, we must first fully understand the other challenges retirees already face:

·         Inflation – Even at a low 3 percent rate, living costs could increase by approximately 150 percent over the next three decades. In addition, if real inflation rates increase to as much as 7 percent, living costs could easily increase by more than 650 percent over the same three decades. Given that the Federal Reserve printed over 1 trillion dollars each year from 2009 through 2012, and interest rates have been kept at historically low levels (much like holding a beach ball under water), it will always be important to determine if your clients are still protected against a future rise in living costs.

·         Health care costs – Fidelity Investments updated its annual calculation in May 2013 and estimated that a typical 65-year-old couple will need $220,000 today to pay health care costs in retirement. In addition, according to the U.S. Government Accountability Office, Medicare spending, which had grown to more than $400 billion in 2009, is also on pace to exceed $600 billion by 2018 (usgovernmentspending.com). When you also consider the uncertainly surrounding the Affordable Care Act and its potential expansion to Medicaid, it appears these costs could rise significantly, requiring advisors to seriously ask if their clients are prepared to handle rising health care costs throughout retirement.

·         Market volatility – Despite the historical success of properly diversified long-term equities over long-term market cycles (i.e., based on Ibbotson study from 1926 – 2012, the S&P 500 averaged a positive 4.7 percent after taxes and inflation), the sequence of returns during the initial retirement phase has shown a potentially negative impact on many clients’ invested retirement assets. This is true even when their average long-term returns exceeded their withdrawals. According to a recent Dalbar Study from 1992 – 2012, average investors performed 4.25 percent on their actual investments compared to the S&P 500 Index, which performed 8.21 percent over the same period. This gap is further evidence of typical investor behavior, which is to more often buy when the market is higher and more comfortable and to sell when the market is lower and less comfortable. Therefore, advisors must also determine if their clients’ investment allocations are carefully positioned to avoid overreacting to market volatility.

If your clients are fortunate to have a proper plan to address these challenges, you may very well be better positioned to prepare for what many financial experts today consider the most dangerous challenge of all: a rising tax environment.

Doug Endorf, director of the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), recently conceded, “Taxes will have to be raised (including the middle class) substantially if we are to have any chance of successfully addressing our budget deficits.”

Consider this: 10,000 boomers will retire each day over the next 15 years. Approximately 119 million people currently receive government benefits, but there are only 104 million full-time workers. Government entitlements now represent 62 percent of the federal budget, and the future increases along with interest on debt will likely consume our entire budget by the end of the decade. More than likely, we will see increasing debt levels, more people receiving government benefits and more people paying higher taxes. Indeed, your clients may be faced with an increasing tax burden throughout their lifetimes. (Sources: U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. Government Accountability Office, U.S. Congressional Budget Office, The Heritage Foundation (2013)

While the U.S. financial climate can initially appear grim for many of your clients, I believe these problems will only be devastating to those who take no action to mitigate the challenges now.

The following five basic steps could prove very valuable to your clients and professional practice:

 

Step 1: Prepare for changes

Prepare for changes to come sooner rather than later. Among the list of tax breaks already considered for elimination are:

·         Tax exclusions for health insurance

·         Capital gains

·         State and local tax deductions

·         Mortgage interest

·         Reduced charitable deductions

·         Pension caps

·         Reduced qualified plan contribution levels

Also being discussed on Capitol Hill and addressed with our top professional associations is how to tax or reduce some of the benefits associated with many of our industry’s most tax-advantaged products and solutions, potentially including:

·         Limits on 401k balances

·         Limited deductible 401k contribution (e.g., only 28 percent of contributions would be deductible for anyone in a tax bracket higher than 28 percent)

·         Elimination of inherited IRAs for nonspouses

·         Limits on Roth IRA contributions and conversions

·         Tax on portion of future tax-deferred buildup of nonqualified annuities

·         Partial tax on portion of future paid life insurance death benefit beyond a specified amount

Lawmakers may also consider other possibilities, and any changes could happen sooner rather than later.

Step 2: Consider taxable income distributions

Consider clients’ taxable income distributions in relation to their current tax tables. For a couple over the age of 65, in 2014, their standard deduction will be $14,800, and they will each receive a $3,950 personal exemption. This means they can make $22,700 in addition to their Social Security before they pay any taxes. Their next bracket is the 10 percent bracket. That is $18,150. If you add $18,150 and $22,700, that is $40,850 of taxable income. Tax on that is $1,815. If you divide $1,815 of tax by $40,850, that is 4.4 percent.

Finally, the 15 percent tax bracket adds up to $96,500. The tax on $96,500 is $10,163. That is 10.5 percent.

A thorough understanding of each client’s lower tax rates for each year is extremely important to properly manage the taxable and nontaxable portions of your client’s distributions, which could otherwise be exposed to higher marginal tax rates.

Step 3: Consider combining annuities

Retired clients with especially large amounts of taxable assets sitting in CDs or savings accounts may want to consider strategically combining tax-deferred and immediate lifetime annuities as additional asset classes. Doing so also offers some of the following tax advantages:

·         Under the regular annuity rules of IRC Section 72(b), higher guaranteed withdrawals are typically available from lifetime annuities, which often use an exclusion ratio and treat a larger portion of withdrawal as tax-free return of principal, up to the age of a client’s life expectancy.

·         Depending on which tax-deferred annuity is best for your client, you may have the ability to reposition, exchange or transfer any balance and deferred gains for other opportunities potentially inside the deferred annuity.

·         The ability to target a specific period for withdrawal from the deferred annuity in any chosen taxable year.

·         You may further reduce your client’s taxable estate using immediate annuities and possibly leverage higher withdrawals as gifts or even purchase additional tax-free life insurance.

·         Gains from deferral are not factored in calculation of actual tax on Social Security benefits.

Any advisor who may need to safeguard their clients’ overall portfolio in response to a rising tax environment should give serious consideration to properly designing the most appropriate deferred and immediate annuities for even greater retirement and tax optimization.

Step 4: Consider a Roth IRA

For clients with a higher portion of holdings in qualified retirement accounts, consider converting all or a portion of their balance into a Roth IRA. Doing so may reap some of the following advantages:

·         Taxes are still temporarily at historically low rates.

·         Creates a tax-free environment with potential growth of tax-free gains.

·         Helps remove some of the uncertainty of future tax rates.

·         Can reduce exposure to the new investment income and health care taxes.

·         There are no required minimal distribution requirements for the original account owner.

·         It may provide a tax-free legacy to future generations who are even more likely to experience the effects of rising taxes.

Clients also have flexibility to recharacterize their Roth IRAs by the tax due date of the year they converted. This can be helpful if investment returns were negative after conversions, or if the client had a sudden need for the liquid assets used to pay their original taxes for the conversion. Lastly, if your clients are disciplined and properly allocated based on longer-term goals, they will likely face higher tax rates and have a longer life expectancy—converting to a Roth IRA could potentially be an opportunity of your client’s retirement lifetime.

Step 5: Consider leveraging permanent cash value life insurance

Consider leveraging permanent cash value life insurance as an additional asset class to your clients’ retirement and estate plan. Cash value life insurance can be positioned safely with higher long-term returns and more liquidity—all while providing a leveraged death benefit and, potentially, additional financial and estate benefits such as: 

·         Increased credit worthiness

·         Confidential beneficiary designations

·         Creditor protection

·         Probate avoidance

·         Long-term care

·         Critical illness and terminally ill benefits prior to death

In addition, cash value life insurance (treated under IRC section 7702) can also potentially provide even more amazing tax benefits to clients, including:

·         Death benefit for family as income replacement or a wealth bequest

·         Transfer of business ownership among other owners, employees or family members

·         Charitable bequests

·         Liquidity of cash values, including any gains

·         No IRS reporting requirements as long as the policy stays within modified endowment limits

·         Retirement income generation with potential to customize policy and reduce major retirement risks including market risk and negative sequence of return risk.

·         May pledge as collateral as opposed to any IRA or defined contribution plan, which is normally taxed as a withdrawal when pledged to a lender for a loan.

·         Easier ability to move death benefit outside client’s taxable estate

·         Ability to reallocate cash values for potentially higher tax-free earnings, depending on type of policy.

With many of the aforementioned benefits, it should be no surprise that renowned industry retirement tax expert Ed Slott, CPA, said, “The tax exemption for life insurance is the single biggest benefit in the tax code.”

In a time when some clients have a limited amount of money for protection, savings and retirement, a leveraged product like life insurance can still fit the bill—it is one dollar that can do the work of many tax-free dollars.

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

Answering the Outrage: the Truth about Life Insurance

David F. Woods, CLU®, ChFC®

David F. Woods, CLU®, ChFC®, an MDRT member since 1970, received the John Newton Russell Memorial Award in 1997. He appears weekly on The Wealth Channel®. David.Woods@wcinput.com

Forty years ago there were 250,000 career and captive life insurance agents, traditionally those whose contract and compensation systems rewarded life insurance sales. Today there are 150,000, a 40 percent drop.

According to LIMRA International, in 2011, 58 million households said they did not have enough life insurance. Fully one half, or 29 million households, said they were likely to buy life insurance in the next year. Yet, in 2012, the American Council of Life Insurers (ACLI) reported only 10 million new policies were issued.

The U.S. Census Bureau reports that during the past 40 years the number of households increased by 80 percent while the number of married couples grew by 35 percent. However, the number of policies sold dropped by 41 percent, as illustrated in Table 1.

Year

Number of Households

Number of Married Couples

Policies Sold

1970

64,000,000

45,000,000

17,000,000

2010

115,000,000

61,000,000

10,000,000

 

 

 

 

Percent Change

+80%

+35%

-41%

 

During that same period the number of policies sold per agent decreased by 40 percent, as shown in Table 2.

Year

Number of Households

Number of Married Couples

Households Per Agent

Policies Per Agent

1970

64,000,000

45,000,000

256

56

2010

115,000,000

61,000,000

767

33

 

A number of these households no doubt cannot afford even a minimum amount of life insurance, and some may be uninsurable. Yet, while in 1970 we sold life insurance in more than 26 percent of the households, by 2010 that number was under 9 percent.

This is an outrage. Affordability and insurability have only improved in 40 years, so the obvious question is: Why did all the people who said they needed more life insurance not buy?

I divide the reasons into four categories:

1.      A changing marketplace in which consumers, while acknowledging the need for life insurance, are more concerned with planning for retirement.

2.      The demutualization of many of the major life insurance companies put the focus on quarterly earnings, not on recruiting new agents and life insurance sales, both of which immediately hit the bottom line.

3.      Life insurance compensation systems that make it unprofitable for advisors to sell life insurance to any but the more affluent. Agent contracts in career companies give increasing credit for accumulation product sales.

4.      With a full array of available products, advisors, both career and independent, naturally gravitate to those that are easier to sell, e.g. accumulation products.

So what can be done to meet our industry’s social obligation to provide financial security at death? I recently did “A Word With Woods” video segment on this subject for The Wealth Channel. I received several dozen responses from people in all sectors of our industry. Here’s a compilation:

§  Find, develop and adequately fund a life insurance Suze Orman type who is in her or his 30s or 40s, is telegenic, charismatic, articulate, creative and passionate. This experienced industry professional would be aggressively promoted as the public face and voice of the life insurance industry with a mission to establish its essential role in all financial plans.

§  Change compensation systems and incentives in the field and home offices to adequately reward the sale of life insurance in all markets.

§  Encourage and support new field distribution models, such as multispecialty practices, social media marketing, etc.

§  Require an understanding of and commitment to the principle of adequate life insurance as essential to a sound financial plan for all degree and certificate designations and continuing education requirements.

§  Make proper recommendations about life insurance a requirement of a financial advisor’s suitability obligation or, if appropriate, fiduciary responsibility.

This is very idealistic, I know, but traditional “work harder” changes won’t solve the problem. After 53 years as an agent, I know of no surviving family members or business partners who said, after the death of the family breadwinner or business partner, they wished the deceased had saved more for retirement. However, I have many retired clients who now say they wish they had bought more life insurance, particularly permanent life insurance.

Our products have tax advantages unknown to any other financial product. However, if those products aren’t used to provide basic financial security to the American people, Congress, in its drive to close budget deficits, will soon believe they are of no value to their constituents and remove those advantages.

We have a professional as well as a social responsibility to help the American people understand that a solid life insurance program is as essential to the security of their financial plans as a solid foundation is to the stability of their homes. Only when they put first things first with life insurance can they ensure their financial security plans won’t die when they do.

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

AG 38: A Need-to-Know Issue for Advisors

David Szeremet, JD, CLU®, ChFC®

David Szeremet, JD, CLU®, ChFC®, is second vice president of advanced marketing at Ohio National Financial Services. He is responsible for the advanced sales team that provides estate planning, executive benefits, business insurance and life insurance planning. David.Szeremet@wcinput.com

Pete Whipple

Pete Whipple is senior vice president and chief corporate actuary at Ohio National Financial Services. Pete is responsible for the actuarial portion of statutory and GAAP financial reporting at the company. Pete.Whipple@wcinput.com

Actuarial Guideline 38 (AG 38) goes far beyond actuarial minutiae. It is a trending issue that impacts the life insurance industry from both product and advanced planning perspectives.

A brief history

Actuarial guidelines are developed by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC). A NAIC task force develops actuarial guidelines to assist state insurance departments where the application of a state statute or regulation to an insurance product has resulted in ambiguity. The goal of an actuarial guideline is to reduce state-by-state variation, creating uniformity across the insurance industry. The need for an actuarial guideline (AG) often arises when innovative, new products enter the marketplace.

AG 38 governs statutory reserves on universal life with secondary guarantees, also known as guaranteed universal life. The intent of AG 38 was to apply the same reserve principles that apply to traditional term insurance to universal life secondary guarantee (ULSG) insurance, for which paying the minimum premium normally produces little or no cash value.

Most life insurance company insiders believe that statutory reserves for traditional term insurance are redundant—i.e., more than is reasonably needed to satisfy policyholder obligations. Because of the inflexibility of traditional term insurance, there is little companies can do by way of product design to lower the calculated reserve. Instead, many companies seek capital solutions to finance redundant term reserves.

Insurance companies have been creative at lowering the calculated reserve for ULSG products without affecting the guaranteed premium paid by the policyholder. Since its inception in 2003, AG 38 has undergone a series of modifications by regulators to close perceived loopholes.

The most recent chapter began in 2010 when the New York Department of Financial Services (NYDFS) questioned reserving practices on ULSG products that use a multiple shadow account design. In response, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) added two new sections to AG 38: Section 8D required enhanced asset adequacy testing on in-force ULSG business, and section 8E tightened up the rules on new business starting in 2013.

The 2013 changes to AG 38 did affect the ULSG market, though not to the extent many predicted. One or two companies exited the market completely. More common responses were modest premium increases or shorter guarantee periods, such as age 90 or 95. The biggest price increases were to survivor ULSG and single premium ULSG. The low interest rate environment is another reason companies cited for these price increases, which makes it difficult to determine how much of the price movement was due to AG 38.

In September 2013, the NYDFS surprised many in the industry when it allowed its adoption of the revised AG 38 to expire. The NYDFS noted that it had expected larger reserve increases under the new 8D than it actually had seen. The full impact of this decision on life insurance companies and the national implementation of AG 38 is still to be determined.

The twists and turns surrounding AG 38 are seemingly endless. Layer on a depressed interest rate environment and you have product uncertainty. In the long run, for larger life insurance purchases, is ULSG the best product solution? Whole life? Current assumption universal life? Equity indexed universal life? The life insurance advisor may take a lesson from investment professionals and consider diversification.

Particularly for large life insurance purchases where the death benefit may exceed $5 million, diversification is an important concept.

Product diversification

Product diversification is best explained by way of an example. Suppose your client’s plan calls for a significant amount of death benefit protection, let’s say $10 million. While term insurance provides the lowest cost for a given death benefit, it is temporary and may not satisfy your client’s long-term insurance needs. In contrast, ULSG locks in a guaranteed death benefit, usually at the lowest possible premium level for a permanent policy. ULSG has tradeoffs. With ULSG the death benefit is not inflation protected—it is fixed. Also, most ULSG policies are designed to have little to no long-term cash value.

Whole life, equity index universal life and current assumption universal life generally require a greater premium commitment than ULSG. However, they can be structured with an increasing death benefit to serve as an inflation hedge. They can also be funded to generate significant cash value creating an exit strategy.

The lesson to be learned for large life insurance purchases is that it may not always be in the client’s best interests to consider one, and only one, life insurance product. By combining multiple types of insurance policies, a client can achieve a healthy balance of affordability, inflation protection and cash value. Life insurance product selection does not have to be winner-take-all.

Carrier diversification

Spreading risk among multiple life insurance carriers is another form of diversification worth considering for large life insurance purchases. With an uneven application of reserving requirements among carriers, it may be a good practice to consider purchasing life insurance from multiple carriers. After all, some of the reserving issues may not come home to roost for 20, 30 or 40 years (or longer).

As an advisor, you would like to be sure that your affiliated carrier(s) will be there to deliver on their promises many years into the future. But unless you are a reserving expert and privy to a carrier’s reserving strategy, you cannot be certain. Carrier diversification may help you. Highly rated carrier diversification dilutes reserving risk. For captive insurance advisors, partnering with an independent insurance advisor or organization to achieve carrier diversification may be possible.

Planning concepts in light of AG 38

AG 38 reminds us that we do not work in a static industry. Change is constant and uncertainty is more than a buzzword—it’s our reality. With product and carrier diversification in mind, examples of appropriate planning concepts abound.

·         Spousal lifetime access trust (SLAT): With today’s historically high estate and gift tax exclusions ($5.34 million in 2014), an irrevocable trust to provide tax-free liquidity (think death benefit) combined with a spousal lifetime access provision (think cash value) provides a flexible solution for clients with moderate estates ($5-10 million). A SLAT removes the death benefit from a grantor’s estate while giving the trustee discretion to make distributions of cash value to the trust beneficiary’s spouse. It’s no wonder SLATs have been one of the most popular advanced planning techniques in recent years. By pairing whole life and ULSG products, a balance of affordable death benefit and accessible cash value can be achieved.

·         Special needs trust. The planning market for individuals with special needs is exploding. As just one example, consider autism. The latest research on autism is monumental: 1 in 88 children born is within the autism spectrum, according to the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Clients who have dependents with special needs will immediately understand the need for death benefit protection to replace both the breadwinner’s income and the caregiver’s support. What they may not readily see is the potential for life insurance cash value to supplement lifetime needs, such as the purchase of adaptive equipment or the payment of un-reimbursed therapy. When properly structured and paired with a special needs trust, cash value is tax-advantaged and will not interfere with government programs. In cases where a family is stretched financially, term insurance combined with universal life may be the best option.

·         Business continuation. Despite our uncertain national economy, small business (fewer than 100 employees) continues to drive new employment. Small business is the lifeblood of the American economy, but it is an underserved life insurance market. According to the latest LIMRA survey (2009) of small business owners, 76 percent of business owners understand the importance of succession planning, yet only 35 percent have created a succession plan (31 percent for family-owned businesses). Most business owners will live long enough to retire if they choose and will need the funds to do so. This is where cash value life insurance excels. For newer businesses, a healthy dose of convertible term insurance is placeholder protection with the opportunity to convert to cash value life insurance and begin building equity.

Pairing appropriately designed and rationally priced insurance products with sound planning techniques remains the recipe for success. Advisors who keep this in focus will continue to best serve clients and will never have to apologize for their recommendations.

The bottom line

AG 38 is not a niche issue of interest only to actuaries. It has already started to impact the life insurance product menu by way of company exits, price increases and reduced guarantee periods. The menu will continue to change as the issue evolves.

Insurance advisors who keep pace with AG 38 developments will be in the best position to adapt their practices. As a trusted advisor, you owe it to your clients to seek out reliable information concerning this crucial issue.

The final resolution to AG 38 and its progeny is uncertain. Fortunately, we are in the uncertainty business. It’s the very essence of insurance—for a reasonable price we take risk and uncertainty off people’s shoulders and exchange it for certainty and guarantees. The authors are confident that the U.S. life insurance industry will ultimately achieve the proper regulatory balance with AG 38 and continue to provide products that help people manage risk, as it has since its inception.

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

Getting the Family Business Ready to Sell

David K. Smucker, MSM, CFP®, CLU®, ChFC®

David K. Smucker, MSM, CFP®, CLU®, ChFC®, has been in advanced consulting and sales with Nationwide for 24 years, working in executive benefits as well as business and estate planning. Prior to that, he was an IRS auditor for seven years and a practicing CPA for 15 years. He frequently writes for professional journals. David.Smucker@wcinput.com

Consider the following case study, which represents nobody in particular and is meant only to illustrate a point. 

 

Owners of family businesses have a tendency to retain profits within the business, using them to expand. They see the business as an expression of themselves; they want to see it grow and prosper. In the process, the business can become 80 to 90 percent of their estates, and they often neglect saving much for retirement. Therefore, at retirement they face two problems:

·         How can they keep the business in the family?

·         How do they fund their retirement?

The following case study, based on a family farm, illustrates the problem and presents a possible solution.

Bob and Donna Jackson own a farm in the Midwestern United States. It is mostly a row crop operation, but they also have a hog feeder system. They have three children, Tom, Dick and Harriett. All three are happily married with families.

Tom helps Bob with the row crop operation and wants to take it over someday. Dick’s interest is in the hog operation; he currently runs it and would like to take it over someday. Tom and Dick are both on Bob’s payroll. Harriett is a physics professor at a West Coast university. She enjoyed growing up on the farm but is not interested in running or owning any part of it. Bob and Donna want all three children to be treated equally, but they also want to be sure Tom gets the farming operation and Dick gets the hog operation. They also want to keep things together so they can pass the estate to the next generation intact.

The details on Bob and Donna’s estate are as follows:

Row crop operation

$6,000,000

Hog operation

$2,000,000

Other assets

$   400,000

     Total

$8,400,000

 

Much of Bob and Donna’s estate is land—800 acres valued at $8,000 per acre. The hog operation takes up 100 acres, while the row crop farming takes up the remaining 700 acres. In addition, the row crop operation rents and farms another 2,000 acres.

Fortunately, based on the 2012 exemption of $5,000,000 per person and inflation adjustments, a federal estate tax liability is unlikely. However, given the composition of their estate, it will be difficult to treat all three children equally and still get the operations where they need to go. And there’s still the question about how Bob and Donna will generate a retirement income.

As to dividing the estate, they could simply leave an undivided one-third of each estate asset to each child. That would force Dick and Harriett to become Tom’s partners and Tom and Harriett to be Dick’s partners. Harriett and Dick could gang up on Tom to change the direction of the row crop operation and possibly even force the sale of the farm. Tom and Harriett could gang up on Dick to the same end. That solution certainly would be equal and just as certainly not equitable, and it would be rife with potential conflicts.

Something is needed to equalize the bequests, but what will it be? The solution might be in an option to buy, funded with $3,200,000 of joint and survivor life insurance on Bob and Donna, owned by Tom.

For example, assuming that Bob passes away first, Donna’s will could leave the row crop equipment and some of the land (total value $2,800,000) to Tom in a specific bequest and grant him an option to buy the rest of the row crop land for $3,200,000. Tom would have funded that option with the $3,200,000 from the joint and survivor life insurance on Bob and Donna, assuring him of the funds to exercise the option at Donna’s death.

Tom would exercise the option, buying the remainder of the row crop land, thereby acquiring 100 percent of the row crop land and equipment.

Having $3,200,000 cash in hand, the estate would then have the resources to:

·         Distribute the $2,000,000 of the hog operation’s land, equipment and livestock to Dick, along with $800,000 cash

·         Distribute the $400,000 of other property to Harriett, along with $2,400,000 cash 

The net result: The three children receive equal treatment, Tom and Dick keep the operations they wanted and the estate is passed on intact—all three children are not only treated equally but equitably. An added benefit is that the land will get a stepped up basis as it goes through Donna’s estate, and it will work the same as if Bob were the last to pass away.

What we have not dealt with is Bob and Donna’s retirement income. Fortunately, the answer is simple: They become landlords. Let Tom and Dick take over the row crop and hog operations and become the owners of those operations, probably forming limited liability companies (LLCs) to house them. To generate their retirement income, Bob and Donna can charge Tom and Dick rent for the land and whatever else (e.g. buildings, trucks, tractors and other equipment) they use. Tom and Dick can start buying their own equipment as Bob’s existing equipment wears out or becomes obsolete. Bob could even give them the obsolescent pieces of equipment (perhaps using his annual gift tax exclusion) to use as trade-ins for new equipment purchased by Tom and Dick’s separate operations. Finally, until retirement Bob can work for Tom and Dick and be on their respective payrolls.

All in all, this would make for a smooth, relatively inexpensive transition.

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

Seven Habits of Highly Mediocre People: Why Accountability Counts

Mark W. Sheffert, MSM, MEP

Mark W. Sheffert, MSM, MEP, is founder, chairman and CEO of Manchester Companies, Inc., a Minneapolis-based board governance and management advisory firm. Prior to founding Manchester, Mr. Sheffert was president and chief operating officer at North Central Insurance Company and then president at First Bank System (now U.S. Bank). Mark.Sheffert@wcinput.com

Could your organization be suffering from the disease of mediocrity? You wouldn’t be alone. It is a highly contagious condition that’s easy to catch and spreads quickly. It’s present in epidemic proportions in businesses today. The symptoms are finger-pointing and blame-gaming, excuses and justification for disappointing performance, vague responses, lack of teamwork, political games and lots of time wasted on complaining. Unfortunately, these symptoms, if left untreated, can become habits that shape an organization’s culture over time.

The good news is that these habits can be broken and eradicated with an antidote called accountability. Let’s review the seven habits of highly mediocre people that make up highly mediocre organizations:

Habit 1: Don’t take initiative
Procrastination is the mediocre person’s best friend. These individuals ask, “Why do something today that can be put off until tomorrow?” They won’t initiate change or improvement; rather, they wait for someone to direct them, train them or make the task more enjoyable or easier for them. They believe deadlines are for other people who have to deal with really big consequences.

Habit 2: Forget about mission
Mediocre people suffer from tunnel vision, think that their job has no correlation with anyone else’s job and rarely think about the organization’s mission or reason for existence. They only show up every morning to collect a paycheck every two weeks. It doesn’t matter if customers are served well or satisfied, let alone delighted.

Habit 3: Blame others
When something goes wrong, mediocre people are like Teflon®—nothing sticks to them. It’s never their fault. Excuses spill from their lips at lightning speed. Blaming superiors who didn’t give them enough time, training or resources, or co-workers who don’t work as hard is a common rationalization.

Habit 4: Promote self-interest
The mediocre wonder, “What’s in it for me?” (WIFM) before anything else. These people only volunteer to take on a project if it will benefit their career goals; they do favors only if they know their actions will be rewarded or repaid.

Habit 5: Don’t listen to others
This trait is found in people who refuse to consider new ideas or different ways to solve a problem. They think, “We’ve always done it this way,” or insist on doing things their way. Their biggest fear is being told that what they are doing is no longer productive and that they might have to change.

Habit 6: Be deceitful
When a mistake is discovered or evidence of bad teamwork is brought to light, mediocre employees lie to cover up the truth. They might be little white lies to justify a situation, but these can grow into whoppers (just ask clients of Bernie Madoff).

Habit 7: Don’t learn anything new
People comfortable with mediocrity are afraid to learn new skills or new processes. Admitting they need training or knowledge means admitting to shortcomings and weaknesses. It’s easier to keep living in “denoidance”—the ugly combination of denial and avoidance.

If you are ready to forward this article to all of your employees and pin a printout to your manager’s wall, stop right now. This message isn’t for them; it’s for you as the leader!

We cannot break these bad habits by blaming others, but only by examining our own leadership and behavior in our organizations. The cure for mediocrity is accountability—for our performance, our failures, our vision and for our willingness to change. It’s not easy; I confess that I often exhibit these habits of mediocrity. That’s why I thought a reminder about leadership accountability would be a refreshing topic.

Recently, I read an excellent article on this subject “What Ever Happened to Accountability?” by Thomas E. Ricks (Harvard Business Review, October 2012). Ricks, who has written five books about the American military, highlights his research into the management effectiveness of the U.S. Army from World War II to today. By studying the effects of institutional mediocrity, he provides insights and outlines implications and ways to instill accountability for business leadership.

According to Ricks, the pinnacle of modern Army leadership was during the days of General George C. Marshall, chief of staff at the beginning of World War II. Marshall was a transformational leader, says Ricks, because he insisted on accountability. He set high standards and then rigorously upheld performance against those standards.

Marshall insisted on getting the right people in the right jobs and the wrong ones doing something else. From spring 1939 through 1941, he eliminated 600 officers whom he considered deadwood and replaced them with more energetic and vigorous officers held to high standards of performance. The result was a military operation able to make good decisions, quickly adapt to changing battle situations and eventually win the war.

By contrast, Ricks’ analysis of the Army’s leadership during the wars of Korea, Vietnam and Iraq/Afghanistan shows it as rife with political gamesmanship, institutional self-interest and a lack of focus on the overall mission. He labels it “the lingering cost of mediocrity” and gives specific examples of how losing accountability led to major errors in strategic thinking and damage to morale and performance. He calls for all of the Army’s generals to be held accountable. Business leaders should learn from these examples to win their own battles in the marketplace.

Mediocrity can easily become institutionalized. But you can restore accountability by having the courage to move the right people into the right jobs and to remove obstacles to achieving your objectives. Measure performance against the standard of a clear mission, and reward those marching in line with it. Failing to do so simply enables bad habits of mediocre people and risks mediocrity taking root in your organization’s culture. 

2014: 1H Market Outlook

Kenneth Polcari

Kenneth Polcari is director of NYSE Floor Operations for O’Neil Securities, Inc. He is also a regularly featured market commentator on CNBC’s Power Lunch with Sue Herera and Tyler Mathisen and Taking Stock with Pimm Fox, among others. Kenneth.Polcari@wcinput

Welcome to 2014. After 2013, many are wondering what is in store for the markets and for the investor as we move from all the handholding to allowing the markets to possibly stand on their own merits. Investors have some decisions to make about what they are saving for, their financial goals and concerns, etc. Then they must create their plan, eliminate the noise and concentrate on the future. After last year’s impressive return for the S&P, many wonder, “Can I expect that again?”

Don’t bank on it. And should you be paying attention to all of the prognostications? Maybe, but remember, trust your instincts. In January 2013, the consensus for the market was a relatively modest view—though most predicted a positive year, none predicted an outstanding year. If you had listened to most, you would have expected a 5 percent to 7 percent return for stocks, which is the norm really, but was not the case in 2013. By year-end 2013, the market delivered a whopping 30 percent return—clearly one for the record books, but one that investors should not expect again in 2014.

Much of what I say and discuss is about getting individual investors back into the market, restoring their confidence and understanding of the market and the role it plays in the longer-term plan. Many small business owners are first and foremost concerned about their businesses—as they should be. But after they have settled in and can concentrate on providing for the future, a balanced, diverse portfolio should be part of that plan—and a good financial advisor is worth his weight in gold.

Many are concerned that the market’s 30 percent increase in 2013 means that it can’t go up further in 2014. Not so, but the market will have its challenges, at least in the first half of the year. We have a new Fed Chair, Janet Yellen, the debt ceiling debate and we had a mixed earnings season, which has left many to wonder when earnings will improve due to top line revenue growth versus cost cuts and buybacks. And we had the market test technical levels, both on the upside at 1850 and the downside at 1800. Herein lies the dilemma: How do investors begin? Where do they begin? One must create the plan, outline the goals and then stick to them.

Analysts predict the beginning of a return to normalcy, though many question, “What is normal?” With rates so artificially low and continued mixed macro and micro data, it can be confusing and frustrating. So here is where the plan becomes helpful. Expectations for 2014 include:

·         A solid 3 percent gross domestic product (GDP) growth

·         Steadily declining unemployment rate

·         Reduction of Fed stimulus

·         An improving European economy

·         Stabilization in Asia

·         Normalization of U.S. interest rates

If all of this comes together, then a return to normal does not feel so farfetched. But do not expect it to be a straight line—so much can happen.

Since the beginning of the year the market has churned, not making a move higher or lower as it tries to assess what the future looks like. We entered earnings season with high hopes, and we saw many companies beat the expectation while others continue to struggle. Top line revenues continue to be a challenge for so many. Earnings continue to beat lowered expectations as companies cut costs and initiate stock buybacks. They are not yet growing top line revenues, and this is the challenge. Investors expect (and rightly so) that companies will start producing real top line revenues that produce real earnings growth, allowing for larger profits that will flow to dividends, capital spending, buybacks and possibly more acquisitions.

Among all of this bullish talk, many call for a correction. Some are so bold as to call for a 20+ percent correction. That I do not see, but one must prepare for an eventual correction of some sort. The question is will it be 5 percent, 10 percent, 20 percent? No matter what it is—and I think no more than an 8 percent to 10 percent correction going into the spring—it will clearly take some of the fluff out of equity prices and allow the market to reprice based on developing macro data points. If the data continues to struggle, expect a swifter correction, but if the data shows stabilization, investors and markets will be forgiving and any correction will be met with natural buying interest.

The months ahead will be full of Fed discussion. Will the taper stay status quo for a bit, or will they try to increase the taper with each month? If so, do investors support this move? What will happen to bonds and long-term rates at the height of the spring selling season? If the Fed loses control of rates, then expect housing to come under some pressure—exactly what they do not want to happen in an election year.

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

 

This market commentary is the opinion of the author and is based on decades of industry and market experience; however no guarantee is made or implied with respect to these opinions. This commentary is not nor is it intended to be relied upon as authoritative or taken in substitution for the exercise of judgment. The comments noted herein should not be construed as an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any financial product, or an official statement or endorsement of O’Neil Securities, Incorporated or its affiliates.

Ten Reasons Why the 4 Percent Rule Is Too Simplistic for Retirement Planning

Wade D. Pfau, Ph.D., CFA

Wade D. Pfau, Ph.D., CFA, is a professor of retirement income in the new Ph.D. program in financial services and retirement planning at The American College. He is also an active blogger on retirement research and was a 2012 selectee for the InvestmentNews Power 20. Wade.Pfau@wcinput.com

William Bengen’s seminal study in the October 1994 Journal of Financial Planning, “Determining Withdrawal Rates Using Historical Data,” helped usher in the modern era of retirement withdrawal rate research by codifying the importance of sequence of returns risk. The problem he set up is simple: A new retiree makes plans for withdrawing some inflation-adjusted amount from his or her savings at the end of each year for a 30-year retirement period. What is the highest withdrawal amount as a percentage of retirement date assets that, with inflation adjustments, will be sustainable for the full 30 years? He found that with a 50/50 asset allocation to stocks and bonds, the worst-case scenario experienced in U.S. history was a 1966 retiree who could have withdrawn, at most, 4.15 percent. It is from these origins that the idea of the 4 percent safe withdrawal rate developed as a basic rule of thumb for retirement income planning.

Naturally, as this is a rule of thumb, it does not necessarily mean that 4 percent is an appropriate withdrawal rate for every new retiree. Here are 10 reasons (some of which suggest lower withdrawal rates, while others suggest higher withdrawal rates) why advisors and their clients should think more deeply about whether 4 percent is the appropriate solution.

One

The U.S. historical experience is not sufficiently representative to provide a clear idea about the safe withdrawal rate. The 4 percent rule has not worked as well in other countries, and new retirees today experience a market environment that has very little precedence in the U.S. historical record. This is because bond yields are so low at the same time the stock markets are significantly overvalued, according to Robert Shiller’s cyclically adjusted price earnings ratio. This represents a clear challenge to the continued sustainability and viability of the 4 percent rule for recent retirees.

Two

The 4 percent rule is based on an assumption that investors earn the underlying indexed market returns with annual rebalancing. Investors who pay fees or otherwise underperform the indices, because of either poor timing or asset selection decisions, cannot rely on 4 percent.

Three

The 4 percent rule is based on a tax-deferred portfolio. For those withdrawing from a taxable portfolio, taxes will play a bigger role than one may expect. Not only are taxes paid on withdrawals, but taxes must also be paid on reinvested dividends, interest and capital gains when they accrue and even if they are not withdrawn. This limits the chance for the portfolio to earn compound growth on those removed tax payments.

Four

The 4 percent rule assumes a retiree has no desire to leave a bequest or to build in a safety margin. In the worst-case scenario, wealth depletion can be expected. This causes the retiree to play a game of chicken as wealth plummets toward zero. Building in an additional safety margin further reduces the sustainable withdrawal rate.

Five

The 4 percent rule is based on a planning horizon of 30 years. Those with other planning horizons must adjust their withdrawal rate accordingly, as increasing planning horizons will cause a further decline in the sustainable withdrawal rate.

Six

The 4 percent rule assumes only a few asset classes. What matters for sustainable withdrawal rates is the interaction of portfolio returns and volatility. Including more asset classes can allow for different portfolio characteristics, and, potentially, a portfolio with better return/volatility characteristics can be found. Advisors who implement strategies that reduce some of the downside volatility for client portfolios through the use of financial derivatives or other strategies can also find justification supporting a higher withdrawal rate.

Seven

The 4 percent rule assumes constant spending in inflation-adjusted terms throughout the retirement period. Two questionable aspects about this may or may not be related. First, actual retirees tend to reduce some of their discretionary expenditures as they age and spend more time at home. On the other hand, health expenses tend to rise with age. Different assumptions about how spending evolves with age have an impact on sustainable withdrawal rates. Second, because survival probabilities decrease with age, it is somewhat natural to plan for a reduced spending pattern over time. Otherwise, one sacrifices too much by cutting spending in early retirement to allow for the same spending much later on when the probability of survival is quite low. One would need to be extremely inflexible with regard to their spending decisions or extremely averse to outliving their wealth to prefer a strategy of constant spending over retirement. And with such inflexibility, it would be odd to try to manage all of this longevity and market risk on one’s own without branching out to consider various strategies that incorporate guarantees.

Eight

The 4 percent rule assumes withdrawals are taken from a portfolio invested with a total returns perspective. But there are many other options available to retirees building income strategies, such as fixed and inflation-adjusted immediate annuities, variable annuities (with and without guarantee riders) and bond ladders. Retirees may seek to build an income floor to make sure their basic needs will be met. A time-varying strategy of withdrawing more before age 70 and less after may be appropriate, as it is often beneficial to delay claiming Social Security. A complete strategy will involve a process that seeks to combine different income tools to best balance between one’s goals and risks to those goals. 

Nine

Optimal retirement income strategies involve changing one’s spending in response to evolving market returns and their impact on wealth. The constant inflation-adjusted withdrawal strategy from a volatile portfolio without guarantees is inferior to other strategies, no matter the types of evaluation measures or retiree circumstances.

Ten

The 4 percent rule is based on an evaluation measure that seeks only to minimize the probability that financial wealth will be depleted at some point before death. It ignores the potential magnitude of failure (that is, how much time at the end of retirement will be spent without wealth), and it ignores other resources that may be available to the retiree in the event of wealth depletion. A more complete picture of retirement income resources may suggest, in some circumstances, that retirees can be more tolerant about later financial wealth depletion as it will allow them to enjoy a more satisfactory early retirement period. This more complete picture would also account for when, precisely, financial wealth is depleted.

The 4 percent rule and the probability of running out of financial wealth are just one piece of a much larger puzzle that needs to be solved to help clients fully enjoy their retirement. Retirement income planning is quite distinct from pre-retirement wealth accumulation, as clients must determine how to disburse their assets to maximize their spending potential without running out of income before running out of time. New designations, such as the Retirement Income Certified Professional (RICP) designation from The American College, are now available to help advisors strengthen their understanding and to better implement the strategies needed to help their clients enjoy a successful retirement.

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

Disability Insurance—More Than Cash Flow Protection

Thomas R. Petersen, MBA, RHU®

Thomas R. Petersen, MBA, RHU®, is vice president at Petersen International Underwriters, a Lloyd’s coverholder specializing in specialty disability, international life and medical plans and also kidnap insurance in the U.S. Tom is a frequent writer and trade association presenter, including for MDRT. Thomas.Petersen@wcinput.com

Robert was a scuba instructor who was building a successful business. He taught all levels of scuba diving, had a small dive store and led groups on trips around the world. Robert built a great following. His well-trained staff made each dive a great adventure for students and seasoned divers alike. Robert earned his good reputation through hard work and was in great demand. Robert was on top of his game.

In his mid-20s, Robert had plenty of life insurance but felt no need for disability insurance (DI). After all, he swam every day, was in great shape and, with no family history of illnesses nor any prior health issues, what could go wrong?

The drunk driver who plowed into his car, however, set in motion a lifetime of issues. The most immediate problem was the need to learn to walk again. Major soft tissue and joint injuries meant that his bone structure was intact but muscle relaxants and painkillers were essential. As for his business, mid-summer is NOT the time to stop classes and trips related to the ocean.

It took about 30 days for lesson referrals to cease and about 30 more days until he had to start liquidating the dive store. Rent and utilities are blind and unsympathetic toward an accident. The business that took Robert more than seven years to build was gone in less than 90 days.

----

Like many couples who were recently married, Kathleen and Darren both worked and both saw their lives as “happily ever after.” Part of the picture in their minds included the home with the proverbial white picket fence. They worked hard, saved and finally found their dream house. Escrow was to close December 1. Their family (siblings and parents) decided to take a family vacation to Hawaii over Thanksgiving. Kathleen and Darren would go on the trip and return to sign papers a few days later.

On the first day of the trip, Darren and Kathleen decided to explore the red sand beach area near Hana on Maui. On the walk down to the beach, the trail collapsed under Kathleen’s feet and she fell 40 feet to the sand below. The broken leg and ribs were not as severe a problem as the broken L5 vertebra. It would take weeks or months to know if the broken back was going to cause a permanent disability.

As Kathleen recovered at Maui Memorial Hospital, Darren faced another concern—the dream house. They knew it was going to be a financial stretch for them, but they were both working. Darren called the loan officer to see how the loss of one income would impact getting their home. Thirty years later, Darren still remembers his conversation with the loan broker: “Does Kathleen have disability insurance?” his broker asked.

“Yes, she does,” Darren replied.

“Then there is no problem.”

We forget that disability insurance is not about terms and conditions, but about saving the dream house or keeping the business going until you are ready to take the helm again. It is asset protection.

Both of these stories involve an accident. Neither was permanent. However, the absence of DI destroyed one dream and its presence saved another.

Personal disability insurance

A sizable income is not a reason to ignore the need for disability insurance. “Sizeable” is a subjective term. Until a thorough analysis of options is explored and a suitable alternative is found, disability insurance should be a cornerstone in all of our clients’ financial protection plans, regardless of income.

Numerous third-party resources— financial journals, books and surveys conducted by such entities as the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, as well as the insurance industry—ALL agree that two-thirds of an individual’s income is an adequate amount of replacement protection.

Historically, the insurance industry has taught that disability insurance is cash flow replacement. However, asset protection can be a much more important reason to have DI. During a period of disability, regardless of duration, a person must spend money to pay bills, such as a mortgage, transportation fees, etc. Hard assets, such as a home, cannot pay these expenses.

In the absence of DI, a reserve of cash will have to be used and perhaps depleted. The next phase is to liquidate assets to pay for living expenses. Higher-income individuals do not have less need for disability insurance; they have more need, as they have more expenses and more at risk.

In Robert’s case, personal DI would have helped cover his living expenses. For Kathleen and Darren, having DI meant they still closed on their dream house.

Business disability insurance

Personal DI (whether individual or group) is the most commonly talked about disability insurance product. However, the business sector should not be ignored.

Every business owner in the U.S. has business insurance, which includes business interruption insurance—protection that pays expenses in the event you cannot open your doors Monday morning due to a fire, theft or vandalism. But, what if the reason you cannot open the door Monday morning is because you cannot open the door? Business DI should be looked at as an add-on (albeit essential need) to business interruption insurance.

Robert had to liquidate his entire business. He might have been able to make a comeback, but the cost to keep everything outweighed the short-term expenses that needed to be paid.

Key person insurance (life or disability) is often thought of only when larger companies are involved. However, every business, regardless of size, has a key person. It may be the owner or the top executive or account representative, or it could be someone who makes the critical operations work. Even a small business owner may be a key person for the success of his or her company (in fact, he or she may be the company’s only employee).

Most insurance professionals and legal advisors also make sure businesses with more than one owner have in place a buy-sell agreement. A disability buy-sell is equally, if not more, important as the life insurance. When an owner dies the process is clear. The voice of the deceased owner is silent. When a disability occurs, the disabled owner still has a voice and expenses that were not there before—and now is in survival mode.

A small business owner may do well to heed the advice that a buy-sell is necessary for legal, tax and business purposes. A buy-sell disability and life plan is needed to help fund the financial impact that occurs when a disability disrupts the company, regardless of size.

We forget what insurance is. It is not about terms and conditions. It’s about peace of mind and financial salvation when the need arises. DI can protect both personal and business assets. It can mean the difference between achieving the white picket fence and losing everything.

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

Now, What Are You Going To Do With It?

Gary A. May, CLU®, ChFC®

Gary A. May, CLU®, ChFC® is a 14-year home office veteran in the financial services industry currently working in Agency Sales Support for Nationwide Financial in Columbus, Ohio. Gary.May@wcinput.com

“Well, that’s the news from Lake Wobegon, where all the women are strong, all the men are good looking and all the children are above average.”

Fans of public radio’s weekly program A Prairie Home Companion will instantly recognize that quote as the closing line to Garrison Keillor’s monologue about happenings in that fictitious rural Minnesota town. If you have recently finished a designation or degree from The American College, or are close to achieving this goal, you could qualify for honorary citizenship in Lake Wobegon. Only a limited number of professionals in the financial services industry complete an advanced degree or recognized designation related to the industry. Welcome to that elite club!

When you finished the requirements for your designation or degree, you probably breathed a huge sigh of relief. And then you celebrated. Maybe you even had the opportunity to attend, or are planning to attend, The American College’s biennial Knowledge Summit. And once you marked all of that off of your to-do list, you moved on to the next thing. Not so fast.

Let’s hop a time-travel machine and set it for when you started the introductory classes for your designation or degree. Those classes set a foundation for you as you accumulated expertise in the specialized area of your study. An absolute bedrock of that foundation is The American College Code of Ethics and the Professional Pledge and eight Canons therein. I encourage you to visit alumni.theamericancollege.edu/who-we-are/code-of-ethics and spend time to reflect on the ethical responsibilities placed on you.

Thinking back to my studying days for my Chartered Life Underwriter® (CLU®) and Chartered Financial Consultant® (ChFC®) designations, one of the eight Canons always stood out: “Participate in building your profession by encouraging and providing appropriate assistance to qualified persons pursuing professional studies.” I was fortunate to study for my designations at the same time as several of my Nationwide Financial colleagues, so we helped each other through the tough parts. Since I gained my designations, I’ve had the pleasure of helping colleagues prepare for some of those same classes. (My advice: Never tackle the Time Value of Money concept by yourself!)

The importance of giving back was reinforced many times as I attended the 2013 Knowledge Summit. First and foremost, it was modeled by employees of The American College as they staged the event. Many of them worked tirelessly to make the Summit a world-class event, and it showed. Top-flight experts presented on topics critical to the financial services industry today; you just don’t run across learning opportunities like that. The Summit’s quality embodied the staff’s work ethic; it wasn’t just an event, but something that affected the careers and mindsets of financial service professionals throughout the country.

The 50th anniversary of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy occurred during the Summit. The American College presented a retrospective video that included a segment from Kennedy’s 1961 inaugural address. Some of the most famous words in all of history echoed in the room, “And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you — ask what you can do for your country.”

Giving back was a scarlet thread running through the commencement ceremony as well. During her address, Caroline Feeney, CLU®, ChFC®, president, Agency Distribution for Prudential, asked a simple but profound question of those earning their degrees and designations: “Now, what are you going to do with it?” She continued to drive home the point, tailoring her remarks to home office employees, field management and financial advisors, outlining the responsibilities each had now that they’d earned their designation or degree. Believe me, it was a long list of responsibilities for each. Feeney left her listeners with this thought as she closed: “Never forget the value of what you can do with your education, and never stop in your quest to use your knowledge to help others.” By the determined looks on the faces of those in the audience, her admonition hit home.

Susan Cooper, CFP®, CLU®, ChFC®, CAP®, of State Farm, was the student speaker. She echoed the tone set by Caroline Feeney, putting this challenge out to her fellow graduates: “As leaders, it is our responsibility to learn new and better ways to lead our organizations, work to enhance the lives of our clients and customers and, most importantly, always be seeking that next mountain to climb.”

Do you see a common theme emerging here? As you tackle the challenge of earning a degree or designation from The American College and advance through that process, it becomes less and less about you and more and more about your clients, your colleagues and your industry. Put some serious thought into what you can do to advance their interests by giving back your time, your talents and your energy.

If you need further inspiration, recall some encouraging words you may have heard from a colleague or a supervisor as you poured through a textbook to prepare for another exam. That was just the thing you needed to push you through to the finish. Imagine the boost you can provide to colleagues going through the same thing as they study for their degree or designation. Maybe an executive at your company is a tireless advocate for the value of The American College, as so many industry executives are. Consider stepping alongside him or her and modeling the virtues set forth in the Code of Ethics.

Completing the requirements set forth by The American College earned you a coveted designation and a certificate or diploma. That’s a good thing. Remember, though, you also assumed the responsibility of giving back to your clients, your colleagues and your industry by accepting that certificate or diploma and putting the designation behind your name. “Now, what are you going to do with it?”

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

Leadership Perspectives From a New MSM Graduate

Tia Nichole McMillen, MSM

Tia Nichole McMillen, MSM, is an officer of the U.S. Navy and recent graduate of The American College, which she attended through a scholarship awarded by the Penn Mutual Center for Veterans Affairs. Tia.McMillen@wcinput.com

I am very thankful to The American College for granting a scholarship to a young woman who may not have been the typical applicant. When I started the program, I knew nothing about the financial services industry. My financial principles included paying everything in cash, never being in debt and forcefully investing in my future. It was this forward thinking that brought me to The American College.

 

In the Navy, officers’ responsibilities are to carry out the day’s mission and to support their shipmates. Holding responsibility for others’ lives both frightens and invigorates me. The leadership—educators and classmates associated with the Penn Mutual Center for Veterans Affairs, through which I am a scholarship recipient—have enabled and encouraged me to analyze my leadership style and humbly strengthen my weak traits. As a result, I am more suited to lead the outstanding men and women who serve our Navy. I take this task very seriously and want to consistently be the best I can be for the great Americans who answer the call to serve.

 

Throughout the Master of Science in Management (MSM) program, I found myself taking notes on what I consider “Big Leadership Lessons.” I define these as the lessons most relevant to leadership in general—those particularly relevant to where I am in my leadership journey and those that transcend any line of work. The petty officer entering the Admiral’s office for the first time, the artsy aspiring writer prepping for his/her first interview, the field manager in the midst of change, the CFO’s secretary studying to be an elementary school teacher—each can effectively use these Big Leadership Lessons where he/she is right now.

Ethical decision-making

Ethical decision-making begins with a more-than-sound understanding of self. It’s developing a thoughtful personal mission statement, a personal vision statement, a personal brand statement and a detailed plan of execution. It’s conducting a thorough Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis and acting upon discoveries.

Here is the checklist I use:

·      Are my actions godly? My life is founded on God, family and country. It is imperative to who I am to know that my decisions are ethical and based on faith.

·      How does my decision reflect my brand statement? My personal brand statement is to take harder, better, faster and stronger to the next level through active learning, steadfast faith, serving the community and leading others by example. If my brand statement is who I claim to be, my actions need to reflect that.

·      What does my decision say about my character? What perceptions can be garnered as a result of my action? Who I am and who I am perceived to be is important to me. One is only as great as his/her reputation.

·      What are the pros and cons involved in my decision? This is when pure logic plays a role in my decision-making process. How are these pros and cons weighed by importance?

·      Have I sought an outside, unbiased but faith-based perspective? This is when I bring my decision to a trusted mentor. My mentor is an excellent example of someone who is ethical, just and compassionate. She is the perfect sounding board for these questions. She knows my son and me well and is aware of both of our strengths and weaknesses. She provides sound advice with situational awareness and outside perspective—a hard blend to find in someone.

·      Do I need to reconsider my decision? Part of my decision-making process occurs after I choose a path. I reassess that path to determine if I made the right decision. If not, I go through the process again and try to make a better one.

Understanding that this process is fluid, I have found it quite helpful for making ethical decisions. This decision-making process proves most effective when combined with self-regulation, or the ability to control one’s emotions and actions.

Self-regulation

Emotional intelligence plays a key role in the success of any leader. As part of the MSM program, we addressed our individual strengths and weaknesses, and I learned that my greatest emotional intelligence weakness is self-regulation. As a result, I approached this problem in three ways with the goal to always respond with intelligence and compassion instead of judgment.

1.      The first is very simple: Apologize when I am wrong. My grandfather always told me, “A man (or woman) is not a failure until he blames his failure on others.” We fail as leaders when we do not accept blame, sincerely apologize and learn from mistakes. By taking due blame on yourself, you’ll earn respect and be wiser in future actions.

2.      Remove what you hear and replace it with truth. So often we turn simple statements into pointed negativity. Assess what is actually being said instead of what you think you are hearing. Actively listen and clarify.

3.      Journal—with a twist. Writing down negative thoughts helps one visualize the petty issues that get in the way of success. Pull these negative thoughts from your mind and put them on paper. Then shred it.

Nonconformity

Lastly, a major threat to leadership arises from a desire to be liked and accepted. It’s called conformity and it’s a creativity killer. To fix it, create a nonconformity conclave. Create an environment where discussion is encouraged. For example, take your team out of the office, order light refreshments, and provide whiteboards, flip charts and other visual aids to appeal to visual learners. Videotape the session to appeal to both visual and auditory learners. Encourage each member to step forth and share a high and low of the process. What works best? What needs improvement? Write down all answers and have a forum to further discuss them. Break into smaller groups to tackle improvements. Use random selection, free association and/or brainstorming to tackle issues. The most important thing here is to encourage the right environment for discussion and ensure everyone’s ideas are relevant and heard.

These Big Leadership Lessons consistently push me to be a better person and, in turn, a stronger leader. Sometimes as leaders, we work with other leaders and are able to help them succeed in their careers. As a protocol officer for a two-star Admiral, I’m lucky to be surrounded by leadership. One of the most profound things I have learned through on-the-job training is the difference between leadership styles and how that influences how I want others to view me. I leave you with this:

It is one thing to be admired by the masses. It’s another thing entirely to be loved by the people who work directly for you. The people who primp your uniform, tire over poignant phrases, drive hours through the night—those who follow you because they are courageous and have full faith and trust in your leadership.

My friends, strive to be the second kind of leader. 

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

Help Clients Think Beyond Themselves

Mitchell Kraus, CFP®, CAP®, CLU®, ChFC®

Mitchell Kraus, CFP®, CAP®, CLU®, ChFC®, is a registered representative with, and offers securities through, LPL Financial, Member FINRA/SIPC. He has been helping clients plan for their financial future since 1993. He and his father, Arthur, established Capital Intelligence Associates in 2003 as a comprehensive resource for independent, unbiased advice and trusted financial guidance. Mitchell.Kraus@wcinput.com

After looking at their inward needs, the next area most clients are concerned with is their immediate family. Most planning software and training programs look at life insurance needs. They look at college funding and estate taxes, but few really address family money dynamics. It’s one thing to make sure your kids get to college, but it takes another level of planning to ensure clients pass on their values along with their financial wealth.

 

Money isn’t a comfortable conversation for some American families. Because of this, each generation must learn its own lessons. As a financial professional, you are uniquely positioned to help parents teach financial literacy. It can be as easy as recommending books for them to read, and tons of seminars on the subject are available. One of my favorites is Yes, You Can! Raise Financially Aware Kids. The authors have a turnkey kit with workbooks, seminars (available at yesyoucanonline.info) and a book you can give to your client. Another option is to ask your clients their biggest financial mistakes and help them create solutions so their children hopefully don’t make the same errors.

 

For clients with older children and grandchildren, in addition to safeguarding their financial legacy, encourage them to share the lessons they’ve learned about money and life with future generations. Work with them to create an ethical will and perhaps even a video of their insights. We have a client with a fascinating life story. He’s done it all. We put him in touch with a documentary filmmaker to capture his story. Other clients will collect questions from their grandchildren and record the answers using an iPad.

 

As our baby boomer clients’ parents get older, their financial concerns also focus on the generation ahead of them. Sometimes it’s about helping this generation live the last years of their lives with dignity. We worked with a widower client to purchase a long-term care (LTC) insurance policy that splits the premium four ways. The widower and his three kids each paid one-fourth of the annual premium. He felt relieved that he was taking steps towards reducing the financial burden on his three children, and the children appreciated knowing their father had long-term care coverage.

 

In addition, many resources are available to assist clients who wish to help aging parents or to explain the steps to take when one of them passes away. I find the best resources are often the insurance companies with which I work. They have great brochures and articles that you can hand to clients. While not much more work, this extra service shows you care.

 

For many clients, planning for family is just the beginning. Their goals extend out to the community. This is your client’s chance to think globally by acting locally. Welcome to the world of philanthropy. Based on the number of advisors I see volunteering alongside me, I know that philanthropy is important to them. What are you doing to help your clients with their philanthropic desires?

 

A good place to start is to ask them about their vision for a better world. Ask to whom they donate money and to what causes they volunteer their time. Look for ways to leverage their giving. For example, they could donate highly appreciated stock or change the beneficiary on an old life insurance policy the family doesn’t need anymore. Perhaps you could look at their estate plan and use advanced planning techniques such as charitable gift annuities, charitable remainder trusts (CRTs) or other split-interest gifts.

 

Get to know your local community foundations. They’re an excellent resource for helping clients make intelligent philanthropic decisions. They know the local charities. They know all the legal intricacies of charitable giving. They can fill in any holes in your expertise and even help your clients choose the ultimate beneficiary for their funds.

 

Finally, if clients are thinking on an even bigger scale, look at matching their investments to their beliefs. The roots of socially responsible investing (SRI) trace back to our country’s founding when certain religious orders refused to invest in companies that participated in the slave trade. Today there are funds and managers that invest based on everything from religious convictions to environmental concerns; from women’s equality to governance issues.

 

When I started in this business 20 years ago, most studies on SRI concluded that clients were giving up return to invest with their conscience (for example, those who decided not to invest in high-flying tobacco stocks in the ’80s due to the health risks associated with smoking cigarettes). But that has changed. According to a GMI, Inc. review of dozens of studies on SRI, “The general consensus is that, on average, responsible investment methods perform on par with conventional techniques, neither outperforming nor underperforming them on a regular and reliable basis.”

 

While most advisors ask if clients are comfortable investing in certain asset classes, such as international stocks and illiquid investments, few ask if any investment types go against their values. While many clients show no preference, those who do show real passion. One client couldn’t stop thanking me for asking. She was very concerned about women’s rights in the world and kept reading negative reports about companies whose stock she owned but was afraid to bring it up with her previous advisor. Another client called after getting his first statement to thank us for making sure he didn’t have any big banks in his portfolio; he felt they were responsible for the Great Recession.

 

Another client found us on the web through an SRI trade group. He knew there were companies in his portfolio to which he was morally opposed. He didn’t want to avoid any specific industry, but wanted to ensure that morality played into the stock picking decisions. We chose some third-party money managers, and every quarter we go over his portfolio’s performance and the rationalization the managers used to pick the stocks. Of course the performance of his portfolio matters to him, but his true satisfaction comes from the time we spend during these reviews detailing the process for social screening each stock.

 

The possibilities of helping your clients think beyond themselves are endless. Look at the potential big picture: Help your client set up a family foundation or a donor advised fund. Put their children (and grandchildren) on the official or unofficial board. Help them learn about finances by reviewing the investments. Help them learn about community by deciding which charities are the ultimate beneficiaries of the funds. Teach them about social responsibility by reviewing the SRI components of the underlying investments. Get creative and you can combine the power of a positively changed family, a positively changed community and a positively changed world.

 

An old saying imparts, “We do not inherit the Earth from our ancestors; we borrow it from our children.” As financial advisors, we have the opportunity to give those children the world that our clients want for them. It just takes adding a little extra to the great work we’re already doing.

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

Social Media’s Secret Sauce and Other Recipes for Success

Keith Hickerson, MSM

Senior Strategy Consultant at The American College, Hickerson, MSM, previously served as Vice President of Marketing at The College and, before that, at Unum Corporation.

One of the great things about working at The American College is the opportunity to explore new courses and content as they’re released. If you believe in ongoing education, it’s a “kid in the candy store” moment every time the latest material is ready for review. The other day I sampled the new interactive, self-paced module on Social Media for Financial Services Professionals that’s part of the Financial Services Certified Professional™ (FSCP™) program, and it’s a winner.

Here’s the thing about FSCP™ modules and classes: You can take any of these courses by themselves even if you’re not pursuing the designation. For anyone in financial services, regardless of the role you’re in or your time in the business, you won’t want to miss this social media module in particular.

The module’s training is practical: How do you set up an effective LinkedIn presence? How do you create profiles of your target clients or connections to better build your social media strategy? How do you allocate your social media time well, where do you start and how do you measure your success? If you’re new to social media, you’ll now have a roadmap to follow. Even if you’re a regular user of social media, think about the value of having an expert show you, section by section, how to think differently about the way you build your online presence.

The module provides instruction from an expert throughout, videos of other advisors explaining what they do, interactive screens where you can enter your approaches and the ability to click on features of social media platforms to learn more. There’s also an understanding of how compliance works, FINRA rules and other must-know information for using social media in the financial services world.

Other FSCP™ modules cover top-of-mind topics. You can learn the constantly changing ins and outs of the healthcare reform law as it’s being implemented. There is new valuable content on divorce planning, too: One module covers financial issues relative to divorce, and the other covers emotional issues that a planner needs to understand. New modules are being added every quarter.

The other point to remember about FSCP™ is that all of the courses (both live local and online webinars) that companies and advisors have long valued in The College’s training programs are all still available. FSCP™ is literally the best of proven material as well as new content and delivery methods.

The importance of career-long learning isn’t a myth. I’d argue that in our increasingly interconnected world, it’s more important than ever that we mitigate complexity with knowledge. There’s no better way to start than with the FSCP™ Social Media for Financial Services Professionals module. Enjoy!

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

Letting Go of Less-Than-Ideal Clients

Rosemary Smyth

Rosemary is an author, columnist and an international business coach for financial advisors. She spent her career working at leading investment firms before pursuing her passion for coaching. She lives in Victoria, BC. Visit her website at www.rosemarysmyth.com.

Some advisors hold onto clients that they consciously know are bad for them instead of taking one bold step that could improve the quality of their business. The challenge of letting go is tough for some people especially if they see their business situation as not so great but are more afraid of the unknown. It’s been said that the unknown is where your professional potential lies and that choosing the discomfort of change will reveal to you a whole new world of possibilities. It’s all about making that one courageous decision and leaving the status quo behind.

For advisors, there comes a time in the maturity of the business where the number of clients can be overwhelming.  The trigger may be a missed meeting, a forgotten call or a day with a series of very small transactions that take up hours. Suddenly, their top client needs to see them and they can’t fit them in. Wham! That’s when it hits them. Things need to change.

The trigger forces the advisor to look at their client list and decide who is going to be let go. The path of letting go of small or less-than-ideal clients is different depending on the firm but try to highlight the positive for both yourself and the client. Moving on to a national call center, a rookie, or perhaps the successor can hopefully be an opportunity for those clients to be serviced with more vim and vigor.

Obviously, the benefits for advisors include; better service for their top tier clients, less stress, more time for events and appreciations, more enjoyment of their revamped schedules and being more productive overall with their time.

The tough part for advisors comes when they see the names of their very first clients on the list. They’ve had them for years and they were the ones that trusted them with their small amount of money when they were just starting. However, the intention of letting go of less-than-ideal clients that no longer fit the business model is about creating a new client experience with noticeable value and benefit that the advisor can be proud of.

To make sure unbiased decisions about segmenting client lists are made, follow a structured process.

Step #1 Create a selection criteria list

The selection criteria will mirror the list of your ideal clients. For example, you enjoy working with them, they give you referrals, their household recurring revenue is in your target range and they are willing to accept your recommendations. Once you set the list, prioritize it and decide how many of the items on your list are going to have to be checked off for you to classify them as ideal clients. If you are stuck for criteria think about your favourite clients and what makes them your favourite.

Also, consider if you divide last year’s income to an hourly rate and calculate how many hours that you would be spending over the year with that client. What revenue would have to be the baseline for you to cover your time?

Step #2 Go through your client list

With the selection criteria now established, carefully go through your client list. Be sure to tag family households together so you don’t happen to miss a relative that has a different last name. Take your time doing this and, if you have an assistant, work on it together as you both will be able to share your experiences that you’ve had with each client.  Try to split this task into smaller chunks, so that you can complete it accurately and are confident with your final decisions.

Step #3 Take action

Once you have the list of the non-ideal clients and have decided where they will be going, put some time limits on when you will take action and how you will let the clients know. Some advisors like to do this quickly and do it all at once like ripping off a Band-Aid. Others need to gradually get used to the idea. Whether it’s calling the clients or sending them a letter introducing their new advisor or new situation, frame the conversation as to why this change is good for the client and be clear what’s in it for them.

The reality is that, every year you need to be bringing in new assets and by going through this process of letting go; you will have to bring in more to reach your goal. The hope is that all your existing clients fit your ideal criteria and you will have more time and energy to prospect and follow up on those referrals. 

Secrets to Longevity

Erin Gazica

Erin is the communications consultant in the Advancement Division at The College.

Orem Robbins, CLU®, ChFC®, RHU®, turned 99 years old on February 5, 2014, but the former insurance executive is mysterious about his secret to longevity. When asked what has kept him going for so long, he jokes: “Well, a pacemaker, for one.”

Robbins, who founded Security Life Insurance Company of America in 1956, still exercises for 30 minutes a day. He also admits, “I like a lot of napping.” But perhaps his tricks to living a long life are ingrained in his positive, life-affirming personality more than in a healthy diet, adequate rest or vigorous physical activity.

“My best advice is to put the other fellow ahead of yourself,” Robbins says. “That way, the both of you will always come out ahead. I’ve lived my whole life that way.”

Robbins, whose parents both died by age 67, has outlived three wives. He has nine children and stepchildren spread across the country, though he remains in Minneapolis where he was born and raised. He graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1936 and began his professional career as a business office representative and service engineer for Northwestern Bell Telephone Company. He served in World War II as an Army officer assigned to the Navy. His service was mostly stateside, but occasionally took him overseas, including to the Philippines. For a time he served under Lt. Col. James Roosevelt, II, the eldest son of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

After a successful military career, Robbins resumed his professional life at Northwestern Bell and then moved to the Savings Bond Division for the State of Minnesota. By 1948 he had earned his law degree and by 1956 he had founded the first publicly owned life insurance company in Minnesota. He served as president of Security Life for 24 years and became chairman of the board in 1980.

Robbins borrowed against his GI life insurance policy, a 30 pay-life plan, to start the company. Before he knew it, the 30-year period was up. Then 60 years has passed. A check for $60,000—the face amount of the policy—arrived in the mail. He had outlived his life expectancy.

“It reaffirmed the whole value of life insurance,” says Robbins. “It’s about living, not about death benefits.”

Needless to say, Robbins has seen incredible changes in the industry. When he first started, he was authorized to write up to $600 on any one life. He began by selling one-on-one, but soon had the advantage of group selling small policies on a large number of people through organizations or companies. Security Life grew by being a “different kind of company,” Robbins says.

“There are certain things you have to do to be successful in insurance,” says Robbins. “You might be one of many who come and leave the business. But if you want to succeed you have to work at it one client at a time and say, ‘What can I do to help this person as much as possible with the means that they are capable of?’”

Robbins was active in pursuing education at The American College, earning his CLU® in 1953. He went on to earn his ChFC® in 1982 and his RHU® in 1983. He has given generously to The College’s One Person Campaign, focusing on an initiative that he is passionate about—The Cary M. Maguire Center for Ethics in Financial Services.

The College’s founder, Dr. Solomon Huebner, made an impression on Robbins beginning with his belief in human life value. Robbins still has a framed photo of Dr. Huebner that was signed with a personal inscription.

“I sold quite a bit of insurance, and all those people were helped,” says Robbins. “If you always put the client before yourself, you will always find that there is a light at the end of the tunnel shining down and leading your way.”

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

A More Practical Way to Self-Insure Long-term Care

Shawn Britt, CLU®

Shawn Britt, CLU® Shawn is Director of Advanced Sales with Nationwide Financial in Columbus, Ohio. britts@nationwide.com.

When it comes to long-term care (LTC), affluent individuals often feel they can afford to self-insure their LTC risk. But is self-insuring the most efficient use of their assets? After all, one important goal in estate planning is preserving wealth—and LTC expenses can put a large dent in an estate when not properly anticipated.

Self-insuring LTC in a typical fashion may not be the best solution for many affluent individuals. For the client to self-insure, in practicality, it helps to have assets available that are liquid and accessible inside his or her estate in the event he or she encounters an LTC situation. Let’s assume this client sets aside $1,000,000 for this purpose. If the client actually needs LTC and spends most or all of the $1,000,000, then the self-insure plan worked well enough. However, if the client needs little or none of the assets set aside for LTC services, and assuming a 2014 estate tax rate of 40 percent, taxation of the $1,000,000 could result in a tax bill of up to $400,000. Fortunately, there is a potential way to avoid this pitfall by insuring the long-term care risk with an indemnity-style linked benefit LTC policy owned by an irrevocable life insurance trust (ILIT).

What is linked benefit LTC coverage?

Simply put, an asset is repositioned to be leveraged for LTC coverage on a policy linked to life insurance. The primary purpose is insuring LTC, but there is also a death benefit on the policy, which ensures cost recovery should the policy be little or never used (assuming no withdrawals or loans). In addition, the return-of-premium feature included with the policy keeps the asset on the client’s net worth statement. While most of these policies are paid with a single premium, there are premium schedules available up to 10 years.

Why indemnity?

Only an indemnity-style LTC benefit can work within a trust because the LTC benefit is sent directly to the owner of the contract, which in the case of trust ownership would be the trust/trustee. The insurance policy essentially funds the trust with cash via payment of an accelerated death benefit. There is no reimbursement of actual LTC expenses on behalf of the insured. It is important to note the insured (grantor) must never have the LTC benefit directly in hand, nor can he or she have claims against the trust for such monies.

Efficiently fund LTC needs

An ultimate life insurance trust (ULIT) may be appropriate for clients who don’t want to lose total control of trust assets, fearing they may need funds in the future. A ULIT is a type of ILIT that may allow the grantor/insured or grantor/insured’s spouse access to trust assets.

The trust is written to allow for arm’s length, fully collateralized loan provisions. The loan is secured by property pledged by the grantor/insured. The loan must be legitimate with collateral pledged, interest charged and an agreement to fully pay back the debt. Collateral can be anything that covers the debt: a house, artwork, coin collection, etc. The interest rate charged should be at least equal to the interest charged on the life insurance policy (although in this concept there will be no loan taken against the policy itself, this is good fiduciary practice). Keep in mind, the higher the interest the better this concept works, but it still must remain reasonable. In most cases, the loan interest is allowed to accrue. Ideally, the loan interest should be paid back prior to the death of the grantor/insured to avoid taxation as income to the trust. Some plans set up interest to be paid on a periodic basis to hedge against the risk of all interest being taxable at death, though this will impact the accrual of the debt (which in this case is an advantage as you will shortly see). Principal can be paid back after death with no tax liability.

The process of taking the collateralized loans

When using a ULIT type ILIT for the purposes of getting long-term care rider benefits from the trust, you may do the following:

·         File a claim for the LTC benefit.

·         After a 90-day elimination period, a monthly check will be sent to the trust (as contract owner).

·         The grantor then borrows money from the trust upon pledging property as collateral.

·         These funds can be used to pay LTC bills.

·         Interest is allowed to accrue to purposely increase the debt—but ideally paid back just prior to death to avoid taxation.

·         At the grantor’s death, the loan principal and any unpaid interest is paid to the trust and is then deducted from the estate assets for taxation purposes, leaving a smaller estate tax liability.

Doing the math

Our hypothetical example will assume our client is a 55-year-old female nonsmoker and qualified for a couple rate. She will gift $207,517 to her trust by using part of her lifetime exemption. The trust will purchase, own and be the beneficiary of an indemnity-style linked benefit LTC policy that provides a six-year benefit of $1,080,000 in total LTC benefits. There is a guaranteed death benefit of $360,000 if LTC is never needed and a guaranteed minimum death benefit of $72,000 if LTC is needed. The monthly LTC benefit amount paid to the trust will be $15,000 per month. The trust will include loan provisions needed for this concept using an 8 percent interest rate.

Upon making an LTC claim, the grantor borrows funds from the trust over a six-year period of time equaling $1,080,000. It may be wise to borrow funds in a manner that doesn’t align exactly with the payment of LTC benefits to the trust. Consult an attorney for proper lending processes within the ULIT. Interest on this loan will accrue to a total of $309,582. At the grantor’s death, the minimum death benefit is paid to the trust equaling $72,000.

The results

The principal can be repaid after death with no tax consequences. However, if the loan interest is repaid just prior to death, the $309,582 interest payment is moved from the estate to the trust and is spared from estate taxes (and possible income taxes), saving the beneficiaries $123,833. In addition, when you add the death benefit of $72,000 to the $123,833 in tax savings, the beneficiaries net an extra $195,833. The cost of the policy was $207,517. The policy paid out $1,080,000 in LTC benefits borrowed from, now repaid to and residing tax free in the trust for the beneficiaries. Thus, the potential net cost of purchasing a policy paying a net amount of $1,080,000 for LTC benefits and helping to protect the beneficiaries’ inheritance by the same amount was only $11,684.

While every situation is different and must be individually considered, a financial advisor may want to consider the effective use of an indemnity linked benefit policy to enhance the amount of inheritance a client could potentially leave to loved ones.

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

Uses of Life Insurance for Small Business Owners

Richard Baier, JD, CLU®, ChFC®, AEP®, CFP®, CAP®

Richard Baier, JD, CLU®, ChFC®, AEP®, CFP®, CAP®, is corporate vice president in case development with The Nautilus Group®, a service of New York Life. He joined the company in 2010 as a case consultant in the business and estate unit. Richard is an attorney with more than 37 years of financial, estate, business, charitable and benefits planning experience. Richard.Baier@wcinput.com

Every business owner has problems to solve. What most business owners do not realize, however, is that cash value life insurance can be one of their better problem-solving tools. Life insurance can be a cost-efficient way to help accumulate capital, reduce expenses, retain key employees, fund a buy-sell agreement or nonqualified supplemental executive retirement plan and compensate the business for unexpected financial loss. Business life insurance can be owned by the business, or the business can sponsor, or pay for, a policy owned by a business owner, employee, director, contractor or trust for their benefit. Following are some common uses of life insurance by a business owner or business.

 

Company-owned life insurance (COLI) can be used to:

·         Reduce or eliminate financial loss due to death of a key employee, contractor or owner

·         Retain key employees by providing executive benefits in the form of deferred compensation or death benefits

·         Provide business continuation funding for an entity redemption

·         Diversify the company’s investment portfolio as an asset that does not correlate with market-based assets

·         Provide security for a loan

·         Secure a construction bond or other regulatory cash or bond requirement

Company-sponsored life insurance is often used to provide:

·         Group term life insurance

·         Personal life insurance death benefits for key employees or owners

·         Retirement benefits for key employees or owners

·         Cross-purchase funding for a buy-out agreement between the owners

·         Split dollar life insurance arrangements

Following are some common problems that business owners can solve in whole or part with company-owned and company-sponsored life insurance.

Financial loss due to death of key person

Businesses often insure their buildings and equipment against catastrophic financial loss. Why, then, do they not also insure their key people? Of course many do, but perhaps not enough.

In computing the cost of a key person’s departure, the basic variables to consider are the individual’s contribution to profits and the time required to locate and train an equivalent replacement. Key person life insurance is used to fill the void left by the loss of an indispensable member of the organization. It can help:

·         Provide funds to establish a replacement

·         Replace lost profits

·         Provide cash to pay off company loans

·         Pay a tax-deductible death benefit to the key person’s family

·         Ensure ability of customers, creditors and employees of the business to carry on

Capital accumulation and balance sheet strength

Certain businesses need to keep a strong balance sheet to satisfy security requirements of creditors, customers and regulatory agencies. Some businesses purchase a surety bond for this purpose. However, many use cash value life insurance with its easy access to cash values as a means to accumulate working capital and strengthen the balance sheet, while simultaneously providing a death benefit that can be used for such purposes as key person insurance or employee death benefits.

Key employee retention

Key employees can be incentivized to stay with an employer in a variety of ways: salary, bonuses, stock options, enhanced job responsibilities, work recognition and nonqualified executive benefits. Of these methods, life insurance has the greatest application to nonqualified executive benefits, including nonqualified deferred compensation and executive bonus life insurance.

·         Nonqualified deferred compensation: A nonqualified deferred compensation plan that provides supplemental retirement income for key employees can be informally funded with employer or employee dollars, or both. Any such plan would need to meet the requirements of IRC §409A to avoid immediate taxation to the employee when funds are deferred by the employee or the employer’s unsecured promise to pay the benefit vests.

·         Deferral plan: Under an employee-funded deferral plan, the employee would elect to defer salary or bonuses in the year prior to when the deferral is made. The informal funding medium would typically be a permanent life insurance policy owned by the company. The employee would not have to pay income taxes currently on the amount deferred, but would pay income taxes when future benefit payments are received. The company would not take a deduction for compensation expense until the future benefit payments are made.

·         Supplemental executive retirement plan: Under a supplemental executive retirement plan (SERP) using employer dollars, the company may informally set aside assets to fund a benefit at the employee’s retirement and/or fund a benefit to his or her heirs at death. Again, the informal funding medium could be a permanent life insurance policy owned by the company. At the participating employee’s retirement, the company will pay income to the retired employee for a period of years. The company can use policy cash values to pay the employee’s retirement benefits by withdrawing cash value from the policy up to basis and then switching to policy loans. Loans against the policy accrue interest and decrease the death benefit and cash value by the amount of the outstanding loan and interest. Withdrawals to basis followed by policy loans will generally not create taxable income to the policyowner, provided the policy is not a modified endowment contract (MEC).

 

A SERP generally would require that the employee stay with the business for a specified period, usually until his or her retirement date. If the employee were to leave early, he or she may forfeit all or part of the money in the plan as set forth in the SERP agreement. To preserve the income tax-free nature of the death benefit from the company-owned life insurance for the employer, the parties must comply with the notice, consent and exception requirements under IRC §101(j) and the reporting requirements under IRC §6039I.

·         Executive bonus life insurance plan: An executive bonus arrangement, also sometimes referred to as a “Section 162 Bonus Plan,” is a benefit arrangement in which an employer pays bonus compensation to selected executives in the form of premium payments on the executives’ personally owned life insurance policies. It is most easily described as employer-funded personal life insurance. Although premium payments are currently taxable to the employee, policy cash values grow tax free, and he or she can access cash values on a tax-advantaged basis at retirement through withdrawals to basis followed by policy loans.

Business owners have myriad ways to use life insurance to solve problems that arise in their businesses. This article addresses but a few. Because of its unique characteristics of tax-advantaged cash value growth and death benefits, life insurance is often the best solution.

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

Pick Your Business Partners or the State Will Pick Them for You!

Kevin M. Lynch, MBA, CFP®, CLU®, ChFC®, RHU®, REBC®, CASL®, CAP®, LUTCF, FSS

Kevin M. Lynch is an assistant professor of insurance and The Charles J. Zimmerman Chair in Insurance Education at The American College. Kevin.Lynch@wcinput.com

As most of us know, if you fail to execute a personal last will and testament, the state has intestacy laws that will dictate how your estate will be disposed of.

What about your business? What happens if you enter into a business relationship with one or more partners and fail to formalize the manner in which the business will continue should one of the partners die or become incapacitated? Without proper planning, you may awake one day to find your former partner’s spouse now has a say in the management and day-to-day operations of your business. Is that something you would want?

The form of business organization you choose when organizing your business will have an impact on the manner in which you formalize the agreements that cover the death or disability of one or more business owners. In the event your business is a sole proprietorship, the options are limited. Traditionally, sole proprietorships tend to be inherited or purchased by a family member. As an alternative, sole proprietorships are sometimes purchased by a senior employee or a group of employees. Under a partnership arrangement or under an incorporated form of business, however, options are more numerous.

In the event a member of a partnership dies, legally, the partnership ends. How does the partnership compensate the deceased partner’s beneficiaries? Without a formalized, written agreement, the partnership would have to reach an understanding as to the value of the business and then determine the portion owed to the deceased partner’s estate. Once this is accomplished, the focus changes to how to raise the dollars needed to fund the payment to the estate. If the legal representative of the estate disagrees with the determination the remaining partners make, a lawsuit is the logical result.

How do you develop a formalized, binding agreement? Many businesses successfully use an insured buy-sell agreement. Barron’s Insurance Dictionary defines a buy-sell agreement as, “Approach used for sole proprietorships, partnerships and close corporations in which the business interests of a deceased or disabled proprietor, partner or shareholder are sold according to a predetermined formula to the remaining member(s) of the business.”

Using a formalized buy-sell agreement, members of the partnership negotiate the value of the business while all members are living and able to come to an agreement on the businesses value. The buy-sell agreement locks in the value for compensating the deceased partner’s estate and, for tax purposes, provides a basis for establishing the taxable value of the business. To guarantee the availability of the funding needed to implement the buy-sell agreement, an insurance policy (or a series of policies) is used.

In an article published on the Small Business Resource Network (sbrn.org), Bruce R. Glassman, JD, CPA, PFS, identified what he calls, “The Eight Ds of Buy-Sell Agreements.” The article identifies why a buy-sell agreement is essential for the smooth transition of ownership should any of a number of common business occurrences happen. The Eight Ds include:

·         Death of a shareholder

·         Disability of a shareholder

·         Departure of a shareholder

·         Divorce of a shareholder

·         Deadlock among equal owners

·         Disagreement among owners

·         Default by one or more shareholders

·         Determination of value

(Note: The term shareholder, associated with corporations, is interchangeable with the terms owner or partner, which refers to sole proprietorships and partnerships.)

Glassman suggests that when a business decides to have a buy-sell agreement prepared, using the Eight Ds might serve as a useful checklist.

In another article discussing buy-sell agreements, morebusiness.com provides a buy-sell agreement template that business owners can use as a checklist as they consider what provisions to include in their businesses’ buy-sell agreement. This template includes questions dealing with:

·         Applicability

·         Type of agreement

·         Establishing the buyout price and determining the time(s) when buyout would be appropriate

·         Funding sources

·         Need for security and suitable forms of security

·         Loan provisions

·         Covenants not to compete

·         Other considerations specific to the business

Hopefully, your business owner clients will take your advice and choose to fund their buy-sell agreement with a suitable life insurance policy. If the company buys a single policy to handle the buyout of any of the members of the partnership, the company is the owner of the policy. This type of buy-sell is referred to as a redemption or entity buy-sell agreement. On the other hand, if there are five or fewer owners, each owner could cross purchase insurance policies on each of their other partners. This will result in multiple polices owned by each partner. This type of buy-sell arrangement is called a cross purchase agreement.

How about designing a buy-sell agreement for the owners of a corporation? Is the process as easy as it is for a partnership? It depends on the type of corporation. For large corporations with thousands of shareholder owners, the need for buy-sell agreements is not the same as it might be for smaller, closely held corporations with a limited number of shareholder owners. Larger corporations with thousands of stockholders do not have the same issues facing them upon the death of a major stockholder. The deceased stockholder’s estate would retain ownership in the corporation, and the corporation’s ability to continue as an ongoing business would not be impaired, as is the case with a sole proprietorship or partnership.

For small, closely held corporations, the entity buy-sell agreements are often used for the same reasons as they are used with partnerships.

As with most business decisions, there is a cost associated with deciding to put a properly drafted buy-sell agreement in place. Many insurance and accounting professionals will advise you, however, that the cost of needing a buy-sell agreement and not having one far outpaces the cost of having a properly drafted and funded buy-sell agreement. In another article published on Forbes.com entitled, “In Business? Get a Buy-Sell Agreement!” the author advises, “If you own all or a part of a business—any business—you should know about buy-sell agreements. Unless you plan to be lucky forever, you better have one.”

The article goes on to say, “Without it, a closely held or family business faces a world of financial and tax problems on an owner’s death, incapacitation, divorce bankruptcy, sale or retirement.” Interestingly, these six possibilities mirror six of the Eight Ds.

By now, assuming you are a business owner, I trust you have come to realize the importance of having a buy-sell agreement in place. If you are an insurance professional, I trust that you see the importance of providing this valuable product to your clients.

Buy-sell agreements, like many legal documents, will require the services of an attorney and, in many cases, a CPA. There are advantages and disadvantages to the various forms of buy-sell agreements, and you will need the services of these affiliated professionals to assure your business owner client of having the right product in place when the time for its use presents itself. By presenting this need to your client and securing his or her agreement as to the importance of taking your advice, you serve not only your business owner client, but also attorneys and CPAs in your community. The opportunity to create a cadre of affiliated professionals better positions you to serve your client’s needs and to become a value-added resource to other business professionals.

I started this article with the admonition that if you fail to execute a personal last will and testament, the state has intestacy laws that will dictate how your estate will be disposed of. In a manner of speaking, a buy-sell agreement can be thought of as a business’s last will and testament. In like manner, when the day comes that a business is faced with its demise, the lack of a properly drafted buy-sell agreement will put your business at the mercy of state contract law, and the state will choose with whom you will be in business going forward, or if you will be in business at all.

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

The American College Launches the NEW ChFC®

Christopher P. Woehrle, JD, LLM

Christopher P. Woehrle, JD, LLM, is an assistant professor of taxation and The Guardian/Deppe Chair in Pensions and Retirement Planning at The American College and a subject matter expert on and champion of the ChFC® program.

Last year, The American College surveyed Chartered Financial Consultant® (ChFC®) students and designation holders to learn how this program can most effectively meet the needs of today’s advanced financial planners. Supported by an internal advisory group of faculty and other program experts, extensive work has gone into reshaping the ChFC® curriculum to address practical planning applications for business owners, special needs clients, and nontraditional, divorced and blended families. In response to survey results, new content will be added emphasizing estate planning, retirement income planning, ethical practices and behavioral finance.

The significant ChFC® curriculum enhancement, which launches later this year, focuses on helping professionals grow their expertise and their practices. Increasingly, planners are choosing ChFC® as their preferred planning credential, and The College is committed to building a comprehensive designation program that continues to put the needs of planners and their clients first. So, what did the survey results and the work of the advisory group reveal?

Planners perceive the ChFC® program to be rigorous, an advanced financial planning credential that goes beyond the CFP® designation, and want the opportunity to differentiate more clearly the additional knowledge and skills a ChFC® provides For example, over half our survey respondents deemed knowledge about the topics of divorce and family planning, behavioral finance, business owner planning, portfolio planning for retirement income and a few others as “highly relevant” in a financial planning practice.

As a result, the two new required offerings that will replace current elective courses focus on practical applications of financial planning for specific audiences and needs. ChFC® professionals will now gain all of the fundamentals of planning and will be able to apply that knowledge to enhance their practices and client relationships.

Current ChFC® requirements mandate nine college-level courses, representing 450+ hours of study. Seven of its required courses mirror the fundamental financial planning curriculum offered by the competing Certified Financial Planner® (CFP®) certification mark and satisfy the educational requirements for that certification. ChFC® students choose an additional two electives from four current offerings: The Financial System in the Economy (HS 322), Estate Planning Applications (HS 334), Executive Compensation (HS 342), and Financial Decisions for Retirement (HS 352).

Students can obtain the financial planning fundamentals from either the CFP® certification program or the ChFC®. Where the ChFC® will be different, however, is in the practical, client-focused content contained in the two new required courses replacing the electives.

Applications in Financial Planning I will cover:

·         Business planning

·         Planning for nontraditional families (including LGBT topics)

·         Planning issues for divorced and blended families

·         Planning for special needs

 

Applications in Financial Planning II will cover:

·         Retirement income portfolios

·         Behavioral finance

·         Estate planning

·         Ethics, standards and professional practices

 

Both courses are scheduled for rollout later in 2014 and directly address feedback The College received from ChFC® graduates and current students about the strengths and opportunities of the program.

Companies, planners and regulators are striving for the right balance between rigor and enforcement, as well as practicality, and the ChFC® program has the opportunity to lead in this area. The College believes only ChFC® will extend knowledge to the full range of practical, specialized applications that working planners encounter every day.

The best candidates for the updated ChFC® program remain financial services professionals working as planners in advanced markets, especially with closely held businesses and professional, higher-income clients. We believe these candidates and their practices will benefit from the more in-depth coverage of the subject matter described in Financial Planning Applications I and II.

The American College is dedicated to the professional success of the individuals who pursue our credentials and degrees. If you have questions on the changes to the ChFC® designation, please contact Christopher Woehrle via email at: Chris.Woehrle@wcinput.com.

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

The Impact of New Health Care Funding Taxes on Business Owners

Ted Kurlowicz, JD, LLM, CLU®, ChFC®, CAP®

Ted Kurlowicz, JD, LLM, CLU®, ChFC®, CAP® Ted is the Charles E. Drimal Professor of Estate Planning and a Professor of Taxation at The American College.

The federal income tax treatment of business income for both the business and its owner is a complex topic. Tax minimization, of course, is an extremely important goal when selecting the form of business entity and determining the type of operations. This article is not a comprehensive discussion of income taxes but focuses on the impact on business owners of two new tax provisions provided by the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). With limited exceptions, only a C corporation is a separate taxpayer. In this instance, the business’s net income is taxable at corporate rates and does not have an immediate impact on the corporation’s shareholders. In the case of a closely held corporation, many or all of the shareholders will also be treated as statutory employees. For proprietorships, partnerships (including LLCs) and S corporations (greater than 2-percent shareholders), the owners of the business will be treated as self-employed. All income of such pass-through entities is taxed directly to the owners.

Two tax burdens were enacted to partially fund the ACA and took effect beginning with 2013 income. The 2013 tax preparation will be the first time business owners will see the burden of these taxes.

Additional Medicare tax

The first ACA funding provision affects earned income from self-employment and wages for statutory employees. An additional .9 percent Medicare tax was imposed on earned income for higher earners. No additional tax is imposed on the employer. Essentially, this makes the Medicare tax 3.8 percent for earned income over the threshold, without a ceiling on earnings. For stockholder-employees of a regular corporation, this would apply to wages above a threshold amount (provided in the table). For owners of pass-through entities, this would apply to self-employment income over the threshold amount. Because the threshold amounts are not indexed for inflation, more and more taxpayers will be affected as time goes on. The business has a compliance burden to withhold the tax for earnings above $200,000. The business only considers the employee’s income and not that of his or her spouse. Adjustments for over- or under-withholding would be made on the individual tax return.

 

Table: Threshold Earning Amounts for the New Affordable Care Act Provisions

Married filing jointly

Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) over $250,000

Single taxpayer

MAGI over $200,000

Married filing separately

MAGI over $125,000

 

Tax on net investment income

The ACA imposes a 3.8 percent tax (Medicare contribution tax) on net investment income (NII) for taxpayers above the threshold amounts, which are identical to the thresholds for the .9 percent additional Medicare tax. The key to understanding the impact of this tax on business owners is the definition of items included (or excluded) from the definition of NII. For this purpose, NII includes:

  • Interest
  • Dividends
  • Annuities
  • Royalties
  • Rents (Note: exception for self-rented property discussed later)
  • Gains (Note: exception for gains on property held in a trade or business that is not a passive activity)

Items that are excluded from the definition of NII include:

  • Trade or business income
  • Income treated as self-employment income
  • Sale of a partnership, LLC or S corporation by an active participant
  • Distributions from IRAs and qualified plans
  • Build-up amounts in life insurance and deferred annuities
  • Income tax exempt under the Internal Revenue Code
  • Charitable trusts

The 3.8 percent tax applies to the lesser of the NII or the taxpayer’s MAGI in excess of the applicable threshold amount, for example:

A shareholder-employee of a closely held corporation (filing status: single) had $400,000 in wages, $150,000 in dividend income and MAGI of $550,000 in 2013. The taxpayer would be liable for $1,800 in additional Medicare tax on his or her wages ($400,000 wages - $200,000 threshold amount, multiplied by .9 percent) and $5,700 on unearned income ($150,000 NII multiplied by 3.8 percent), for total additional taxes of $7,500.

There are many tax implications for a variety of business owners.

Owners of a closely held corporation

Because the closely held corporation is a separate taxpayer and shareholders who provide services can be treated as statutory employees, the tax treatment is fairly straightforward. Reasonable salaries are deductible by the corporation and create wage income for the employee. This income will be included in MAGI and subject to the additional .9 percent Medicare tax once the shareholder-employee is above the threshold. Dividends distributed to shareholders are NII and subject to the 3.8 percent tax for affected taxpayers. Gains from the sale of stock will be included in NII.

Owners of pass-through entities

For sole proprietors, partners, members of an LLC or S corporation shareholders, income that is treated as self-employment income is subject to the .9 percent additional Medicare tax but not the tax on NII, once the taxpayer reaches the MAGI threshold. There is a small caveat here: Some income items of the business, such as rental income, interest and gains or losses, might not meet the definition of self-employment income and will be treated as NII. Hence, income or gains on working capital of a pass-through could expose the pass-through owners to the tax on NII. For an S corporation and perhaps an LLC, not all income is necessarily treated as self-employment income. Certainly, wages to the shareholder-employee of an S corporation will be self-employment income. However, it is also possible to shift income to “passive” investors of the S corporation, and such income is a dividend or NII.

Sales of an interest in a pass-through should avoid the definition of NII if the seller was an active participant in the business. An exclusion from NII is provided by the statute and regulations for net gains on the sale of the interest as if the property were sold by the partnership, LLC or S corporation.

Self-rental activity

This article intentionally does not address the complex rules in the regulations concerning the potential treatment of a real estate investor to avoid the passive activity rules. However, the regulations address the issue of self-rental of real estate and provide an important exception for such rental income from NII. This is important because it is fairly typical for the owner of a closely held business entity to lease one or more buildings (owned personally or in a controlled entity) to his or her closely held business or professional practice. Rental income in such instances avoids the definition of NII if the taxpayer leases the building to a business in which the landlord materially participates. For example:

Tom operates his law practice in an S corporation. He personally owns a building that is leased to the S corporation. The net rental for the lease avoids the 3.8 percent Medicare contribution tax.

Real estate professionals

The treatment of rental income as NII is one of the more complex areas in this law. The final regulations address this and had to re-address the regulations under the passive activity rules, which have not been examined since the 1980s. Rental income will be exempt from treatment as NII if the taxpayer is either a real estate professional (who participates more than 500 hours in the activity or has participated in more than 500 hours in the activity for five of the last 10 years) or rental income is derived from an active trade or business (as described in IRC section 162). The final regulations are also quite flexible with respect to individuals who have multiple real estate activities. If the taxpayer has pieces of real estate and meets the active participation test with respect to some but not others, the activities can be grouped together, and the taxpayer will be treated as meeting the material participation requirement with respect to all real estate activities in the group. Beginning in 2014, a one-time regrouping of activities can occur in the first taxable year that the taxpayer would be subject to tax on NII.

Selected strategies for avoiding the tax on NII

Many possibilities exist for mitigating the impact of the 3.8 percent tax on NII. Each business owner’s position is unique and strategies will involve complex planning and implementation, such as the following:

  • Rebalance portfolios to favor investment in assets that do not produce NII, such as municipal bonds, rental real estate (that meets the real estate professional definition), permanent life insurance and deferred annuities.
  • Maximize contributions to qualified retirement plans and IRAs.
  • Give consideration to a Roth IRA conversion.
  • Make gifts of business interests to family members: Shift income to junior generation family members and reduce the senior generation’s MAGI. Shift passive income to family members under the income threshold.
  • Make or increase charitable contributions to reduce the business owner’s MAGI and shift NII to a nontaxable charity.

The new taxes enacted to partially fund the ACA are little known and much more complex than they first appear. Audiences in professional groups have seemed somewhat shocked when I’ve presented my analysis of these taxes. Business owners are going to become painfully aware of these taxes when returns are filed this April 15. Hopefully, this article provides a quick introduction to the implications for planning to mitigate these taxes.

Originally published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Open for Business.

How Advisors and Clients Demonstrate Trust

Aaron Hoos

Formerly a stockbroker, insurance broker, and award-winning sales manager, Aaron writes for the financial and real estate industry as an educator and marketer. His first book, The Sales Funnel Bible, helps advisors master their sales funnel.

Rosemary Smyth

Rosemary is an author, columnist and an international business coach for financial advisors. She spent her career working at leading investment firms before pursuing her passion for coaching. She lives in Victoria, BC. Visit her website at www.rosemarysmyth.com.

Trust can mean different things to different people. Trust is also a function of both character and competence. To demonstrate trust, we need to see it in action. For some advisors, establishing and extending trust can be accomplished quite quickly. If there is trust between an advisor and a client, you’ll see more effective communication and collaboration and of course, having a reputation of trust is priceless.

Consider the following 10 ways advisors can demonstrate trust to their clients:

  1. Respecting confidentiality.

Financial and insurance forms can include a considerable amount of private information about clients and usually much more than they care to reveal. Clients understand that advisors respect the confidential aspect of the information and won’t share it with others. By keeping information confidential, advisors are proving their integrity. Top advisors work to create a safe environment for clients to express sensitive information.

  1. Being generous.

Advisors who are generous volunteering their time on non-profit boards, for example, share their talents with others and show clients they care.

  1. Being humble.

Everyone makes mistakes, so advisors admitting when they are wrong and apologizing- shows humility. If clients see their advisor as prideful, they will start to question their judgement.

  1. Being honest.

Clients can sift through advisors’ charm and flattery and they can tell what’s real and what’s not. Giving less that truthful information is the fastest way to erode trust and the old saying that, “You are only as good as your word,” still rings true. Honesty and integrity has and will continue to be the hallmark of professional trustworthy behavior.

  1. Reaching clients’ goals.

By reaching the clients’ mutually agreed-upon goals, advisors demonstrate that they are doing quality work, being successful and putting clients first.

  1. Being empathetic.

Top advisors prepare for calls that are going to be challenging, especially if clients will be severely impacted by their news and they try to be understanding and as patient as possible. Showing empathy to clients and being sensitive to their feelings, especially when delivering bad news strengthens the client-advisor relationship.

  1. Being organized.

Clients feel at ease when they are in an office that is organized. Lost documents and files or missed calls send clients the message that their advisors aren’t reliable and lack organization skills. Top advisors have developed systems and processes so that their office is in order and looks tidy.

  1. Being dependable.

Advisors that are dependable do what they say they will do...period. When they make a commitment, they follow through. For example, if they said they would attend an event and have told clients that they will see them there, they’ve demonstrated their dependability by attending.

  1. Being open.

When advisors open up about themselves and share their travels, hobbies or interests, clients feel that they know them a little better. If advisors withhold giving away information about themselves, then it’s easy for clients to start withholding their info.

  1. Having savvy financial skills.

 Clients want well-researched recommendations and when they tell their advisor that they’ve really done their homework and to go ahead with the proposal, the advisor has proven his or her skills. It’s normal for clients to ask questions about recommendation, take time to think about major decisions and to make revisions if necessary, but at the end of the day, giving the nod to move forward is the sign of the advisor’s value as a trustworthy person.

Recognize which behaviours encourage and sustain trust and pay attention to how clients act around you. Apart from coming right out and saying that they trust you, clients usually demonstrate trust with their own behaviour.

A Foolproof Way to Hold People Accountable

Aaron Hoos

Formerly a stockbroker, insurance broker, and award-winning sales manager, Aaron writes for the financial and real estate industry as an educator and marketer. His first book, The Sales Funnel Bible, helps advisors master their sales funnel.

Rosemary Smyth

Rosemary is an author, columnist and an international business coach for financial advisors. She spent her career working at leading investment firms before pursuing her passion for coaching. She lives in Victoria, BC. Visit her website at www.rosemarysmyth.com.

If we consider a simple definition of accountability as, “the ability to account for your own actions”- it seems surprisingly straightforward.  But, accountability also involves having clearly communicated objectives, being granted authority over those objectives and having predetermined outcomes for either success or failure. Any ambiguity over outcomes, objectives and time-frames will affect your ability to be accountable. 
If someone asks you to hold them accountable or you are in a position that requires you to hold people accountable, there are a few key steps you want to take. The pros of accountability set clear, measurable and documented expectations that will keep the person focused and move them closer to achieving their goal rather than holding them accountable to do something, sometime and somehow. Start to think like those accountability experts and see yourself as a facilitator, enabler and supporter of the person that wants to be held accountable. Take pride in helping others and resist the temptation to jump in and complete the task for the other person.  Be candid, honest and have the intention to be supportive. 
To set the stage for holding someone accountable, create a clear plan that involves being able to answer the common questions of who, what, when and how.
Who?
A person needs to know what the task is that they are being held accountable for. If you are part of a team and a plan is being chunked down to smaller manageable tasks , be sure to attach a name to each task so there is no ambiguity about who’s doing what. For example, if you are planning a client event, assign names to who is designing the invite, sending the invites, booking the room, ordering the food etc.

What?
Be crystal clear about what it is that the person is being held accountable for and ask them to paraphrase and confirm the task. For example, if they want to be more organized for your next meeting, explore what that means for them. Is it just reading the agenda or is it making sure the correct documents are available and presenting problems with suggested solutions? Once you have a commitment, write down the exact details and agree to move forward.
Some people use contradictory statements to explain what it is they are looking for. For example, “I want an actual performance report on how our marketing plan is doing and not just a few charts and raw data.”

When?
We are fortunate that time is quantifiable and exact, so setting deadlines would seem very straightforward however, we use words and phrases like-“ASAP,””when you get a chance,”” late next week” and “sooner than later,” to describe our deadlines. In your accountability conversation, describe when by using exact time-frames like, “I need the website ready by noon PST next Wednesday, April 30.”
How?
The process you choose to follow up with a person involves the trust you have in that person, how critical the task is and how competent they are in completing the task. If it’s a routine task with someone who is experienced and has a great track record, it may be just a check back on their progress.  Consider what your intention is to be following up with them before you choose the timing of your follow-up. Explain your reasons for the follow-up and be candid. Don’t be afraid to ask the other person if the timing suits them as some people may feel like they are being micromanaged if the frequency is too often. When you both agree to the follow-up you won’t be left wondering if you are too hands-off or too hands-on.
The follow-up
The goal of the follow-up is to see the current status of the task, if there are any barriers that are holding them back and if they are still committed to their task. The follow-up plan you choose can be formal or casual, and it can be based on the calendar date or the importance of the task. 
The two types of follow-ups are check up and check back and the one you use determines whether you are in charge or the other person is in charge of taking the lead. Use a check up when you’re giving a task and are nervous or have questions. If you have examined the person’s experience, the risks and their track record and are feeling tense, then you take the lead and be in charge of the follow-up. If it’s a risky task, then schedule follow-ups along the way to the deadline to ensure that it’s going well and that you have answered all their questions.
A check back is used when the task is straightforward and given to someone that’s reliable and experienced.  The other person is in charge and they will check back with you. They may suggest that they will follow up with you at the next meeting or touch base before the deadline.
Next time you have someone ask you to hold them accountable, remember your four basic questions and your follow-up. Then, you can feel confident that you are supporting that person in reaching their goal.

Add Value to Your Client Experience

Rosemary Smyth

Rosemary is an author, columnist and an international business coach for financial advisors. She spent her career working at leading investment firms before pursuing her passion for coaching. She lives in Victoria, BC. Visit her website at www.rosemarysmyth.com.

It’s still early in 2014 and now is a perfect time to consider what you can do to add value to your client experience. Chances are your competition is currently prospecting your top clients, so you can be sure that a few of them are wondering what value they’re getting from retaining you as their financial advisor. Since value is “perceived”- you need to focus on the client and see what value means to them.
Asking clients for feedback on how you are doing can be set up formally or informally- by just simply checking in or by means of a survey. Be sure to take the feedback as objectively as possible and make changes as you see fit. You may find that a few clients want newsletters in larger print or have quarterly meetings at their home instead of coming to the office. Try to customize your service to each client without having a wide range of additional services that make it difficult to maintain. Focus on the top tier clients first for feedback and make those changes first before moving down to the middle tier.
Below are four steps to jump-start your client experience- enabling you to feel confident about the value you are offering.
1. Review your current client service level
Client service levels for some advisors can be very random, so before you start adding a lot of new structures, examine what is currently happening. It’s important to see the big picture, so involve your team and lay out exactly what clients are experiencing. Look at all aspects of your business; marketing, communications, financial planning, firm events, seminars and lunches. If you haven’t already segmented your clients into top, middle and bottom tiers, take the time to complete that task. Then, look at each segment and examine what each tier is receiving. 
For example, your middle tier clients may receive: financial plans, a monthly newsletter, quarterly reviews and a small gift for making referrals while your top tier receives all of that plus  a client appreciation invite as well as quarterly lunches.
2. Analyze
Once you have completed your review of the current service level, do a simple analysis of how you are doing. Check in and see what’s working, what could work better and what’s not fitting into your budget. Once you have tweaked it and you’re happy, answer the following questions:
• Would clients see a noticeable difference in service if they moved from one tier to the next?
• Is there a sustainable level of service so that if the client base doubled, you would still be able to offer the same level of service?
• Is there a clearly written process for your service levels, so that if admin staff changes you can easily train someone new?
• Do your service level agreements resonate with what your niche market is looking for?
3.  Discover opportunities
Consider what your clients’ goals, wants and needs are and everything they hope to achieve. Match that with your new client service level and everything else you deliver such as products/services. If you find gaps, investigate and see how you can fill them.

For example, if you have a few top tier clients that are planning on selling the family cottage to their children and are not sure what to consider, make that a highlight in your monthly newsletter or offer a seminar that deals with that topic and bring in the experts to answer questions.

4. Get started

The key ingredient in any new plan is implementation. You may have a great idea of what your new service level will look like but getting the ball rolling always seems to elude you. Or worse you start for a few months and then stop. Think about what your resources and budget are for implementing this new service level. How do you plan to maintain it in the future to when your business grows?
If you have a team, decide who is responsible for certain tasks and create a file or binder that explains how each task is implemented and monitored.

During your meetings this week, start researching what clients are really looking for in terms of value and service from you and start to focus on how you can begin to add value to your client experience.

Rosemary Smyth, MBA, CIM, FCSI, ACC, is an author, columnist and an international business coach for financial advisors. She spent her career working at leading investment firms before pursuing her passion for coaching. She lives in Victoria, BC. Visit her website at www.rosemarysmyth.com. You can email Rosemary at: rosemary@rosemarysmyth.com and follow her on Twitter @rosemarysmyth.

Take Your Business to the Next Level with Referrals

Aaron Hoos

Formerly a stockbroker, insurance broker, and award-winning sales manager, Aaron writes for the financial and real estate industry as an educator and marketer. His first book, The Sales Funnel Bible, helps advisors master their sales funnel.

Rosemary Smyth

Rosemary is an author, columnist and an international business coach for financial advisors. She spent her career working at leading investment firms before pursuing her passion for coaching. She lives in Victoria, BC. Visit her website at www.rosemarysmyth.com.

As consumers, we have so much choice in the marketplace and marketing efforts don’t always effectively convince us to buy. The one type of “marketing” that holds the most sway over any decision we make is the enthusiastic referral of someone we know.
The same is true for financial advisors: Prospective clients have a lot of choice but a referral from one of your clients can help to convince the prospect to get in touch with you. Referrals are a great way to reach prospects because the relationship starts with a higher level of trust. Plus, it’s also easier to start conversations with the other person as you have something in common with them. Finding prospects through referrals is a powerful way to grow your business without using up your entire marketing budget.
Integrating a referral system in your practice starts with intention. You need to decide that prospecting by referral will one of your methods of client growth and you need to create a system that you feel confident using.


Create a Referral System


One of the biggest reasons that financial advisors do not get referrals – or the kind of referrals they want – is because they haven’t created a system that enables their referrers to refer effectively. Here are the components that need to be in place:


• Know who you want referred: Know who your perfect prospect is so that you can build an expert status that makes you attractive to prospects. Be able to explain who your perfect prospect is so that if someone is out a dinner party they would know if a person is a good referral for you.


• Communicate the value you offer in a way that your referrers understand: People rarely would know how many investable assets that their friends have but they would know if a friend just inherited money from a relative or if a family member just got a big payout on their retirement package. You are looking for a prospect that has a problem that you are an expert at solving so communicate what that problem is in a way that friends or family would recognize it.


• Have a client experience worthy of sharing with prospects. Clients will be more likely to refer you if they enjoy working with you and feel that you are an invaluable resource.


Implement Your Referral System


By having a system in place to follow, you eliminate the panicky uncomfortable situations where you could come across as needy and pushy instead of confident and processional. Your ideal referral system includes 1) Asking 2) Explaining your process 3) Following up 4) Saying thanks.


1) Asking- Your “ask” has to be proactive. For example, adding the words “Never too busy for referrals” in your email signature or footer is a good reminder but you want a personal conversation with your potential referrers. Your “ask” conversation needs to be timed so that it happens when clients are happy with your level of service and trust in your ability. Be courageous and ask clients for feedback on how you are doing and be willing to adjust your client experience. To be sure that you remember, add “Asking for a referral” as an item on your meeting agenda and then add a note to your CRM about the outcome, if any, from your meeting.

2) Explaining your process. Some clients may think that saying, “call my neighbour Bob, he’s rich”, is a referral. Be able to clearly explain who you want to be connected to and how you would like that connection to happen. For example, you may want your client to contact the person they are referring to get permission from them for you to contact them. Asking for permission to call prospects fits with the Do Not Call rules. Others may want to meet together with a client for coffee and just chat and get to know each other before you talk about their financial situation. Some give their clients a few of their business cards to handout and others prefer email introductions where they are cc’d and ask if is OK to follow up.

3) Following up. This is in two parts. First, you should follow up with the referral name and second, you should let your clients know that you have reached out to the referral. When people give you a name, ask about how they know them, what you could help them with, what kind of introduction would be appropriate and then ask for the contact information. Jumping right into “ Great I’ll give them a call” when they give you a name can put you in a tough spot especially when they tell you that every advisor has fired them and then you end up making an uncomfortable call. The more information you have about the person the easier it is to build rapport and also you have an idea of what products or services they might be looking for. Thank clients regardless of it being a great prospect and if it’s not a great fit you can say, “I’ll follow up with him later when the time is right” or “we talked about finding a better fit for them in the meantime.”

4) Saying thanks. Be appreciative and say thank you to clients with a call or a handwritten card. Some send small thank you gifts that are appropriate and suitable for that client.

 

Working With Centers of Influence


The system that you set up for clients can be replicated for Centers of Influence (COIs). The COIs, like clients, need to see you as referable, they need to have a referral mindset, they need to understand what your perfect prospect looks like and they need to understand your referral process.
Be clear about reciprocity and how you are going to follow up and thank them. Strive for a win-win business relationship with COIs and be willing to send them your marketing material about what you do and what services you offer.
If you are sending a COI a lot of business and not getting any referrals in return, have a conversation to see if they are willing to send referrals to you and, if not, you may want to choose a different COI that would be more willing to send business your way. It may be time to revisit your process if you are getting lousy referrals from your COIs to make sure you are communicating clearly what you are looking for in a prospect.
Some COIs feel that their client list is confidential and that they can’t give referrals. Have a conversation about how you can be a resource and collaborate on helping their clients in a way that respects their clients’ confidentiality.
Building a business based around referrals is an effective way to multiply your client-generating efforts without multiplying your marketing budget or the time required to prospect. Referrals can flood into your business and completely change your practice if you build an intentional referral system that encourages your clients and COIs to send the right referrals to you.

Advising Clients to Gift to their Children

Joan Sharp, CFP®, ChFC®, CAP®, MSFS

Joan Sharp, CFP®, ChFC®, CAP®, MSFS, is founder and president of Life Strategies, LLC based in Delaware.

If your client is lucky enough to be in a strong financial position, gifting is one way to approach the subject of their children’s financial well-being. Gifting opens the door for conversations about money between parent and child. You may discover that many of your clients are afraid to talk about money with their kids. This is probably because they don’t want to create a lazy mentality and give their children the feeling that they do not have to work to support themselves. Or perhaps your clients seek to avoid the topic altogether in an effort to create normalcy in their home. In this case, as their advisor you need to remind your client that when their child receives a windfall someday, they will not be equipped to handle their financial matters. Like lottery winners who discover the desire for unearned success, the majority of people who experience this windfall will squander the money.
 

My experience has shown that the best way to begin this client conversation is by urging clients to be honest with their kids. It is important to start talking about money issues when the kids are young. They never want money to become the driver of their lives.
 

Clients need to understand that with gifting comes the responsibility of managing money and striving to obtain a balanced life. While clients may have begun to talk about money with their kids, they have to show them that work provides a sense of identity and is not all about the money. Hopefully, your clients are involved in their communities, follow a passion or have explored undeveloped talents. Tell your clients that kids will often follow what their parents do. Urge them to lead by example.
 

Clients also need to become better communicators. As an advisor, you can help in this process. Suggest your clients give their children room to grow and share their strengths with the world. Encourage them to educate their children about money—talk about it, open accounts to manage and challenge them to think about spending and saving and how to use money to support passions and develop talents. One option is to open a donor advised fund and allow the children to make the grants. This helps prepare them for running family foundations and their own future charitable giving. Perhaps your client might even introduce their children to you, giving you the opportunity to reiterate some of these ideas.
 

Foremost, your clients need to create a reality for their children. If they open the door to gifting, it should be used as a vehicle to teach financial responsibility and as a way of educating their children about their money stories and family heritage. Your clients should embrace teaching moments so their children learn about the value of money. Perhaps every time your clients deposit money into their children’s account, they should have their children give back in some manner. Help your client feel comfortable developing their kids’ talents, work ethic or an interest in volunteering. And don’t forget to tell your clients that it is okay to let their children take charge.
 

In advising your clients that it is time to begin a dialogue about money with their children, consider providing these steps for them to follow:


1. Clients need to get over their fear of talking about money. It’s their issue. They shouldn’t make it an issue for their kids.
2. Have your clients show their kids what the bills look like, what things cost, how they choose to spend money.
3. Your clients should build a strategy as a family that is not based on money but rather on what is important to their family. Let kids make choices and decide which items are important and how much to give to different charities/the community.
4. They can gradually give their children more financial responsibility. Maybe participating in a family outing to Montana or Europe where their kids make some of the financial decisions would be a good exercise.
5. Show them how hobbies and interests could potentially become careers. This is a way in which they will learn to enjoy work not purely for money.


To have this conversation, you must understand your client’s money issues as well as their life priorities. Basically, you are teaching your clients to help their kids form a strategic vision, not a tactical vision.

 

Originally published in the Spring 2013 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, How Fast Can YOU Adapt?

“Hello” to “Yes”- Become a Professional Persuader

Aaron Hoos

Formerly a stockbroker, insurance broker, and award-winning sales manager, Aaron writes for the financial and real estate industry as an educator and marketer. His first book, The Sales Funnel Bible, helps advisors master their sales funnel.

Rosemary Smyth

Rosemary is an author, columnist and an international business coach for financial advisors. She spent her career working at leading investment firms before pursuing her passion for coaching. She lives in Victoria, BC. Visit her website at www.rosemarysmyth.com.

When you sit down with a prospect or a client, you probably open the conversation with a brief comment about the weather, followed by a discussion about families or work or a news headline. At some point, the conversation shifts and you discuss some aspect of the client’s finances or portfolio – perhaps listening to their ideas or giving advice from research you’ve performed.

To an untrained eye, this was just an advisor and a prospect or a client having a conversation. But look closer and you’ll discover powerful selling forces going on below the surface. And understanding these selling forces can help you convert more prospects to clients and can help you do more business with your clients.

The Three Objectives of Every Conversation

Every conversation you have with prospects and clients has three objectives:

• To build rapport
• To communicate information
• To persuade

Depending on the relationship you have with your client, and what you wish to achieve with the person in the long-term and in the time you have available at the moment, each conversation might have more of one objective and less of another.

Rapport-building: Conversations about the weather are mostly rapport building. There tends to be more rapport-building at the beginning of relationships and at the beginning of conversations, although rapport-building does continue throughout each conversation in a relationship.

Rapport-building conversations tend to be very “surface” conversations, seeking mild opinions on topics that are relatively well-known and where some agreement likely already exists. This is why you probably won’t use topics like religion or politics when rapport-building, unless you happen to belong to the same religion or political persuasion of the person you’re speaking to.

The goal here is to find further common ground. Some rapport-building will simply touch on topics that have no long-term significance (such as the weather) while other rapport-building will touch on topics that do have long-term significance (such as families).

Communicating information: Conversations should also communicate information. You communicate financial advice information to your client and they communicate back to you with their feedback of your ideas and with potential new ways that you might be able to serve them.

For example, conversations about family and work build rapport but, if you’re paying attention, they also communicate valuable information by hinting at opportunities that allow you to serve your clients further. Perhaps the birth of a new child or an impending retirement suggest ways that you can provide more helpful advice to your client.

The goal here is to ask great questions and to listen closely to the answer. You can build off of some of your rapport-building conversations but go deeper, asking about the future and the other person’s plans. And then listen actively to the response!

Persuading: Persuasion is part of your job, unfortunately the term “persuade” is often misunderstood to mean aggressive sales or pushiness. However, professional persuasion is how advisors grow their business: You persuade prospects to become clients and you persuade clients to take a sensible course of action by following your advice. (Of course they may choose not to become clients or to follow your advice but professional persuasion should present the best course of action for them so they know what you think they should do).

Persuading presents the best choice to make and outlines the reasons why someone should make that choice. Persuasion grows out of rapport-building and communicating information. If you haven’t built rapport and if you haven’t communicated the right information, your persuading will fall short.

Financial advisors’ practices are built around conversations. Master these conversations by understanding the three key objectives you strive for in every conversation and then prepare before each conversation to help you convert more prospects to clients and to help you work more effectively with your clients.

Action Steps

• List a number of topics that you can use to build rapport. Think of topics that you feel comfortable discussing that you probably share some mutual agreement with your clients.
• Memorize a list of questions that you can draw from to show that you take an interest in your prospect or client.
• Reflect on the ways that you have persuaded prospects and clients in the past. What results have you achieved with the persuasion methods you’ve used?
• We’ve simplified the concept of “selling” down to this one concept: Persuading presents the best choice to make and outlines the reasons why someone should make that choice. Prepare for your upcoming conversations by thinking of 2 or 3 specific prospects or clients you’ll be speaking to soon. Identify the best choice you’re going to recommend (i.e. become a client or invest in a particular investment) and then list as many reasons as you can for that person to follow that course of action.

 

The views expressed here are those of the author and not necessarily those of The Wealth Channel or The American College

Embracing the Serve First Philosophy

Frank W. Sarr, CLU®

Frank W. Sarr, CLU®, is founder and president of Training Implementation Services, Inc.

Decades ago, legendary agent and manager Stuart Smith conceived a philosophy of serving the client first and letting the financial rewards take care of themselves. Smith’s concept became an integral part of the culture at his company, and many disciples still practice it today. The essence of the “Serve First” credo is that:

• The focus is entirely on serving the client.
• No product or solution is recommended until the advisor understands all of the client’s financial and personal objectives.
• Despite the amount of work involved on the advisor’s part, there might be no sale.

An understandable reaction to this approach might be, “Are you kidding?” However, as those advisors who believe in and practice it could tell you, the Serve First way of life can be richly rewarding, personally, professionally and financially.

A dual foundation
This philosophy rests on a foundation of time and service. The advisor must be willing to invest the time required to thoroughly understand the client’s financial situation and must believe that service is their differentiating factor.

To appreciate the need to invest enough time, let’s look at this episode from the Seinfeld show:

After scalding himself with their hot coffee, Kramer sues a Starbucks-type chain. En route to the settlement meeting, Kramer’s attorney advises him to say nothing until they hear the defendant’s offer (which, viewers learn, includes free lattes for one year and $50,000). As soon as the defendant’s lawyer leads with free lattes, Kramer yells, “I’ll take it!” By not waiting to hear the full story, Kramer gains some lattes but loses out on the more lucrative settlement.

What about an advisor’s dialogue with a prospect? Does the advisor hear and consider the person’s entire financial situation before making recommendations? Or by jumping the gun as Kramer did, do they risk losing out on a much more substantial reward for both the client and themselves?

The Serve First philosophy also relies on the advisor’s confidence that their service is the differentiator. To illustrate this differentiation, here’s a true story:

A business-owner prospect told an advisor that he wasn’t interested in meeting him because he had just purchased a $50,000 policy. The advisor saw this as good news because he had been taught that the purchase marked this prospect as a buyer and, because it was probably a product rather than a Serve First sale, the policy amount was more than likely insufficient. The advisor persisted, got the appointment and gathered pertinent information. The advisor’s sales manager instructed the advisor to obtain some additional data from the prospect. This led to a recommendation of an additional $250,000 of life insurance. Upon hearing this (and confident that it would quash this ridiculous proposal), the prospect directed the advisor to meet with his accountant to discuss it. As a result of that discussion, the accountant was convinced that what the prospect actually needed was a $500,000-policy!

Lessons learned
What do these examples tell us about this sound sales philosophy?

• Time is money (or can be). It may require multiple steps, staff support and possible meetings with the prospect’s advisors, so be prepared to take time and do a lot of work.
• Go long. Go deep. Probing long enough and deep enough without any preconceived ideas as to the proper amount of insurance and/or products to be sold will not only uncover the facts of the situation, but even more importantly, the reasons that will induce the prospect to buy. Instead of worrying about the sale, the advisor should concentrate on gathering all the information needed to recommend a solution that motivates the prospect to act.
• Adjust for inflation. In the example, the sale was 10 times the amount of the original policy. If you start with a number ($50,000, $100,000, etc.) as the base product sale, there’s an excellent chance that the inflation ratio will hold up.

Orchestrating a Serve First culture
It always begins with recruiting. Today’s recruits seem excited about the Serve First concept. They want to be perceived as true professionals, capable of delivering total financial solutions to their clients and experiencing the financial rewards that will be generated for them. In the past, in the back of their minds, new recruits hoped “total financial planning” didn’t mean having to sell life insurance. In contrast, today’s recruits who are attracted by the Serve First concept recognize life insurance as the cornerstone of a sound financial plan, and a significant factor in the recommendations they make.

Training
While a Serve First philosophy may motivate a recruit to join your agency, during their initial training new hires will constantly seek confirmation of whether you really walk the talk. It is imperative that your sales process reflects what’s required to communicate and implement this philosophy. For example:

• Does your initial interview script reinforce the philosophy’s tenets? This script is, in fact, the initial face of your Serve First philosophy to both the advisor and their prospects.
• Will the recruit’s initial training go beyond closing a single-need product sale and encourage and teach them how to gather the kind of in-depth information that builds understanding and trust?
• Is there a process to analyze and design a presentation that goes beyond a single-need sale?
• During joint work, does the mentoring sales manager or advisor model the philosophy?

Support
A client’s financials can be a complicated tangle. In-depth fact-finding can uncover issues in which an advisor lacks experience. In the past, the cost of providing support when needed became prohibitive. Today, more and more Serve First-minded agencies are building alliances with outside professionals and/or teaming advisors with other advisors within their agencies to provide support in situations requiring specialized knowledge. This enables the agency to expand its services to their clients.

Knowledge
When gathering a client’s financial information, advisors might hesitate to ask questions about subjects they themselves don’t thoroughly understand. They can become immobilized by what they don’t know, as opposed to what they need to find out. Uncovering sufficient information to move the prospect to the next step is less about extensive book knowledge about a given subject than asking the right questions and listening to the prospect’s answers.

Think about how doctors and lawyers do their fact-finding. Asking the right questions signifies confidence and professionalism, not lack of knowledge.

New life for life insurance
A Serve First advisor needs to believe in life insurance as the foundation of what they do and embrace it as a viable solution for their clients. Given the unsettled economic climate in recent years, whole life insurance has weathered the storm so well that many advisors see it in a new light. From a secondary nice-to-have, a substantial life insurance policy is emerging as a vital must-have component in anyone’s portfolio.

Activity is key
While this philosophy can be both personally and financially rewarding for an advisor, the ever-present, offbeat elephant in the room is activity. An issue 70 years ago when Albert E. N. Gray penned The Common Denominator of Success, activity continued to be enough of an issue in 2010 to motivate Nick Murray to author The Game of Numbers.

As they’re learning to implement the Serve First philosophy, the need to invest more time to close a substantial case—especially when combined with low activity—can imperil the new advisor’s very survival.

The solution to this dilemma is a two-part approach:

1. Generate high activity by working on cases in which the need is evident and thus can be closed quickly.
2. At the same time, pursue the more sophisticated but time-consuming cases.

The good news is that high activity—regardless of the source—hones skills, grows confidence and generates needed income.

The important thing for the advisor to remember is that large or small, every case must be approached with the same focus, professionalism and Serve First mindset. Only by going long and deep can they reveal someone’s true financial picture. Thus, even when working on a perceived small-case situation, instead of making a $50,000 product sale, they might find themselves forging a $500,000 long-term relationship with the client.

 

Originally published in the Spring 2013 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, "How Fast Can YOU Adapt?"

Federal Wealth Transfer Tax Reform—Certainty for Now

Ted Kurlowicz, JD, LLM, CLU®, ChFC®, CAP®

Ted Kurlowicz, JD, LLM, CLU®, ChFC®, CAP® Ted is the Charles E. Drimal Professor of Estate Planning and a Professor of Taxation at The American College.

It’s been a long and very strange journey tracking the federal estate and gift tax laws since 2001. After many years without significant change, the federal estate and generation-skipping transfer taxes were statutorily phased out and repealed by the first of the Bush-era tax cuts. Although many prognosticators never thought full repeal was likely, estate owners fortunate enough to die in 2010 had the opportunity to pass their bounties without wealth transfer taxation. A two-year reform was passed at the end of 2010 giving us an indexed $5 million exemption for gift, estate and generation-skipping taxes with a 35 percent tax rate. This provision once again was scheduled to sunset at the end of 2012, followed by a return to the wealth transfer tax system that existed prior to June 2001. Some high net worth individuals rushed to make maximum gifts by the end of 2012, certain that Congress would permit the gift tax exemption to return to a mere $1 million. Even those gifts were made with trepidation because of the possibility of a clawback affect in the estate of those who made such gifts if the gift tax exemption was reduced.

Essentially, all of our estate tax planning for the last 11 years was based largely on guesswork due to the uncertain future of the wealth transfer tax system. With the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (ATRA), we finally have legislation reforming the federal wealth transfer tax system without sunset provisions.

Estate, gifts, and generation-skipping transfer tax provisions of ATRA
After debate and compromise, the rules moving forward are fairly simple. The key components of the legislation provide:


Tax rates. Congress compromised to set the tax rate of 40 percent. There are lower brackets in the table, but the maximum rate of 40 percent applies to transfers over $1 million. Hence, the first tax payable will be at 40 percent for transfers subject to gift, estate or generation-skipping taxes.
Exemption amount (applicable exclusion amount). The exclusion amount for all three wealth transfer tax systems will be $5 million indexed annually for inflation. Because inflation indexing already applied in 2012, the applicable exclusion amount for 2013 is $5,250,000.
Portability of applicable exclusion amount. The portability provision, which permits the surviving spouse to inherit and use the unused exclusion amount (DSUEA) of the deceased spouse is now a permanent provision. However, the portability provision is limited to estate tax and is not available for the unused GST exclusion. This provision appears to be a no-brainer at first glance, but some considerations in specific estates warrant further discussion (refer to next section).
Estate tax deduction for state estate or inheritance taxes. The deduction for state succession taxes paid is now permanent. This means that the federal estate tax credit for state death taxes paid is repealed. This provision is not much of a surprise because the old credit caused federal estate tax revenue to be diverted to the states.


Planning implications of the new wealth transfer tax provisions
That the ATRA provisions were made permanent and we can stop warning taxpayers about sunsets and clawbacks is certainly some relief. The higher exclusion amount seems to eliminate more than 99 percent of estates from the federal estate tax. The danger created by this simplicity is that the need for estate planning is more important than ever irrespective of wealth transfer taxes, and estate-planning issues will vary depending on net worth. Remember, there is no “one size fits all” estate plan, and it remains critical to be able to examine fact patterns carefully and explain the implications for alternative methods of transferring wealth.


Net worth up to $500,000
This marketplace has been largely underserved with respect to any significant estate planning. This is unfortunate because smaller estates need to be transferred efficiently. Many heirs might find their inheritances essential. It is estimated that somewhere between 60 and 70 percent of American adults do not have a will. Even if a will has been drafted and executed, it often has not been reviewed, and its implications are generally not understood. Individuals in this category of net worth are likely to be reluctant to spend significant legal fees to execute and periodically review their wills.

It is incumbent on the various members of the planning team to be able to explain and reinforce the provisions of the will. Individuals creating their wills are often unaware that only probate property is distributed by the provisions of the will. Unless the individual is single or a surviving spouse, it is unlikely that he or she will have significant probate if their net worth falls in this range.

Joint property will also create confusion. Married couples often title their property to pass automatically to the survivor or may reside in a community property state that has implications on the transfer of property. Joint property titling is also used by senior family members in lieu of a general power of attorney. If joint titling of financial accounts with survivorship provisions is used with next-generation family members, this can lead to confusion, disappointment and disputes. Estate planners should carefully explain the implications of jointly titled accounts.

Other transfers are often made by beneficiary designation. Often, the titling of property and beneficiary designations are decisions that are made quickly and without much advice concerning the estate-planning implications. Members of the planning team should be able to help these individuals with a beneficiary designation audit and determine how the individual has selected to answer the important who, how and when questions that should be answered by anyone transferring property. For example, is it possible that outright transfers have been planned to heirs who have not reached the age of majority (or better yet, the age of maturity).

The key to estate-planning momentum is an individual who is not comfortable with what would happen to his or her estate if they were not here tomorrow. Once the deficiencies of the current estate plan have been explained and addressed, it is possible to have discussions concerning appropriate asset allocation and problems that can be addressed with planning or products solutions such as retirement income planning, life insurance, disability income insurance, annuities and long-term care insurance.


Net worth between $500,000 and $5 Million ($10 million for married couples)
I selected this range somewhat arbitrarily to address individuals with significant amounts of wealth to transfer but who are unlikely to face any significant federal estate taxes.

Individuals in this category have the capability of paying for significant estate-planning advice but, in my experience, will often not see the need for this expenditure. They typically have accumulated this wealth in one generation, maybe enhanced by some modest inheritance. All too often, the federal estate tax has been the focus of too many planners in the past. The enhanced exclusion amounts coupled with portability of exclusion amounts would seem, at first glance, to indicate simple wills if the focus is primarily on the federal estate tax. Important estate-planning considerations for individuals in this range of net worth include:

Portability versus exclusion trusts. The surviving spouse can inherit the unused exclusion amount (DSUEA) of the deceased spouse. It is required that a Form 706 Estate Tax Return be filed for the deceased spouse to transfer the unused exclusion. We’ve had two years experience to tell us that this is often a difficult recommendation, particularly for people at the lower end of this net worth category. There is no Form 706–EZ and this would require a significant expenditure. There are numerous good reasons to continue to use what we used to call the “credit shelter trust” to use the exclusion immediately at the first death. First, it creates a freeze of the growth of the transferred assets exempt from tax. Second, an exclusion amount transferred to a surviving spouse is not indexed for inflation after the first death. Third, the GST exclusion cannot be transferred to a surviving spouse. The exclusion trust could perhaps be created during lifetime in the form of a spousal limited access trust  (SLAT). The earlier such a vehicle is created, the greater the freeze of the potential estate appreciation. A careful examination of each fact pattern is necessary to determine whether or not to plan for portability or create the exclusion trust.
Impact of appreciation. The estate of individuals in this category should be examined to determine the potential growth of net worth to determine if the individuals will potentially jump into the next category. Certainly many circumstances such as a family business, private investments, inheritances or even lottery winnings could indicate a change in the level of planning.
State estate or inheritance taxes. The impact of state inheritance or estate taxes should be examined because these could significantly shrink an estate. Some states (Pennsylvania, for example) have an inheritance tax that applies without many exclusions. In the worst-case scenario, the Pennsylvania inheritance tax rate is 15 percent. Many other states fall into the category of decoupled states and apply an estate tax as if the federal estate death tax credit was still in existence. These will have different exclusion amounts depending on the state. For example, New Jersey’s exclusion is only $675,000, while other states have the exclusion as high as the current federal level. It is important to note that the state tax will apply to the decedent in his or her state of domicile, and real estate located in other states is subject to succession taxes in the state where the real estate is located.
Gifting strategies. Individuals at the higher end of this net worth range should have the capability of making some significant lifetime gifts. Perhaps some of the family members have pressing immediate needs for a gift. Gift planning becomes more important as wealth levels near the federal exclusion amounts to prevent or reduce future estate taxes. Gifts will also be very effective if state inheritance or estate taxes are a concern because the vast majority of states do not have a state-level gift tax.
New or existing life insurance. Life insurance may be indicated for many estate-planning purposes irrespective of an estate or inheritance tax. Perhaps there are family members with special needs. Maybe there is a blended family and life insurance can help provide for specific beneficiaries, such as the new spouse or children from a prior marriage. Perhaps a family business must be transferred and the estate must be equalized between active and inactive children. Life insurance has always been a perfect liquidity tool in this situation. What about existing insurance, perhaps in an irrevocable life insurance trust (ILIT)? Even though the estate may no longer be subject to federal estate taxes, we certainly don’t want to terminate or defund an existing trust without careful consideration. First, we should consider how well the policy is performing. Terminating an effective policy would make no sense, particularly with the currently low alternate investment yields. We certainly could change the existing policy to a new policy or another investment. This might be indicated where there is a single life policy and the insured’s spouse is the income beneficiary of the ILIT. The ILIT might be useful for retirement income planning in this scenario.
Asset protection planning. Asset retitling and/or the use of trusts will be indicated if either the estate owner or any of the heirs have significant asset protection concerns.
Planning for nontraditional relationships. Planning for the circumstances would begin with a consideration of whether or not the relationship is a marriage. In many scenarios, couples will choose not to be married and the federal estate tax marital deduction will not be available. In this circumstance, federal estate taxes will be imposed on estates above the federal exclusion amount. A growing number of states have enacted statutes permitting marriage for same-sex couples. Traditionally, states have solely held the power to determine marital status. This presumably could get more confusing if a couple married in an enabling state moved to a state that statutorily refuses to recognize a same-sex marriage. The Federal Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) provided that same-sex marriages would not be recognized for federal law. This presumably would include the federal estate tax marital deduction. It is expected that the Supreme Court will rule on this issue in the near future.

Net worth over $5 Million (over $10 million for married couples)
Planning for individuals or couples in this category must include the consideration of the potential federal estate and generation-skipping transfer taxes. Estate planning will invoke consideration of the traditional techniques to mitigate the effect of federal wealth transfers taxes. Again, the estate-planning process for these individuals should not be focused solely on taxes and should include much of the planning we have already described for individuals in the lower net-worth ranges with the addition of the following:

ILITs. This time-tested planning technique is particularly useful the higher the net worth exceeds the exclusion amount. I don’t particularly favor ILITs for marginal amounts of federal estate tax. But when the potential tax is significant, individuals or couples can use this technique to replace all the wealth lost to federal estate taxes. The new higher exclusion amounts certainly help us with the funding of the ILIT. High net worth individuals are often already using the annual gift tax exclusions. Even if the gift tax exclusion is available, $14,000 per beneficiary may not sufficiently cover all of the gifts to fund a significant premium. The $5,250,000 exclusion amount could be used to cover any otherwise nonexcluded gifts.
Low interest rate planning. Quantitative easing has provided us with historically low interest rates, and this provides the opportunity for high net worth individuals to transfer wealth with unprecedented leverage. Techniques that should be examined to take advantage of low interest rates and/or enhanced gift tax exclusion amounts include intrafamily loans, grantor retained annuity trusts (GRATs), charitable lead annuity trusts (CLATs), and sales to intentionally defective trusts. Through these techniques, the investment chosen for the invested principal of the gift and/or sale needs to exceed the historically low interest rates applicable to the technique. The greater the actual investment return, the more effective the transaction. The interest rate changes monthly and is different for specific techniques.

The future
Future legislation could, of course, alter the techniques used in estate planning. However, it should never alter the process of examining an individual’s situation and asking the important questions.

 

Originally published in the Spring 2013 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, How Fast Can YOU Adapt?

Don’t Let Health Care Costs Crack Your Nest Egg

Ryan E. Price

Ryan E. Price, CFP®, ChFC®, CLU®, CRPC, AWMA is the President of Price Financial Partners located in Irvine, CA. He has more than a decade of experience dealing with high net worth clients in the areas of investment, retirement, estate, insurance & business succession planning. In addition to managing his practice, Ryan is also Field Training Supervisor for a division of Lincoln Financial Advisors. Ryan currently serves on the board of Lincoln Financial Advisors Advisor Based Sales Division & is a member of LFA’s prestigious Private Wealth Services group. He is currently a member of the National Association of Insurance & Financial Advisors (NAIFA) where he serves on the membership committee and is on the Education Committee for the Financial Planning Association (FPA) of Orange County. He is a frequent lecturer on financial planning topics and has taught multiple courses at The American College, UCLA & UCI extension.

Escalating health care costs can undermine the best-laid retirement plans. One of the biggest risks lies in the cost of long-term care. Unfortunately, health care costs in general have been outpacing inflation, and this trend to may continue.

Even if you’re currently in good health, you can’t guarantee that it’ll continue in your later years. Not being prepared can be very expensive. According to AARP, the average cost is $5,566 a month for a semiprivate room in a nursing home, and $6,266 a month for a private room*. At that rate, it wouldn’t take long to put a sizable dent in the most solid of nest eggs.

Most people think of long-term care as nursing-home care, but, in fact, most of the people who need long-term care need it in their own homes or in assisted living. This means that nursing homes are only one part of the picture. About 60 percent of the population over age 75 will need long-term care for approximately three years2, whether in a nursing home, assisted-living facility or at home. The latter two alternatives – while usually less expensive than nursing-home care – are by no means cheap. Care in an assisted living unit costs $2,968 a month on average, according to AARP.* Round-the-clock care at home can also add up fast.

Insuring Against the Cost
Long-term care insurance policies are designed to defray the cost of nursing-home, assisted-living and at-home care –costs that are not covered by Medicare except in very limited circumstances. Today’s policies typically offer the same daily benefit for each level of care. Eligibility kicks in when an individual is unable to perform two out of six “activities of daily living.” These include toileting, bathing and being ambulatory.

If you have $10 million in assets, you may not need long-term care insurance. But $5 million may not be enough, as comfortable as it seems, especially if half of those assets are locked up in illiquid assets such as real estate or if you want to leave as much of your estate as possible to your heirs. The government adds an incentive in terms of partially tax-deductible premiums. For 2009, the yearly maximum deductible amount of $280 for those under age 41 rises to $3,530 for those over age 70.

But don’t wait to buy long-term care insurance until age 65, because premiums then could be very high. The most cost-effective purchase point is from the early 40s to the early 50s. Whenever you buy, be sure to buy a policy that increases benefits to keep pace with inflation. You can also keep costs manageable by electing a waiting period before benefits begin and by limiting the length of coverage to four or five years instead of a lifetime.

 

Beyond Long-Term Care
If you retire at age 65 or beyond, Medicare plus a Medicare Supplement policy should cover most of your medical expenses. If you retire earlier, however, you may want to purchase a personal health insurance policy. Either way, it’s crucial to select coverage that matches your lifestyle. For example, if you enjoy foreign travel, you may want to consider a policy that includes coverage outside of the United States.

Long-term care insurance is designed to be flexible where you can control the costs relative to the benefits you wish to receive. Long-term care policies offer various kinds of coverage. Some offer adjustments for inflation, others pay only for a stated number of days, and others offer a life-time benefit. When deciding on a policy, you should compare the benefits of different types of policies, the limitations and exclusions, the types of facilities the policy would cover, and the cost of the premiums.


*”What Does Long-Term Care Cost? Who Pays?” (www.aarp.org/families/caregiving/caring_help/what_does_long_term_care_cost.html), accessed April 2009.


CRN200902-2026207


Ryan E. Price, CFP®, ChFC®, CLU® is a registered representative and investment advisor representative of Lincoln Financial Advisors Corp., member SIPC, [18400 Von Karman Ave., Ste 450 Irvine, CA 92612 949-623-1788] offering insurance through Lincoln affiliates and other fine companies. This information should not be construed as legal or tax advice. You may want to consult a tax advisor regarding this information as it relates to your personal circumstances. The content of this material was provided to you by Lincoln Financial Advisors for its representatives and their clients.

CA Insurance License #0E10210

Top College-Planning Mistakes Parents Make

Ryan E. Price

Ryan E. Price, CFP®, ChFC®, CLU®, CRPC, AWMA is the President of Price Financial Partners located in Irvine, CA. He has more than a decade of experience dealing with high net worth clients in the areas of investment, retirement, estate, insurance & business succession planning. In addition to managing his practice, Ryan is also Field Training Supervisor for a division of Lincoln Financial Advisors. Ryan currently serves on the board of Lincoln Financial Advisors Advisor Based Sales Division & is a member of LFA’s prestigious Private Wealth Services group. He is currently a member of the National Association of Insurance & Financial Advisors (NAIFA) where he serves on the membership committee and is on the Education Committee for the Financial Planning Association (FPA) of Orange County. He is a frequent lecturer on financial planning topics and has taught multiple courses at The American College, UCLA & UCI extension.

Paying for your children’s college educations should actually be placed quite low on the totem pole of financial priorities. Why? There are several reasons for this, such as the availability of tools to pay for college, such as financial aid in the forms of student loans, grants and other programs where loans are forgiven in exchange for public service in low-income communities. But ultimately, it’s also because focusing too much on college savings can jeopardize a family’s overall financial planning strategy.

First Things First
Some family financial needs may be a good thing, like college for other children, or they can be tragic, like long-term care costs for the parents themselves or medical expenses for grandparents. Devoting too many resources to college savings can cut into preparing for inevitabilities such as retirement which—unlike financing college—can’t be funded by loans.

Since college costs these days are skyrocketing, how should parents prioritize their saving and investing plans? Consider adhering to the following priorities, in this order:

• Establish an emergency fund. It’s critical to establish an emergency fund with at least six months worth of living expenses. This is a key building block for meeting a family’s basic financial needs. After all, what if you have a job change or you get laid off? If you don’t have six months worth of expenses to fall back on, you can’t go into that 529 account and take money out without a penalty and taxes.

• Fully fund employer-sponsored retirement plans. A major mistake many people make is reducing contributions to their employer-sponsored retirement plan in favor of investments toward a child’s education. Instead, the priority should be in making as large a contribution as possible into a 401(k) or 403(b) plan. Doing so not only enables you to take advantage of any employer match available, it also provides potentially significant tax advantages.

• Take care of insurance needs. Too many parents make the mistake of ratcheting back on life or disability income insurance in order to save for a child’s education. But if something bad should happen, both college and a family’s most pressing needs may be in jeopardy. If the primary breadwinner isn’t working and doesn’t have income coming in for a long period of time, then college is, in many cases, out of the question. Parents should save for college while simultaneously retaining insurance coverage.

• Don’t forget IRAs. It’s crucial to continue funding both your Traditional and Roth IRAs as much as possible. Roth IRAs are particularly good in case parents want to use some portion of those assets for college, because in some circumstances, after five years the contributions into a Roth IRA can be withdrawn income tax and penalty-free. Roth IRA earnings taken prior to age 59 ½, may be subject to a 10% federal tax penalty and possibly state income taxes.

While financing all or part of your child’s college education is a worthy goal, it’s critical to keep your family’s overall financial picture in mind when making financial planning decisions.

The views expressed here are those of the author and not necessarily those of The Wealth Channel or The American College. Ryan E. Price, CFP®, ChFC®, CLU® is a registered representative and investment advisor representative of Lincoln Financial Advisors Corp., member SIPC, offering insurance through Lincoln affiliates and other fine companies. This information should not be construed as legal or tax advice. You may want to consult a tax advisor regarding this information as it relates to your personal circumstances. The content of this material was provided to you by Lincoln Financial Advisors for its representatives and their clients.

Mastering the Art of Client Conversations

Aaron Hoos

Formerly a stockbroker, insurance broker, and award-winning sales manager, Aaron writes for the financial and real estate industry as an educator and marketer. His first book, The Sales Funnel Bible, helps advisors master their sales funnel.

Rosemary Smyth

Rosemary is an author, columnist and an international business coach for financial advisors. She spent her career working at leading investment firms before pursuing her passion for coaching. She lives in Victoria, BC. Visit her website at www.rosemarysmyth.com.

Most conversations start off with innocuous questions like, "What do you think of the weather?" If you want to build rapport and trust with clients, you need to have conversations that go deeper than that.
 

The way you ask the questions will dramatically affect the quality and value of your conversation. Certain types of questions can expand the conversation and others can block it. The better you get at asking conversation-expanding questions, the easier it will be for you to build rapport with clients and the conversations will be more engaging and informative.
 

In this article, you'll read about four invaluable conversation tools that can help you have more meaningful client conversations.
 

Conversation tool #1: Listening
 

Your conversations will only be as valuable to you as your ability to listen!  Active listening is hearing what the other person is saying, evaluating it in your mind and then responding appropriately. Listening is the most important element in communication and a whole-being experience. It’s your ears, heart, eyes and mind.
 

It takes practice to be a good listener and it’s the way we listen that makes a difference in conversations. Bad listening behaviours such as daydreaming, finishing sentences, interrupting, selective listening and pretending to listen can all be improved with practicing active listening. Replacing old ineffective communication styles will help you to re-wire your brain to communicate more effectively with others.
 

Barriers that prevent us from listening effectively are distractions such as phones ringing, feeling tired or having other clients waiting on hold for you. The way to overcome these barriers is to focus. By focusing you will hear what the client is saying and will understand what their needs are.
 

Great listening techniques are to face the person that you are listening to and make eye contact. Non-verbal listening uses your face, eyes and body. For effective non-verbal listening, make eye contact, lean in slightly, nod and respond with the appropriate facial expressions. Body language is a powerful tool to use with your questions and tone of voice. Use a variety of listening cues to signal that you are paying attention. Common ones are “uh huh”, “okay” and “hmm”.
 

Paraphrasing is restating what the other person said in your own words. By paraphrasing it shows a client that you are paying attention and decreases the possibility of misunderstandings. To focus the discussion and summarize major concepts say, “If I heard you correctly, what we discussed was....”
 

Conversation tool #2: Broad questions
 

Broad questions are open-ended and ask for opinions and thoughts, and they leave the client with limitless replies. They allow the client to choose the topic and encourage them to think creatively. Examples of broad questions are, “What are you planning to do when you retire?", "What did you think of your vacation resort?", and "How was the process of getting your mortgage?”
 

Start by asking broad questions and then listen to the answers and build on those answers.
 

Conversation tool #3: Narrow questions
 

Narrow questions are direct and ask for yes/no answers of factual information. For example, “Do you have life insurance?", "How many credit cards do you have?", and "Is this a copy of your current will?”
 

Use narrow questions to learn more about specifics.
 

Conversation tool #4: Leading questions
 

Leading questions are opinions that also seek agreement. If you want honest answers, avoid leading questions. They usually start with a negative contraction such as: "aren’t", "wouldn’t", "don’t", or "isn’t". For example, “Isn’t this a great office?" and "Don’t you like the new portfolio?”
 

Transforming a leading question can create an open dialogue with clients and have you sounding less pushy and domineering. If you want feedback you can change a leading question to a statement and broad question. For example, “Wouldn’t it be great to have quarterly reviews?”, can be altered to “I think it would be great to have quarterly reviews. What do you think?”
 

If a client asks you a leading question, decide if you want to focus on the opinion, the question or both. You can rephrase the opinion and the question and check for understanding. For example if a client asks, “Don’t you think this is the best mutual fund?” you can respond, “It sounds like you think this is the best mutual fund and you want to know whether I agree. Is that right?”
 

Use leading questions to get "buy-in" from prospects.
 

Putting these conversation tools into practice
 

Developing your skills at discerning between broad, narrow and leading questions and how to rephrase leading questions will improve your conversations and client engagement.  With good communication skills you can inform, negotiate and influence people.
 

Before you engage a client in conversation, it’s important to relax and stay present. Pay attention to the body language of the client such as the tone of voice, facial expressions and body gestures that will give you clues to what there are really thinking and feeling. Try to speak slowly and briefly and if you are communicating something important, break down the information into smaller segments and then wait for the client to acknowledge that they understand you.
 

Invest all of your energy and attention into making your client feel important, understood and be confident in your ability to solve their problem. For clients that are angry or upset it is important to empathize with the client’s feelings and to take a break. For example, “I’m sorry to hear that. I can understand how frustrating the situation is.” Silence and pausing allows the client to gather their thoughts and for you to take a breath and refocus.
 

Taking notes will help you to effectively summarize the conversation. Good notes will highlight the key points and action steps. Transfer the notes to your CRM daily and be succinct so that you can review them quickly later on.

 

The views expressed here are those of the author and not necessarily those of The Wealth Channel or The American College

Linked Benefits—Long-Term Care and Life Insurance

Richard Olewnik, JD, CLU, ChFC, FLMI

Richard Olewnik is Assistant Vice President of AXA Equitable Advanced Markets.

Mark Teitelbaum, JD, LL.M, CLU, ChFC

Mark Teitelbaum is Vice President of AXA Equitable Advanced Markets.

The statistics are compelling. With an aging population, there will be increasing reliance on third-party care facilities and less reliance on informal home care offered by friends and relatives. According to a Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study, in 2004, approximately 36 percent of long-term care support was offered informally, with only 3 percent covered by private insurance and 38 percent covered by Medicaid and Medicare. For 2004, out-of-pocket payments covered 21 percent of costs. However, the CBO expects greater pressure on private insurance. Among the items the study noted are declining family size and an increasingly fractionalized family, often living away from a parent, coupled with an increasing elderly population will put strain on informal services. In fact, by 2050 the percentage of the U.S. population age 65 or older will be 21.5 percent, up from 12.4 percent in 2000 and 8.1 percent in 1950. The most significant will be those aged 85 or older, the people who have the most likely need for long-term care assistance, at 5.2 percent in 2050, nearly triple that of the 1.5 percent of the population in 2000. Add to that increasing pressures to cut review to programs such as Medicaid, and there is an increasing awareness to cover some or all of the cost of long-term care.
 

Options have increased in recent years
A few years ago there was one insured long-term care option: standalone long-term care policies. Today, clients have an increasing number of insured options. In addition to standalone policies, clients now can choose long-term care coverage from the following:

 

• Life insurance linked benefits and annuity linked benefits. (For example, clients purchase life insurance seeking financial protection and upon the insured’s death, beneficiaries receive a death benefit.).
• Life insurance with single premium, asset-based contracts.
• Life insurance products with annual premium approaches with riders attached (the primary focus of this article).


As many long-term care carriers have exited the market or have significantly raised rates, life insurance linked products have increased in number and in their purchase rates. Many clients have looked upon these linked benefits favorably because they offer benefits that will not otherwise evaporate; they will be made available either during life or at their death. Of course, where a life insurance linked benefit is considered a means of addressing long-term care health needs, a separate need for life insurance protection is paramount to the success of this planning approach.
 

Life insurance linked benefits
In many situations long-term care riders available with single premium, asset-based life insurance contracts provide an attractive alternative. They offer a return of premium option, often with a growth factor. If death occurs before use of long-term care features, they offer a modest death benefit policy. This can be an appropriate solution for clients with modest estates. But, for clients with more significant estates who have a need for significant life insurance amounts, long-term care riders on policies with annual premium approaches cannot only provide the life insurance that is needed, but access to policy benefits to address estate liquidity and transfer goals.


Long-term care riders attached to life insurance policies
In recent years, long-term care riders attached to life insurance policies have become increasingly popular. These riders accelerate the payment of the policy death benefit upon the occurrence of a triggering event, typically those associated with traditional long-term care policies, such as the inability to perform two activities of daily living or a mental impairment. As with standalone long-term care policies, life insurance linked benefits are available on a reimbursement or a per diem/indemnity basis.


As with traditional long-term care policies, a rider attached to a life insurance contract purchases a predetermined long-term care benefit. In most cases, the maximum total long-term care benefit amount is tied to some or all of the underlying death benefit, and it is set when the contract is issued. When the long-term care benefit is triggered, the death benefit is accelerated based on a predetermined percentage of the face amount and is typically made available on a monthly basis.
 

These riders are set up on two types of models. These are critical in determining how a client, or policy owner, can access the benefit on the triggering of a long-term care event. A careful understanding of these helps plan for the appropriate rider for a client’s needs.
 

With a reimbursement approach, policy payments are limited to the lesser of the monthly policy benefit purchased and the actual amount expended by the policy’s insured to cover long-term health care expenses. With reimbursement benefits, policy payments must be made to the insured or directly to the facility providing care.
 

With a per diem/indemnity approach, the amount available from the policy when the long-term care benefit is triggered is usually based on the lesser of the annual HIPAA amount or a predetermined percentage of the policy face amount.
 

This will determine how much is available for a given month. For example, a client with a $1,000,000 death benefit and a 2-percent long-term care rider could potentially receive as much as $20,000 a month for a long as the death benefit remains. The monthly HIPAA amount in 2013 is $9,600 ($320 a day times 30 days), or $115,200 per year. The payment limit in the current year would be $9,600, but has the potential to increase in future years as the HIPAA amount increases.
 

In general, per diem life insurance long-term care riders can offer greater planning flexibility than the reimbursement approach. They provide access to policy benefits to a policy owner (trust, child, spouse, etc.) rather than limit payments to the insured or benefit provider. In contrast, they do not require receipts to trigger payments and allow for payments in excess of actual qualified expenses. A client with a reimbursement contract may preserve more of the underlying death benefit if their expenses run less than the allowed monthly benefit, however, an indemnity contract might offer planning opportunities.
 

Under an indemnity contract, it is usually the status of the insured alone that triggers the benefit. In this instance, a client/policy owner might receive a benefit if the insured becomes eligible for long-term care coverage even if they do not actually incur the long-term care expenses. Although this may sound counterintuitive, this offers substantial planning benefit.
 

The indemnity rider offers planning opportunities in both estate and business settings. Consider an irrevocable trust where a life insurance policy with an indemnity rider is owned by the trustee. If the insured had a long-term care triggering event there is significant post-event planning that the family could do. They could do nothing, running down the client’s estate to cover long-term care costs and replenishing the lost funds by the death benefit. Or, they could trigger some or all of the long-term care benefit/death benefit acceleration:
 

• Buying assets from the estate to remove future growth and provide a liquid source of funds for the client.
• Making loans to the client, and then having the client accumulate or accrue interest that will help deplete the estate.
• Making distributions to the trust beneficiaries who, in turn, could use some of those funds to cover medical costs for the client. Remember, because this is a medical expense the ability to gift is less restrictive than the current $14,000 annual exclusion.


In a business setting, triggering the rider can be used to help support a business that might be impaired by the loss of a key individual who covers part of a lifetime buyout.
 

And what about cost of living? Almost every carrier that offers these riders does so on an Option A design. However, in some instances the life insurance contract might allow for a long-term care benefit tied to an Option B design, so a client has the ability to receive an increasing long-term care benefit.
 

Other considerations
Purchasing this rider comes at an additional cost. In most cases, the rider is paid as an acceleration of the life insurance death benefit. This may offer the client a low-cost approach to address long-term care health needs. Where the benefit is provided by a rider attached to a life insurance policy, at least some benefit will be received by the insured’s beneficiaries. In effect, if one doesn’t use the rider all is not lost, other than the additional cost. In addition, life insurance riders may be available to clients where they might not otherwise qualify for separate long-term care coverage.

 

There are also a number of different features that clients need to weigh when considering such a rider. These relate to the manner in which the rider can be accelerated, how much can be paid out and how the benefit is paid out.
 

In most instances, when the benefits are paid out to individual taxpayers they can qualify to be received income tax-free. The limitation would be the greater of the annual HIPAA amount or the actual amount expended by the taxpayer for the long-term care for the insured. At least one carrier allows for two times HIPAA, although some states, such as New York, limit the amount to one times HIPAA. Attention to state variations is critical. In business situations the amount received may not be received income tax-free, and that will run to whether the contract qualifies under IRC 101(g) or 7702B.
 

An important distinction in life insurance policy riders that frequently goes unnoticed is “qualified riders” versus “chronic care riders.” As a general rule, riders that only qualify under IRC 101(g) as accelerated benefits are deemed chronic care riders. They require that in addition to the medical certification of the insured’s inability to perform two activities of daily living or cognitive impairment, there must be verification that the condition is permanent and the insured is not expected to recover. As a general rule those riders that are deemed to be qualified riders, qualified under IRC 7702B, can trigger benefit availability even if the condition is not permanent.
 

Conclusion
It is obvious that the need for long-term care heath assistance in our society will increase with our aging population and improvement in health care. Various forms of personal insurance are available to help individuals with their personal planning.

 

Life insurance linked benefits are a flexible planning tool that offers a valuable planning alternative for many situations. Variations exist in how these benefits are classified by states and the Federal Government, which may impact when benefits are triggered and what amounts may be available to the policy owner.

Originally published in the Spring 2013 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, How Fast Can YOU Adapt?

Unlocking the Communication Code of Seniors

David L. Solie, MS, PA

David L. Solie, MS, PA, is President of RiskTutor, Inc. and a communication consultant, speaker and author of the book How To Say It To Seniors: Closing the Communication Gap with Our Elders.

Writer George Bernard Shaw wisely said, “The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place.”
 

Perhaps that’s why, despite the unprecedented opportunity afforded advisors by an aging population, many find themselves unprepared to successfully communicate with seniors. Instead, they wind up frustrated and confused about what went wrong with their best opportunities. While it would be easy to blame this disconnect on the eccentricities of seniors, new research on aging identifies poor signaling based on misinformation as a primary cause of these communication setbacks. Despite their best efforts, advisors wind up sending the wrong message. Fortunately by updating their understanding of the psychology of seniors, advisors can open the door to more productive and rewarding relationships with older clients.
 

The updating process begins with a new insight about aging: Older adults are still growing. But aren’t older adults merely diminished versions of their younger selves, looking backward instead of forward, having lived past their developmental peak? While this is the physical reality of aging, assuming that the loss of physical capabilities implies a mandatory loss of mental capabilities and the end of personality development has proven to be incorrect.
 

New research confirms that the brain maintains the vast majority of its capabilities throughout life and personality development is as vital at 85 as it was at 45. If advisors are going to be successful with seniors, they will have to update their assumptions about a poorly understood part of aging. They will need to become fluent in the language of developmental tasks.
 

Different age groups, different tasks
Developmental stages in life are characterized by sets of oppositional tasks that need to be completed so the individual can move on to the next stage. These tasks are the drivers of personality growth, the internal engine that propels a person forward. These stages and their tasks are well documented in children and teenagers. Their identification and impact on the development in old age has only recently been understood.
 

Beginning in the mid-60s, seniors are confronted with two seemingly paradoxical tasks that provoke conflict and change: preserve control in a world where all control is being lost, and create a legacy in a world where time is running out.
 

One task requires hypervigilance to guard against an unending series of losses that threaten to push life out of control. The other task requires a reflective pause, a review of life’s events and an eventual letting go. Each task is pulling in a different psychological direction, one struggling to last and one preparing to leave.
 

The battle for control
In addition to the losses associated with changes in health and physical strength, seniors are experiencing equally painful losses in other areas of their lives that intensifies the scope and complexity of the battle for control. These losses can include:
 

• Family
• Peer group
• Status
• Identity
• Home
• Driving privileges
• Financial independence
 

As the losses mount and control is involuntarily surrendered, seniors run out of options. Underestimating the intensity and impact of these losses can derail the best intentions to be helpful. Good advice may be rejected in favor of illogical or shortsighted choices because, from a developmental perspective, the need for control is greater than the need for medical, financial or social correctness.
 

Control signals
Given its central importance in communicating with seniors, how do advisors signal they understand the importance of control? It requires a new approach in two primary areas: utilizing language that resonates with control and linking products and services to control.
 

Words like independence, dependence, choice, loss and control can be used to enhance essential communication skills in open-ended questions and reflective summaries:
 

• Would you tell me more about your choices for preserving independence?
• How were you able to navigate that loss?
• So you feel your living situation is slipping out of control.
• Let me see if I understand how you plan to preserve your independence.
 

A similar developmental resonance can be embedded in the why of the planning process with statements like:
 

• We plan to preserve choice.
• We have found lack of planning results in loss of control.
 

Renaming familiar planning techniques that lack developmental resonance may also be necessary. For example, long-term care planning might be recast as long-term control planning. A simple alteration in language can help create a control-focused conversation that reinforces the perception that the advisor is both a control confidant and facilitator.
 

The search for legacy
The developmental counterpoint to preserving control is creating a legacy. While advisors are familiar with the legacy concept, they may be less informed about its origin and purpose.
 

The origin of legacy in older adults begins with a new focus on life review, the retrieving and reconsideration of a lifetime of people and experiences. This great retrospective gathers the raw material that will answer the primary legacy questions seniors face at the end of life:
 

• What’s the meaning of my life?
• How did I make a difference?
• What are my last instructions?
• Will I be remembered?
 

Like the need for control, the need to create a legacy is not optional. Legacy insists on being addressed, either consciously or unconsciously. It is a developmental mandate that flows out of life review for those privileged to survive into old age.
 

Legacy signals
Given its significance in needs analysis for seniors, how do advisors signal they understand the importance of legacy? It requires a new approach in two primary areas: utilizing questions that facilitate life review, and linking products and services to the legacy.
 

Successful communication with seniors about legacy issues involves a well-rounded repertoire of life review questions that might include:
 

• What was the world like when you grew up?
• What was the most significant event of your childhood?
• What were your family’s greatest strengths?
• Tell me about your best friend when you were growing up.
• What was the happiest time in your life?
• What has been your greatest accomplishment?
• If you could change anything in your life, what would it be?
• What are you most thankful for?
 

These questions provide a conversation on ramp for seniors to tell their stories. The telling of stories is as much discovery for older adults, a connecting of the legacy dots, as it is recalling people and events. As important, these stories reveal values and themes that propel legacy planning.
 

As with control, a developmental resonance regarding legacy can be embedded in the why of the planning process with statements like:
 

• We plan to honor your values.
• We have found lack of planning results in loss of legacy.
 

It may also be necessary to rename familiar planning techniques that lack this developmental resonance. For example, estate planning might be recast as legacy search. A simple alteration in language can help create a legacy-focused conversation that reinforces the perception that the advisor is both a legacy sounding board and facilitator.
 

Unlocking the code
Seniors are crossing the most formidable and complex frontier of their lives. They are engaging developmental tasks that provoke an overwhelming need to maintain some element of control in their lives while at the same time coming face to face with the meaning and significance of their lives as they prepare for the end. This is their mission, their last contribution while they are still here. If advisors are going to facilitate their mission, they are going to have to become better versed in how older adults think and communicate. Their increased knowledge and skills will allow them to unlock the communication code of seniors, giving them the compassion and tools they need to work with seniors, not against them.

 

Originally published in the Spring 2013 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, How Fast Can YOU Adapt?

Your Last Will and Testament

Kevin M. Lynch, MBA, CFP®, CLU®, ChFC®, RHU®, REBC®, CASL®, CAP®, LUTCF, FSS

Kevin M. Lynch is an assistant professor of insurance and The Charles J. Zimmerman Chair in Insurance Education at The American College. Kevin.Lynch@wcinput.com

This issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine is all about change, so I thought this would be an ideal opportunity to discuss the last changes you may ever have the opportunity to make.
 

Do you have a last will and testament? Whether you think you do or not, you do. Allow me to explain. Hopefully, you are one of the approximately 40 percent of Americans who have sought out the services of an attorney and had them help you craft your last will and testament so that it reflects your exact wishes. If, however, you are in the 60 percent majority of Americans who have failed to carry out this duty to your family or loved ones, the state in which you reside at your time of death has crafted one for you. Unfortunately for you, and especially for those you leave behind, it most likely will not reflect your desires.
 

Dying without a last will and testament is known as dying intestate. It means just that: You failed to craft your own will and testament before your death.
 

As life and financial services professionals engaged in the sales of products that change people’s lives, we are often involved in talking about a client’s possible demise. As a trusted advisor, I am confident you have told your clients that among the most important things they can do to get their affairs in order is the acquisition of appropriate estate planning documents. While these documents may have different nomenclature depending on the state in which the client lives, these estate-planning documents might include:


• Last will and testament
• Living will
• Medical directive
• Power of attorney
• Medical power of attorney


Just as important as having these documents drafted and updated on a regular basis is the ability of the client, or his designated representatives, to access the documents when the need arises.
 

This brings up the matter of where your client should store these documents for safekeeping, while at the same time making them accessible to the aforementioned designated representatives. I contend that the best place for the storage of these documents is not a bank safety deposit box. Why? Because, unless you have the foresight to also add your designated representative as a deputy on the signature card at the financial institution where the safety deposit box is located (and according to bankers I have contacted this is rarely done), at the time of your death your final instructions will be locked in a bank vault and not be accessible to those individuals charged with carrying out your wishes. 
 

In addition to having your attorney retain a copy of your will, what are some other solutions to this problem?


• In those jurisdictions where it is permitted, consider filing your last will and testament with the Clerk of Court, or similarly positioned public servant, in the county where you live, and notify your executor or executrix that you have done so.
• Consider giving a sealed copy of your last will and testament directly to your executor or executrix. You might also give similar documents, such as your power of attorney, living will, etc., to those whom you have elected to act on your behalf under those circumstances in which the documents would be required.
• Keep a copy of your will in a plainly marked envelope with your other important papers at home.


As long as you have also followed one of the aforementioned recommended options, you can keep a copy of your will in your safety deposit box if that’s what it takes to give you peace of mind.
 

Is this issue really important enough to deserve so much attention? On May 26, 2010, my stepmother passed away. In spite of my having told her on multiple occasions not to file away her will in her bank lockbox, like many older clients set in their ways, she decided to ignore my advice. (After all, that is where my father had kept his, along with countless others of his generation.) What she failed to remember was that when my dad died, she still had access to their safety deposit box. When she died, however, no one else had access to her box as she had no deputy assigned on her signature card. In addition, as I found out the hard way, stepchildren are not legally related to stepparents, unless legally adopted. Having been raised by a woman you have considered to be your mom since you were 5 years old carries no weight with the court.


Suffice it to say, the three weeks following my mom’s death were filled with frustration, red tape, and multiple phone calls to courthouses, funeral homes and cemeteries, all of which would not have been necessary if my mom had not filed her one and only copy of her will in her bank safety deposit box.


In the world of life insurance there is a saying: “No one buys life insurance unless they love someone or they owe someone.” I would like to think that, like the love demonstrated to loved ones by the purchase of life insurance, taking the time to record your final wishes on the last legal document you will ever have the chance to change shows just as much love.

 

Originally published in the Spring 2013 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, How Fast Can YOU Adapt?

Are You Ready for the Toughest Questions Every Financial Advisor Is Asked?

Aaron Hoos

Formerly a stockbroker, insurance broker, and award-winning sales manager, Aaron writes for the financial and real estate industry as an educator and marketer. His first book, The Sales Funnel Bible, helps advisors master their sales funnel.

Rosemary Smyth

Rosemary is an author, columnist and an international business coach for financial advisors. She spent her career working at leading investment firms before pursuing her passion for coaching. She lives in Victoria, BC. Visit her website at www.rosemarysmyth.com.

As your plane taxis down the runway, the person beside you strikes up a conversation. The what-do-you-do-for-a-living question will usually come up. When it does, you know that they will inevitably follow up with another question – perhaps something like: "My brother-in-law is really into gold stocks. Do you have any hot tips?"
 

Many professions have these dreaded questions. Even in social settings, doctors are frequently asked for an impromptu diagnosis of a rash, mechanics are frequently asked to identify engine trouble, and you as a financial advisor are probably asked for some kind of portfolio-related guidance.
 

These questions happen everywhere – in airplanes, at family get-togethers, at neighborhood barbecues, or while you're watching your kid's ballgame. People hear that you're an expert and they have questions and expect answers from you.
 

Rather than stumbling around an answer, savvy financial advisors prepare answers to the most common questions and have them ready to deliver when the questions inevitably come.
 

The 5 Types of Questions
 

Below, you'll find the 5 types of questions you'll be asked. Although some of these may seem similar when you first read them, it's helpful to have responses for each type so that a question doesn't catch you off-guard.
 

1. Analysis/due diligence questions include questions like, "what do you think about XYZ Company?" or "what do you think about stocks in the ABC industry?" These are questions invite you to add to their knowledge about a particular company or industry.
 

2. Forecasting questions include questions like, "where are interest rates headed?" or "what will the market do this week?" These are questions about what you think could happen in the future.
 

3. Advice questions include questions like, "should I buy XYZ Company?" or "is the ABC industry going to turn around soon?" These questions ask you to provide portfolio-specific advice.
 

4. Story questions include questions like, "what's the most money you ever made on a trade?" or "did you have any money in XYZ Company before it tanked?" These questions are looking for stories of big wins or losses in the marketplace and often precede a story that they'll share with you.
 

5. Testing questions include questions like, "do you sell a lot of this new product?" or "have you ever heard of ABC Company?" These questions may seem innocent enough but they are actually testing you to see what you are like as an advisor and how you stack up to their perceptions of what an advisor should know.

These questions are a mixed blessing. On the one hand, they show that the person may be a potential prospect (or may know someone who is) and their questions demonstrate their interest in learning more about us. On the other hand, they are all-too-common questions that could be asked with the hope of getting free financial advice.You know you'll face these questions. So prepare now to respond to them advantageously.
 

How to Prepare Your Response


First, you'll want to make sure that you can readily identify the likelihood of that person's client potential. (This is done by knowing in advance who your perfect prospect is and what expertise you provide to your target market). This is key to ensuring that the rest of the conversation will provide value to both you and the person you are talking to.
 

Second, you'll want to speak generally to their question (so it doesn't look like you are avoiding their question) in a way that demonstrates your knowledge of the topic. For example: "XYZ Company has been volatile in recent months and there isn't a lot of consensus among analysts."
 

Third, provide a friendly disclaimer that explains how you can't provide a specific answer without analyzing their portfolio or determining if it's right for them. Do so in a professional way that shows how you care about providing the best advice possible. For example, "Whether or not I would recommend XYZ Company to you? Well, that's a harder question and it really depends on the asset mix in your portfolio and your risk tolerance."


Fourth, pivot to an action step for them. If they have the potential to become a client, invite them to your office for a further conversation with something like, "Why don’t I give you a call this week and set up an appointment…". Or, if you know that they won't become a client (i.e. because they live too far away or are not in your target market) then say something like, "your own advisor could give you far better advice than I could because he or she knows your portfolio and your financial goals."
 

Additional Tips to Formulate Your Responses
 

As you think about your responses to the 5 types of questions all financial advisors are asked, use the following list to help you craft your answers:


• Know who you want to serve and how you help them. It's fine to say that you don't know the answer to a question you're asked, especially if it's not something your clients need you to pay attention to.
 

• Avoid the temptation to expound knowledgeably on the topic, which will only lock you into the conversation and make it harder to pivot to an action step.
 

• Craft answers that are neutral (so they don't give advice) while at the same time positioning the industry and the other person's advisor in a positive light. Don't disparage other advisors if they do things differently than you.
 

• Always move the conversation toward an action step – one that draws the potential prospect closer to you (if appropriate) or one that steers them to a professional who can help them.
 

• Be authentic. You'll build rapport with the other person and you'll enjoy your conversation more, and you'll position yourself in the right way in case they know someone they can refer to you.
 

Action step: Write each of the five types of questions and then craft a professional, authentic response with two potential action steps, depending on how likely they are to become clients.

 

The views expressed here are those of the author and not necessarily those of The Wealth Channel or The American College

It Can’t Happen to Me

Arthur D. Kraus, CLU®, ChFC®, CAP®

Arthur D. Kraus, CLU®, ChFC®, CAP® is a nationally recognized advisor who was a pioneer in full financial planning and a former CEO of the National Association of Insurance and Financial Advisors.

Many of us travel through life with the emotional comfort of the expectation that our lives will be rosy — a happy childhood, a good education, a happy marriage, good health, wonderful children and grandchildren, and more. I should know. I used to be one of those people.
 

Most of us wish for financial success, as well, and I have been blessed beyond my fondest dreams. The financial services business has been good to me and in analyzing what I have learned and what I can pass on to others, I realize how much I have been influenced, both in obvious and not-so-obvious ways.
 

Obviously, to succeed in business you need a few tools. You need to know what you are talking about. Getting by with some knowledge is just not a good long-term strategy. Knowledge takes work and most of mine came from listening to my peers at industry meetings and by taking the time to take stretching courses. In my case they were almost exclusively through The American College. I am a CLU®, ChFC®, and a CAP®. My son and business partner, Mitchell, is a CFP®, CLU®, ChFC®, LUTCF, and is studying to be a CAP®. We really believe in professionalism.
 

Another obvious need is to learn how to sell, which did not come naturally to me. I was nervous and found myself as a new agent rushing to get to the close. I just wanted the process to end! Of course, it did, and not usually well. Studying my peers and understanding that the sales process is merely helping the prospect get what they want rather than selling what I want boosted my career. It isn’t about us – it’s about them. Once I understood that, my education really kicked in.
 

The last obvious task is perspiration. It is the rare person who does well without working hard. And a long workday is just the beginning. It is how productive you are that is critical. Many years ago, financial services titan Al Granum taught me how to be productive by sharing the “One Card System”. He shared a tool that in its most simple form told me whether I was doing productive work or just going through the motions.
 

So the obvious has been stated, and you can probably add more ingredients than I have to the mix. But the real challenge is not the obvious; it is your passion and desire to give ultimate service to all the people you meet. That might already be a part of you. But I admit that it wasn’t for me. I think I rarely went above and beyond what was expected.
I knew I could discuss with my prospects their needs and find solutions using my insurance and investment products. But where was the passion? Where was that belief that comes from your innermost core that helps the prospect understand that “it can happen to me”? Yes, I could hold my own intellectually, but the passion to go beyond that wasn’t part of my makeup. I could give analytical advice, but not emotional advice.

 

Until it happened to me.
 

It was early in the morning about 15 years ago. My habit was to arise at 5:30, exercise, dress, then be at the office by 7:30. That morning was no different than any other until I went to the bathroom and noticed my urine was red. My mind raced and I made an excuse to my wife that I couldn’t walk with her. Not wanting to upset her, I went into another room and called my doctor for an appointment. He told me to come in immediately.
 

My doctor gave me an examination and said that I needed to see a urologist. He had called ahead to get me an appointment right away.
 

Driving to the urologist’s office, I worried. Did I need surgery, of which I was deathly afraid, or would a pill solve the problem? I won’t go into detail about the urological exam because when the doctor told me what he was going to do, I thought I would faint. Scared describes my emotional state.
 

When the exam was over (and it wasn’t as bad as I’d expected), he told me I had bladder cancer and that surgery was required. 
 

The good news is that while it took a few surgeries, they were not awful, and I was cured. Many years have passed without any recurrence. It was a blessing to get through that, but a blessing without a lesson is an experience unlearned.
 

The evening before a passed blood in my urine, I was a preferred life insurance risk. The following morning I was uninsurable. It wasn’t somebody else; it was me. The realization of my mortality was immense. My wife needed me and I needed her. My children needed me. I had objectives in life that were not accomplished.
 

Life changed for me in literally minutes. Life changes for others the same way. Can that happen to you, others you care about, others you have yet to meet? Of course it can. The lesson is that those things that need to be done, need to be done now.
 

The visceral understanding made me realize that what I had to give to prospects was not just my knowledge and training. More importantly, they needed time from me. Time to establish a relationship. Time for me to explain as often as I could in as many ways as I could the financial decisions they were making or not making. Time to explain consequences with emotion. Time for them to get to know I would do whatever I could for them—regardless of compensation or expertise. It changed my life from a life of work to a life of service.
 

My son, Mitchell, and his wife, Cynthia, have the most precocious 3-year-old in the history of mankind. If you don’t believe it, just ask this proud grandfather. We were overjoyed when they announced to us that little Zachary was going to have a brother. All of us were excited and even “Zach Attack” was naming the baby during the pregnancy. How he determined that the baby’s name should be Bob was a mystery to all of us.
 

Cynthia experienced a normal pregnancy and we received a call that she was in labor. Mitchell was with her and we took Zachary out to dinner with his parents’ instructions to bring him by the hospital between 6:00 and 6:30. We did as requested and we were ushered into a waiting room. We didn’t see Mitchell, but he kept texting us that things were moving along and that she would deliver soon.
 

Then Mitch texted us that something was wrong with the baby. He wasn’t sure what, but the baby was being rushed to another hospital where they had special facilities to take care of the health issues he was facing. “Please take Zachary to your home to go to sleep. We will call later!” he wrote.
 

A few days later, baby Nicholas died. His life was brief but meaningful to his grieving family. Great anticipated joy became anguish. It can happen to you and it did to us.
 

Can an infant have a legacy? Though he only lived a few short days, how can anyone say that his life didn’t count? Mitchell and Cynthia, as well as others in the family, suffered greatly with the question, and for me, I found I could not live in peace without something good coming from the tragedy.
 

Maybe it was the convergence of circumstances, but we found an answer. Mitchell is enrolled in the Chartered Advisor in Philanthropy® (CAP®) program and within its textbook pages was a wealth of information about finding your passion. What Mitchell and Cynthia understood was that there needed to be a memorial to their child. All lives need meaning, even those that are brief, and Nicholas’ short life could help others.
 

So when the time came to make public the tragedy that had befallen us, Mitchell and Cynthia were able to let friends and family know that they wanted any donations that people might want to make to go to a local charity that would help families suffering from similar circumstances move through their grief with professional help. There is great meaning, and healing, in that.
 

So, to be successful you need to know and practice your craft diligently. But that is not the only requirement. We must learn from our own experiences and from the experiences of others. We must use those life lessons to better serve our clients.
 

Philanthropist businessman W. Clement Stone, said, “When you discover your mission, you will feel its demand. It will fill you with enthusiasm and a burning desire to get to work on it.”
 

You are blessed. You have chosen a profession where you can make a difference to others. Do it.

Originally published in the Spring 2013 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, How Fast Can YOU Adapt?

Lizzie the Learner

Heather L. Davis, J.D., CLU®, ChFC®,

Heather L. Davis, J.D., CLU®, ChFC®, is The American College Alumni Association Board of Advisors Communications Committee Chair and the Corporate Vice President of High Net Worth Marketing Management with the New York Life Insurance Company.

Nobel Prize-winning author William Butler Yeats once said, “Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire.” And often, in the insurance and financial services industry, when you meet an up-and-comer or rising star, you notice a difference in the dedication to his or her career. You see that spark. 
 

Meet Elizabeth Dipp Metzger. Lizzie, as she prefers to be called, is an agent in the New York Life El Paso General Office. In 2010 she was named the company’s New Org Agent of the Year, and in 2011 she became the first female to win Agent of the Year for her General Office. Lizzie is a member of a select group of top-producing agents in the Latino community.
 

Becoming a licensed agent only three years ago, Lizzie is obviously on the fast track to success, which includes pursuing her Master’s degree and other professional designations from The American College. 
 

Lizzie became interested in a career in financial services when she began assisting her husband, who was an agent (and is now in management), around the office in an administrative capacity. “We had a new baby at the time, and I became well known in the office for balancing a baby on one arm and client files on the other,” she said. Eventually, the office’s Managing Partner, Steve Nagy, approached her about the idea of becoming a licensed agent, and that opened the door to a new career. 
 

Initially, Lizzie decided that her market would be focused on women and young people, but through her father who is a real estate developer, she had access to higher net worth individuals, and she tended to gravitate to independent professionals, business owners and the affluent, rather than the middle market. She began researching New York Life’s resources to bring expertise beyond her own to her high net worth prospects and clients, and learned that she has access to consultants within the company who have expertise in business and estate planning. 
 

Lizzie was able to schedule appointments with four of her prospects to meet with the company’s Advanced Planning Group, a team of professionals with years of practical experience as lawyers, accountants and financial services professionals. The consultants introduced planning opportunities and solutions to the clients that Lizzie said she would not otherwise have been able to address on her own. In one situation, the planning techniques that were presented helped to reduce the clients’ estate tax burden down to about $10 million on a $100 million estate. 
 

“I’ve told my clients this a million times: If I don’t know something, I’m not going to pretend I do. I’m going to go and get someone who can help me, because I can. I have access to some of the best, most experienced consultants in the industry, and I have the backing of a Fortune 100 company,” she said.
 

Of the three characteristics that Lizzie feels her clients value most, the first is that you have the proper knowledge base to help them. She suggests that you do some homework on the client, learn about their industry and their particular issues, before your first meeting. 
 

Second, she thinks clients value having a planning team, and she suggests that you make sure to utilize other qualified professionals to help clients in areas where you cannot.  
 

Third, she feels that high net worth clients, in particular, don’t want to be sold. The relationship is absolutely the key. “Make sure the clients understand that you have more than one product available that can help them and that you’re there to present a comprehensive solution, not to make a sale,” Lizzie said.
 

While her access to the company consultants opened the door for Lizzie early on in her career, she says becoming more educated on issues wealthy families face is absolutely imperative for her continued success in this market. 
 

“Clients want to know my professional background, especially when I’m dealing with millions of their dollars,” she said. “They want to know that I know what I’m talking about, and they won’t just take my word for it. You have to prove that you have the experience and credentials first, and then they’ll take you seriously.”
 

Lizzie feels it’s not just her clients who want to know about her credentials; it’s just as important to the other professionals on the planning team, like the lawyers and accountants. “The accountants know the difference between a CPA and a bookkeeper,” she said, “and the attorneys I work with who are board certified make a big deal out of their credentials. So to me, if I study and earn a Master’s degree and industry designations after my name from The American College, those credentials demonstrate to the entire planning team that I’m committed, that I’m doing what they did by taking the next step in my education. 
 

“The more you know, the more you can help your clients. It’s a real differentiator in our community.”
 

Forming lasting relationships with her clients is the most important aspect of Lizzie’s work. Learning about the issues the client’s family or business is facing, focusing on long-term planning objectives, and growing with the clients as their estates mature and transition is what makes her feel successful. “I want to work with people who are interested in aligning their long-term strategy and who will work with me to help them create a better future,” she said. 
 

Lizzie has some advice for new agents who are just starting out in the insurance and financial planning business:
• Get going as hard and as fast as you can. Those agents who succeed in this business have an unparalleled work ethic right from the start.
• Obtain as many licenses as possible, as quickly as possible. Having an insurance license without being a registered representative is like having one hand tied behind your back.
• Enlist others to help you. Everyone you know understands that you’re new at this. Let them know about what you’re doing and ask for help with referrals or in brainstorming ideas. Even if they don’t do business with you right away, they may later. 

Originally published in the Spring 2013 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, How Fast Can YOU Adapt?

Commissions in the Crosshairs?

Keith Hickerson, MSM

Senior Strategy Consultant at The American College, Hickerson, MSM, previously served as Vice President of Marketing at The College and, before that, at Unum Corporation.

Be thankful you’re not providing financial advice in the United Kingdom. Now that we’re into 2013, the Financial Services Authority’s (FSA) ban on commissions as payment for providing financial advice is in full effect. According to an estimate by a major consulting firm, 5.5 million people will stop using financial advice as a result.
 

Surveys repeatedly show that consumers are unwilling to pay large up-front fees for financial advice, especially families with smaller amounts of savings or investments. They’d rather use their money to purchase investments or products. Purists argue that consumers are paying for their advice through commissions anyway, but it’s a very different client experience. According to recent surveys, two-thirds of investing consumers in the UK say financial advice is worth no fee at all. The remaining consumers dramatically underestimate the fair value of financial counsel.
 

High-net-worth individuals, many of whom are under fee-based arrangements already, will not be dramatically affected. The middle-income investors who arguably need the most assistance, however, will be disproportionately harmed. Many will decide to take a do-it-yourself approach using random Internet advice and suggestions from friends and colleagues. It’s a perverse outcome from a well-intentioned, over-reaching regulatory structure and a recipe for disaster when it comes to retirement planning and financial security. The number of financial advisors serving middle-income customers has already seriously declined in the UK, and the ban just went into full effect.
 

Because new exams and financial advisor qualifications are also part of the new approach (further advisor education is the one part of the mix the FSA may have gotten right), the advisors who do continue to practice may ultimately be more qualified. The final result could be somewhat better financial advice for a small percentage of the population (those with the highest incomes) and none at all for the rest of the market.
 

The commission ban extends to life insurance products with any investment or savings component as well. There is a general sense among regulators there that commissions, in whatever form they take, should be replaced by fee-based compensation.
 

What do we have to worry about here?
Yes, that’s across the pond, but the anti-commission trend is spreading. It has also hit the Netherlands, Australia and other countries. In the United States we’ve already seen commission pressure in the healthcare arena, and all eyes are now on the Department of Labor (DOL) as they regroup and re-propose their rules on new fiduciary standards under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA). The DOL’s move could well impact IRAs, subjecting any advisor who works with IRA clients to a strict fiduciary standard. It’s certainly possible that commissions could be impacted. The details won’t be clear until the DOL’s new proposal is made public, but the final outcome could be a real blow to middle-income investors looking for affordable advice on their IRA investments.

 

Where the SEC’s fiduciary standard is concerned, Dodd-Frank’s language made it clear that receipt of commissions and/or access to only a limited product set would not, in and of themselves, place an advisor in any violation of a new fiduciary mandate. The wording is ambiguous at best, however, and does permit the SEC to ban any type of compensation they feel is detrimental to investors.
 

We can feel secure in established distribution models if we like, but we would be wise to be both a little worried and very aware of the trends impacting regulators’ thinking in this area. The assumption is too often made that an advisor working under a fee-based arrangement is somehow more ethical, more consumer-friendly and more objective than one who is paid through commissions. It doesn’t matter much that the perception isn’t true and that payment methods by themselves do not lead to increased conflicts of interest or creation of investor harm. The anti-commission bias has become the latest rallying cry of those who are not particularly knowledgeable about insurance in the first place, and it fails to consider consumer preferences and product access.
 

So what do consumers think?
For all of the wrangling about how advisors are paid and the standards of care under which they should operate, consumers are not particularly attuned to either. Their concept of providing advice completely and purely in their best interest may also be different from the way we think about it. For a consumer, the pertinent questions may be more outcome based than process based: “Did I gain a better rate of return?” or “Did you lose any of my money?”

 

As part of the overall debate, it’s important that consumers, legislators and regulators understand how vital insurance products and services are to the economic health and security of our country. How often do you hear politicians talking about how important Social Security is to our citizens? The latest numbers I have show that Social Security pays out $1.9 billion daily in benefits—and insurers pay out $1.5 billion daily. But where’s the high rhetoric singing the praises of insurance and how it protects a full 20 percent of the long-term savings of Americans through a distribution system that’s unparalleled in terms of reach and access to products and services?
 

Isn’t it time we change the conversation?

 

Originally published in the Spring 2013 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, How Fast Can YOU Adapt?

Develop an Expert Status That Attracts Your Target Market

Aaron Hoos

Formerly a stockbroker, insurance broker, and award-winning sales manager, Aaron writes for the financial and real estate industry as an educator and marketer. His first book, The Sales Funnel Bible, helps advisors master their sales funnel.

Rosemary Smyth

Rosemary is an author, columnist and an international business coach for financial advisors. She spent her career working at leading investment firms before pursuing her passion for coaching. She lives in Victoria, BC. Visit her website at www.rosemarysmyth.com.

When you have a toothache, you don't go to your local mechanic's shop to have a cavity filled and when your car isn't running properly, you don't pay a visit to your dentist. Rather, you go to the professional who has the education, experience, and qualifications to solve it. You go to the EXPERT.
 

As a financial advisor, you have a level of expertise in the industry. Unfortunately, so does every other financial advisor out there. The perception among prospects is that financial advisors are all clones; they look and act the same, they all know the same information, have basically the same products and they all provide similar care and attention to their clients. So what would motivate a client to go to one advisor versus another?
 

You can separate yourself from the pack by building a unique and compelling expert status. An expert status provides new advisors with a head-start advantage in the industry and seasoned advisors with a way to strengthen their client base. An expert status benefits you by:


       • Clarifying and focusing your marketing efforts.
       • Helping you to zoom in on a specific target market.
       • Making you more memorable to those you connect with.
       • Assisting your existing clients to refer you to others.
       • Guiding how you develop your career.

Creating your expert status
Start with these steps. You may need to get some help from trusted friends or family members to help you.
 

1. Make a list of your strengths and values that describe you best. List as many as you can (although be cautious to avoid listing the characteristics that you wish described you but really don't. Start with what you have, not what you aspire to be.)
2. Make a second list of the things that are interesting and memorable about you. This might include your background, your interests your personal style, and even your hobbies.
3. Make a third list of the things that you have in common with your target market. For example, there might be demographic or psychographic similarities, such as language, ethnicity, education, philanthropy, etc.
4. Make a fourth list describing the problems that you solve for your target market. Focus on the problems you like to solve and are particularly good at versus everything you can do. (And remember: Keep it focused on problems you solve rather than products or services you offer. This is a key difference).


Now you have four lists that describe aspects of who you are, who you like to work with, and how you can help them. Using these four lists, choose a couple of items from each list as a starting point to put together a unique expert status that not only describes you in a way that is unique among financial advisors. Here are some examples of excellent expert statuses advisors might create:


• "I'm an expert at helping women as they navigate the financial complexities of divorce."
• "I'm an expert at helping seniors who are downsizing and need estate planning."
• "I'm a Mandarin-speaking advisor who works with new immigrants and their families."
• "I'm a former Olympian who works with athletes to help them with their unique financial planning challenges."


Notice how these one-sentence descriptions immediately portray expert status, demonstrating problems that are solved, target markets that are served, and the advisor's experience and available financial solutions.
Using the four lists you made earlier, create a few of these one-sentence expert status descriptions for yourself and review them against the following questions:


• Do you like how this describes you?
• Are there people with whom this expert status would resonate?
• Can you see a growing demand for this expert status in the future?
• Which expert status feels the most authentic and motivates you to get up each day and give your very best?
• If you have some experience in the industry already, what has worked for you?


Ask family and friends for feedback. Don't expect to nail down an answer immediately, and expect to adjust this expert status over time.


If you're not sure how to construct these one-sentence expert statuses, here is a useful template to use: "My intention is to work with (my perfect prospect) ______ because I am particularly adept at helping them with _________, and they get ________ as a result."


How to use your expert status
Once you have an expert status that you feel is authentic to you and attractive to your target market, revisit your prospecting efforts to ensure that everything you do aligns with this new expert status:


• Does your expert status resonate with your audience as something they find trustworthy and memorable?
• Does your marketing communicate your expert status to your audience?
• Are there networking activities that are more closely aligned with your new expert status than the ones you are currently using?
• How can you communicate your expert status to your existing clients to help them refer others to you more actively?
• What education and personal development can you invest in to help you strengthen this expert status?
• How can you serve in the community to enhance your expert status and to build your reputation as an expert?
• What other experts can you add to your network to act as centers of influence (COIs), who would help to support your expert status and assist you in helping your clients?
Your expert status may seem like it has the potential to limit the number of people who come to you, as well as the services you offer. Counter-intuitively, it can actually make you more attractive to your prospects because an expert status separates you from your peers and elevates you.


Get started!
Take action to start building expert status today by making the four lists and gather those components together into an exciting, authentic, attractive sentence that describes why your prospects should view you as THE expert.

The views expressed here are those of the author and not necessarily those of The Wealth Channel or The American College

Disability Insurance & Barefoot Running

Scott D. Dial, DIA

Scott D. Dial, DIA, is a Disability Income Supervisor with the Guardian Life Insurance Co. of America, Financial Process Group.

I’m a one-dimensional, DI geek. I’m also a barefoot runner, which got me to thinking the two things have a lot in common.
 

Running
Running is in our nature. Humans actually evolved to run—as marathoners, not sprinters. As evidence, we have an Achilles tendon, a hefty gluteus maximus and a nuchal ligament. Why did we evolve to run? To catch prey. And how did we do that? By running them to exhaustion! As further evidence, we’re the only mammal that sheds most of its heat by sweating—animals pant. Chris McDougal, author of Born to Run, said, “Humans, with our millions of sweat glands are the best air-cool engine that evolution has ever put on the planet.


“All you have to do is scare [the animal] into a gallop, on a hot day. If you stay just close enough for it to see you, it will keep sprinting away. After about ten or fifteen kilometers worth of running, it will go into hyperthermia and collapse. If you can run six miles on a summer day, then you, my friend, are a lethal weapon in the animal kingdom.”
 

And the best way to run? Barefoot!
 

Author of Barefoot Running Michael Sandler confirms: “The truth is that running in shoes is high impact, heel-centric, promotes bad form, is relatively unstable and inflexible, [and] tends to weaken rather than strengthen the feet … In contrast, barefoot running is low-impact, toe-centric, promotes good form, enhances stability and adaptability [and] strengthens your feet in miraculous ways.”
 

Bottom line: Less is more. Least is best.
 

DI
Selling income protection is also in our nature, our professional nature. It’s what most of us were originally trained to do in this profession—it’s called life insurance! Just like life insurance, disability insurance (DI) provides future income when the client can’t. Life insurance is, in essence, a single use, catastrophic DI policy. To me, life and DI are always a dual sale. Why would you only want to insure the future income against a single event when you can insure it against thousands of events with DI? And you do you do this by selling a single concept: income protection, dead or alive.

 

Here’s the real key: 90 percent of the time, any policy that is purchased is that in which the agent believes. If you don’t believe in it and aren’t willing to go the distance with your product, it’s unlikely you will sell it.
 

So, how do you run down a DI sale? You do it simply (less is more). You diagnose and prescribe, just like your doctor or your auto mechanic. If the problem is income protection, then DI is part of the solution, and you recommend what, in your professional opinion, is the best DI policy. Remember, it’s barefoot running, not running in Moon Boots® over tube socks and a toe ring. GOOGLE teaches in its vendor seminars that the chance of selling anyone anything is about 50 percent. Add a second choice and the chance drops to 15 percent. Jim McCarty (author of The Sale They Never Told you About) put it another way: “The chance of selling a DI policy is inversely proportional to the thickness of the illustration(s)!” Again, less is more.
 

How do you determine which is the best DI policy? It’s the one that “pays the most benefits in the most claims situations.” You determine that by simply reading the definitions in the policy. For DI, the shorter the definition (the fewer words), the more protection for the client. For example, one Own-Occupation definition simply reads, “… unable to perform the important duties of your occupation.” Least is best.
 

One other commonality of barefoot running and selling DI, some might say: it’s hard. But some things are good when they’re hard, and there is a definite upside. For runners (even for non-runners), some physicians believe that every common foot ailment could be wiped out by going bare. And for selling DI, you’re protecting your clients’ most important asset—their incomes—in an insurance market with the least competition, the best persistency and an excellent renewal income stream.
 

Your formula for success? Lose the shoes. Sell DI.
 

Originally published in the Spring 2013 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, How Fast Can YOU Adapt?

Positive Change through Community Foundations

Bobbie Chapman, CAP®

Bobbie Chapman is currently the Director of Business Development at the San Francisco Community Foundation, responsible for developing relationships with prospective donors and their wealth advisors. She holds her CAP® designation from The American College.

Financial advisors frequently overlook or underestimate what community foundations offer. Many community foundations not only offer great opportunities for an advisor’s clients, but they also offer the advisors themselves a depth of knowledge, expertise and a change in perspective that is not readily available elsewhere.
 

Change is constant
As we grow older, the pace of change seems to get faster and faster. I’ve found that it’s how one embraces that change and shares it with others that allows one to keep pace and continue growing.

 

Change happens
My career was in the travel business for more than 20 years. Five years ago I decided to be my own change agent and went to work for a national donor-advised fund provider. They hired me because of my relationship skills, not my financial knowledge. I had to learn that new area from the ground up and I did so through the Chartered Advisor in Philanthropy (CAP®) program at The American College. That certification provided exactly the foundation I needed to succeed. The next challenge was learning to speak to different kinds of professional wealth advisors about the value of charitable giving and the different vehicles that can be utilized in planning.

 

Change is difficult
Making appointments with wealth advisors to talk about charitable giving was very different and a little scary. Some were very excited and others just didn’t see how community foundations could help their clients or their practice. What I learned was that if I told the story of how a donor became engaged with their giving—what it looked and felt like for them—advisors could start to see how their clients could benefit from a relationship with a community foundation.
Advisors often ask how to introduce charitable giving to their clients. Here are a few simple opening questions:


• What was the best gift you’ve ever heard of someone giving?
• How would you like to be remembered?
• Is there a nonprofit organization that helped you along the way to your success?
• What’s important to you and how do you see helping make that change?
• What would you like to see changed in the world—what can you do now, or later, to help make that change?
• What has been the most satisfying gift you have made and why? 

 

Change is universal
As professional advisors, your clients will inevitably experience changes in their own lives. They will experience personal changes, like the marriage of their children, a new grandchild or the death of a loved one. Clients will also experience professional changes, such as the sale of their company. Helping clients prepare for those changes is a key responsibility of professional advisors, and charitable giving may help address and even enrich some of these life changes:


• Help clients maximize the sale of their business.
• Help clients prioritize what is truly important in their lives.
• Build a charitable legacy for their families that can last for generations.
• Teach children the value of giving back to their community.

 

Change made easier
I strongly urge professional advisors to partner with their local community foundation. They provide a simple, powerful and highly personal approach to giving, and offer a variety of tools to help people achieve their charitable goals. Many have expertise in planned giving and the different vehicles that can be utilized to facilitate and promote a client’s philanthropy, and they are a great philanthropic resource because they understand the pulse of the community and charitable organizations. Community foundations have  nearly a century of experience working with families and professional advisors. Here are ways they can help:


They work through and with you. You stay in control of your client relationships; they are there to help you serve your clients’ charitable giving needs. Community foundations have deep knowledge of the nonprofits in the area and will help your client find those effectively working on the issues they care about most.
They partner with you by providing support, information and expertise related to charitable giving options. Many have professional advisor councils that you can become involved with—they want to work with you.
They help you build stronger relationships. Studies show that many high-net-worth individuals want to talk with their advisors about giving as they make financial plans. Clients will appreciate the charitable impact and tax advantages you help them achieve by working with a community foundation.
They connect across generations. When you help families establish donor-advised funds at their local community foundation, you and your client begin an ongoing process of involvement with current and future generations.


Change for the good
As a professional advisor, you are there to serve as the expert to help clients build their assets, to protect and guide them through their business and family financial needs. When life’s ever-changing moments come up with your clients, talk to them about charitable giving. If you want assistance, call your local community foundation. They will be happy to guide you through the discussion and help offer charitable options that work within your clients’ financial plans.

 

There is true joy to be experienced for both you and your client when you assist them in giving during their lifetime. That is creating change for good.

Originally published in the Spring 2013 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, How Fast Can YOU Adapt?

Getting at the Emotion Behind the Money

Julie Murphy Casserly, CFP®, CLU®, ChFC®

Julie Murphy Casserly, CFP®, CLU®, ChFC®, is a 17-year veteran of the financial services industry and founder of JMC Wealth Management in Chicago. Check out her award-winning book, The Emotion Behind Money. Connect with her at Julie.casserly@wcinput.

As a nation, we have a huge macroeconomic problem because of the microeconomic problems happening. Major businesses—ones that most thought were unbreakable—have fallen quite far, and entire industries have failed.
 

It was no surprise to me during the last market downturn that individuals who worked for big companies like General Motors were in a similar personal financial situation as the major corporations they worked for. On the surface they were staying afloat, but underneath the manicured lawns in large suburban neighborhoods lay a financial wreck. They, like their major companies, were just a few bad decisions away from total collapse.
 

Our responsibility
When the market failed, the blame game started. Individuals who were laid off from their jobs blamed their employers. The government blamed the big banks. The American people blamed the government. And our clients sometimes blamed us, because aren’t we the ones who suggested specific investments and laid out solid financial plans for their future? This is all true, but it’s also not blame we should take to heart.

 

Our egos give us our drive to be planners, and that’s why less than 5 percent recruited into our industry survive past five years. But our egos often keep us from changing, so we need to check them at the door. We need to stop apologizing for the work we do. It’s time for the advisor and the consumer to both have skin in the game; let’s focus on collaboration as opposed to dictation.
 

As advisors, we are there to do just that: advise. Our job isn’t to make a decision for our clients despite the fact that many would love for us to do so. Remember, this is their money. Their financial past, present and future should be in their hands, and you should just be a guide. While it can be difficult to relinquish that control, we have to get clients to internally own their decisions, not just take our advice and blame us later.
 

One of the first steps you can take is to make sure your business model supports client advocacy relationships. If you are still operating on commission only, then perhaps you are setting yourself up for failure. Money is energy. How are you energizing that client relationship? If you always have to sell, sell, sell, are you really in tune with where your clients are emotionally? 
 

Consider getting paid to listen. Charge hourly for the advice you offer or charge planning fees outside of asset management fees. They are two completely different services we provide. When doing asset management, you can get that recurring revenue coming in the door for maintaining the relationship and your revenue goals for your life’s desire at the same time. It can be done; you just have to make a conscious shift. The day I realized my recurring revenue was $500,000 annually, my life got a lot easier. And my client relationships got more rewarding.
 

Be courageous
We have to ask more questions on topics not typically associated with finances. We need to create strategic alliance relationships that are more than the normal estate planning attorneys or accountants. One of my best referral sources is a psychologist who understands why people create scarcity in their relationships, and it all has to do with how they process their money decisions.

 

You could even go more esoteric and find those working in the energy psychology sector. Clients either work things out or they act them out. Most people act them out through their health or money choices. Energy psychologists are phenomenal at getting clients to clear their path for a more abundant life, which, in turn, gets us more assets under management. More so than ever before, we must connect emotionally with those we advise. Some of us have started doing that through discussing life planning, coaching and reading behavior finance experts. But it’s time now to step out further; we must do more than focus on the outside, looking at more than rate of return. Looking, dressing and speaking like our clients may get them in the door, but it won’t keep them coming back.
 

It’s about tapping into your clients’ heart space. Impact your clients’ lives emotionally and they will become an advocate for your business. According to the Heart Math Institute, the magnetic force of our minds only goes for a couple of feet, yet the magnetic force of our hearts goes for miles. This is the difference between a market dip causing a client to negatively place blame and an advisor-client relationship emotionally rooted and based in trust. Which one of those situations do you think will lead to lower compliance complaints, higher client retention, higher revenues and more referrals? The key is having the courage to start building your business outside of just the numbers. You have to bring humanity back into finance.
 

The true cost
Recently, I did a WGN Radio interview where I spoke extensively about the emotional side of our relationship with money. A caller, whom I’ll call John, disagreed with my approach. He said that money was cheap; we should borrow cheap money and make a big return on it. People who get themselves into debt for the wrong reasons through uncontrollable spending, lack of consciousness around cash flows, or as victims of the current economic downward cycle need to shift. It is our job to get them to take a close look at what they’re doing and shift to a space of complete awareness.

 

I’ve worked with several clients like John. What I’ve found in my own business is that they operate mostly from their left, logical brain. They have a more technical, straightforward type of job like engineering or accounting. On average, about two-thirds of society is operating in dysfunction, and I believe this is because we focus too much on the left-brain aspect of our finances.
 

So what’s the true cost of viewing our finances from a technical standpoint as opposed to an emotional one? Continued dysfunction: in our finances, our business life and our personal lives. Our clients have gotten addicted to their lifestyles, and it has cost them their security. Their finances are out of whack, and that disconnect has seeped into the other areas of their lives. This is why on a macro scale we have governmental and corporate financial dysfunction. If clients don’t master how to operate personally with their finances, they cannot run companies or governments effectively. As advisors, we must lead the charge to change this.
 

Education over dictation
To repair our clients’ experience, we have to help them with more than the dollars and cents. They must unplug from jobs they hate and plug into jobs that feed their soul. They will find more success as a result because they are bringing positive energy to their work life instead of drudgery in a job that sucks the life out of them. Instead of surrounding themselves with people they hope will help them, we must encourage them to build a team that will support them in their endeavors, a personal board of directors, if you will. Otherwise, they will surround themselves with people who reinforce the behaviors they need to change. I call these their “crabs in a bucket.” Help them get those crabs out of their lives so they can start to pursue the life of their dreams. You are likely not qualified to do this on your own, but you can pull in those alliances that can help them.

 

The thought of relinquishing control to other experts is frightening. We are taught to be as all-knowing as possible when it comes to money. We keep up on investment news, stay connected with other financial experts and thought leaders, and do our best to stay informed on the different financial challenges and changes within our industry. So why, then, would I suggest that you allow other experts to guide your clients instead of you?
 

I believe that we all need to align ourselves with people who can help us create a full, authentic life. Money is a large part of that, but so are other factors like physical and mental health, professional guidance and even where we lay our heads. Your clients will be happier, more fulfilled and thankful once they are connected with people who can help them create their ideal lives.
 

More than just money
These strategic alliances are more than just advice givers; they are true guiders. They dig deep into what your client is really craving—a better job, more time for loved ones, a creative outlet—and they work with you to get your clients just that. The only way that you know exactly what your clients need, however, is to ask them.

 

How do they feel about their aging parents and the responsibility it brings them? Is their marriage putting such a strain on their lives that it’s affecting their other relationships? When do they want to retire, and how can they make that happen with loads of debt and an insatiable appetite for spending?
 

These types of questions have very little to do with money and more to do with the emotions behind it. Talk about the uncomfortable stuff with your clients even if you have different views from them. Of course we must hit the numbers with our clients, but in this tenuous financial state that is becoming a commodity. If you’re only talking about the numbers, you’re going to be left in the dust.

Originally published in the Spring 2013 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, How Fast Can YOU Adapt?

The Financial Needs and Attitudes of Women of Color

Sandra Carr

Sandra Carr is the Assistant Director, State Farm Center for Women & Financial Services. She is also the project manager for the Women’s Leadership Academy Summit. Sandra has an extensive background in communications and non-profit management. She has worked for a radio station, a PBS television station and a newspaper. Most recently, Sandra was the Director of Development for the Sunshine Foundation. As the former Executive Director for the Center for Responsible Funding (CRF), she managed Philadelphia employees’ charitable giving campaign which raised over one million dollars in annual contributions. Sandra has a Master of Science Degree in Integrated Marketing Communications from Chicago’s Roosevelt University.

The State Farm® Center for Women and Financial Services at The American College has released a landmark report entitled The Financial Needs and Attitudes of Women of Color. The purpose of the study was to better understand the financial position, goals and concerns of women of varying racial and ethnic backgrounds.
 

One of the key findings of the study revealed that most women do not feel financially secure. This overview of the report highlights some of the contributing factors creating this sense of fiscal uncertainty among women of color.
 

Debt
Reducing or eliminating debt is a top priority for three-quarters of women of all racial and ethnic backgrounds. However, the pressure to pay off debt amid the challenge of meeting their own and their family’s immediate needs are key circumstances preventing many women of color from saving and building cash reserves. This ongoing strain results in a state of financial insecurity that is consistent across women of all racial and ethnic groups.

 

Insufficient retirement savings
Although nearly three in four women indicate that saving for retirement is a high financial priority, only 28 percent of women are highly confident in their ability to calculate how much they need to save for retirement. Hispanic (67 percent) and Asian women (68 percent) are less likely than women in the general population (predominantly Caucasian, 73 percent) and African American women (74 percent) to place an emphasis on retirement savings.

 

Lack of cash reserves/emergency funds
Virtually all women surveyed (95 percent) report the need to build cash reserves and an emergency fund. Yet most have not calculated what they need or set up a plan. The lack of cash reserves exists across all income levels, hitting middle-income households the hardest. The survey indicated that the presence of cash reserves generally correlates with income. Women who reported annual household earnings of more than $80,000 are more likely to have these funds. Specifically among women of color, seven in ten Asian women (71 percent) report having this type of savings, which is significantly higher than the 56 percent of Hispanic women and 51 percent of African American women who report having an emergency fund.

 

Attitudes toward financial advisors
Women of color, regardless of economic background, are more likely to think they can’t afford a financial advisor than women in the general population. However, the majority of all women believe that working with one could help them achieve their financial goals. Among women with household incomes of $75,000 or greater, women of color are significantly less likely than others to report having a financial advisor. Specifically, fewer than one in three Hispanic, Asian and African American women are working with a professional advisor versus 43 percent of their counterparts in the general population.
When it comes to what women look for in a financial counselor, the advisor does not need to be a woman; only 15 percent call this even somewhat important. The study revealed that an advisor who understands their unique financial needs is far more important to women of color than sharing the same demographic traits, such as age (7 percent), race (6 percent) or gender (4 percent).

 

Additional insights
In conclusion, this study provides relevant financial insights into a segment of the American population that is growing in affluence and influence. Despite the challenges and the general lack of financial security, women of color report greater optimism about their financial futures. In fact, across all income levels, African American women expressed the most hope for an improved position in the coming years (74 percent compared to 56 percent of the general population). Additionally, the majority of women believe they are making progress on their goals, particularly those ages 55 and older.

 

As advisors increase their understanding of the core values, challenges and needs of women of color, they will be better prepared to assist these women in developing a financial future that is healthy and secure.
 

For the full report, visit the Women’s Center website at TheAmericanCollege.edu/Womenscenter. A video about these findings and their implications can also be found on The American College’s Wealth Channel.

 

Originally published in the Spring 2013 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, How Fast Can YOU Adapt?

Practical Perspectives that Make a Difference

Maggie Baker, PhD

Maggie Baker, PhD, is a clinical psychologist and financial therapist in the Philadelphia area and author of Crazy About Money: How Emotions Confuse Our Money Choices and What To Do About It.

As a psychologist and financial therapist, I work with the constant ebb and flow of people’s lives. As financial planners and advisors, so do you. Plus, you have to react to risk and volatility in your clients’ lives as well as in the financial markets. I’m sure that many financial advisors would love to have less change. The stability of low risk and low volatility would make decision making simpler. But change is inevitable—and not necessarily in anyone’s total control. I offer some ideas that can help you, as a financial planner or advisor, to better anticipate your clients’ reactions to major life changes.

The areas that most likely affect your clients’ money situations are health problems, divorce, death and retirement. What causes stress for people is any change that disrupts the structure and rhythm of their daily lives, even good change. Take, for example, Joe. At age 53, he was fit and engaged in an absorbing professional and family life. Biking one day, Joe fell off his bike and sustained a severe concussion and hurt his back.

Stunned, he was reduced to no activity and severe pain that lasted for several months. He and his family were overwhelmed. His financial advisor was thrown into a state of uncertainty because no one knew how long Joe would be incapacitated. Unlike most families these days, his wife was a stay-at-home mom and didn’t take care of the finances. Joe consulted his financial advisor, who, after listening to his story, encouraged him to engage with his wife to estimate his current and future medical costs, and to estimate how long he would be out of work.

Another common major financial change happens when clients divorce. Depending on the contentiousness of the divorce, the age and number of children and the couple’s assets, a divorce can be a nightmare for even the most skilled advisor. If the divorce is complicated, the process can get drawn out. And couples may perceive their advisor is taking sides even when she/he has proclaimed neutrality.

Take the example of Kevin and Dawn. Kevin earned a good living teaching at a prestigious university. He and Dawn lived with their two children in an affluent area near the university. Dawn insisted they have the best of everything. Kevin worried about their growing debt, but he was scared to disappoint his wife and children. He avoided dealing with his finances and began to fudge the truth to his financial advisor. When Dawn realized how stuck and irresponsible Kevin had become, she filed for divorce.

Although death might seem to be the most difficult of changes for an advisor to handle, retirement often presents even greater challenges because of the number of factors, some known and some unknown, that can affect retirement. An example: Sue and Don both had good-paying careers. They had been vigilant about their spending habits and systematic about saving for retirement. They were a financial advisor’s dream! As Sue and Don neared age 60, their college-age son contracted dystonia, a serious neurological disorder. At the same time, Sue’s parents, now in their 80s, confessed that they had been gambling away much of their retirement savings and would need help. Sue and Don had planned to retire from their demanding careers at 62, given the stress their work created. All the work they had done with their advisor had been geared to a specific retirement age. This dream was now no longer possible, given the added expenses of their son’s illness and Sue’s parents’ needs. All the planning in the world could not have foreseen the events that befell Sue and Don.

When bad things happen to good people it is only human to both sympathize with their misfortune and feel the urge to avoid confrontation of it. The push and pull of these feelings can often delay a call to your client because you may have to deliver bad or at least disappointing news to them. Of course, those very stressful times are exactly when your clients need the most support and empathy, not just sympathy. Being empathetic, clear and direct about the financial consequences of a change in your client’s circumstance may not be what they want to hear in the moment. In the long run, however, telling them the truth will build trust, the sine qua non (the indispensable mark) of a well-functioning client relationship.

As a psychologist and financial therapist, I can offer another important piece of guidance: Get to know a self-administered stress test called the Holmes and Rahe Life Change Scale Stress Test. This simple-to-administer paper and pencil scale (also available online) lists 41 life events and you asked, “What events have happened to you in the past 12 months?” The assigned values of each life stress event (Life Change Unit or LCU) checked off are added up. The test’s creators, Holmes and Rahe, found that individuals scoring below 150 were much less stressed and had a 35 percent chance of an illness or accident within the following two years; a total of 150-300 predicted a 51 percent chance and over 300 between an 80 and 90 percent chance of an illness or accident within the following two years.

This easy scale can give you an indication of what kind of stress level your clients are living with. If they are in the 300 LCU group, you can expect a high probability that they will suffer illness or accident within the following two years if they do nothing to reduce the stress. On the other hand, if their score is very low, they are living with stress levels they can manage well. A low score reduces some important risk factors that create instability and volatility.

Another benefit of giving your clients the Holmes and Rahe Life Change Scale Stress Test is that it will convey your concern with your client’s lives and show that you are engaged with them and looking out for their best interests.

To illustrate the usefulness of the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale, consider Hal, aged 48. How did he get a total of 374 points putting him at serious risk of poor health and vulnerable to an accident? Let’s start with his leaving his wife and three children to live with another woman. Efforts at reconciling with his wife boomeranged him back to his lover. His finances were strained because his new business wasn’t growing fast enough. He was chronically concerned about his children’s welfare, but unhappy when he returned home to them. To top Hal’s story off, he had gotten very good at having an upbeat air about him so no one would ever guess how stressed he really was.
Knowing the results of the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale will help his financial advisor get a snapshot of Hal’s distress level. His advisor can show that he understands how much stress Hal is under and offer suggestions, including the common sense reminder that checking in with his doctor might be warranted. The overall effect of better understanding your client’s life stressors will strengthen your relationship with them and build trust.

Another effective tool you can offer clients under change and stress is perspective. It is easy for clients to get lost in the immediacy of difficulty. As the advisor, you can maintain perspective and more easily see eventual outcomes your clients may know are possible but cannot relate to in their immediate confusion and panic. For example, Susan, the main breadwinner in her household, just got laid off. She and her stay-at-home husband (looking after two small children) panicked. When would she find another job? Fortunately, she got a good severance package and they had a three-month emergency fund. In helping them see that their situation was short term and holding their hand through this rough patch, their trust in their advisor will increase.

There may be times when you feel overwhelmed by the responsibility you carry for your client’s welfare. When this occurs, you may find yourself going to the extreme of either becoming too involved in your client’s difficulties or too detached. If this happens, it is wise to seek the wisdom of a more seasoned advisor, a mentor or even a therapist (www.financialtherapyassociation.org) if all else fails.

A critical goal for all financial advisors is to understand your client well enough to mutually engage with them and map out an effective strategy to deal with changed circumstances, be it a change in health, marital status, death or retirement.  Accurately communicating the strategy can calm clients down. One thing you really don't want is for an anxious client to act based on fear.

Decisions made in anxiety states are usually foolish. Understanding their changed situation, being straight with them about the reality and giving them thoughtful advice, will in and of itself lower their anxiety. The best financial advisors aren't only technical wizards. They are also people who deal with upsetting circumstances and emotions that are always a part of the chance process. Likewise, advisors can have too much change in their lives which can affect the advice they give to clients.

Originally published in the Spring 2013 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, How Fast Can YOU Adapt?

Take Charge of Your Prospecting and Revitalize Your Sales Funnel

Aaron Hoos

Formerly a stockbroker, insurance broker, and award-winning sales manager, Aaron writes for the financial and real estate industry as an educator and marketer. His first book, The Sales Funnel Bible, helps advisors master their sales funnel.

Rosemary Smyth

Rosemary is an author, columnist and an international business coach for financial advisors. She spent her career working at leading investment firms before pursuing her passion for coaching. She lives in Victoria, BC. Visit her website at www.rosemarysmyth.com.

Before embarking on a road trip, you need to know a few important facts – not only your point of origin and your desired destination but also a detailed map of the route you want to take. Your prospects go on a similar journey on their way to finding financial services. Their point of origin is the realization that they need sound financial advice from a professional. Their destination is opening an account at your office and transferring their assets to you.

Just like a road trip is made easier when the route is laid out with precise turn-by-turn directions, your financial practice will benefit from a road map (also called a "sales funnel") that outlines the exact activities you do to help prospects turn into clients. It doesn't matter if this is your first year of business as a financial advisor or if you're on the home stretch and looking to finish well, you'll gain some surprising insight into your business when you go through this sales funnel exercise and the questions that follow.

3 Steps to create your sales funnel

On a blank sheet of paper, create the following 3 lists, which correspond to the 3 stages of your sales funnel:

1. Stage 1: Contact-generating activities: Start at the top of the page and list the activities you do to meet people – your contact-generating (or lead-generating) activities. The goal of this stage is to capture some information about a lead (such as their name and contact information) so you can follow up later. This might include networking and marketing activities in which you gather names and contact information. It might entail any print or broadcast advertising that you or your firm does, public seminars you offer, a landing page on your website that invites people to know more about you, your cold calling, and any networking activities where you are meeting new people and handing out your business card. A lot of online marketing falls into this category as well.

2. Stage 2: Relationship-building activities: Then, in the middle of your page, list the activities you do to build relationships with your leads, to learn more about them and to qualify them as prospects. Here, you are connecting with people whose contact information you collected from your contact-generating activities, or from referrals, and you are now building a relationship and rapport with them. This might include follow-up phone calls and letters, newsletters, invitation-only seminars, and so on. Some marketing, like certain social media marketing, can be used for relationship-building activities. Some professionals use credibility-enhancing activities like educational materials, brochures, a book, or a series of videos to help them build a relationship with their contacts, and other professionals who prefer face-to-face relationship-building activities might meet these prospects for coffee or participate at networking events such as a Chamber of Commerce event.

3. Stage 3: Closing/selling activities: And near the bottom of your page, list the activities you do to actively persuade these prospects to become clients. This might include consultative meetings or some other sales presentation. For example, you might offer to review your prospect's portfolio and give them a second opinion, or you might uncover a specific problem that they need solved and offer to put together a plan to help them, or you might offer to help them with some of their assets so that you prove yourself to handle more of their portfolio.

This exercise should help you understand how your client-generating activities all work together: Once you have a new lead, what do you do to turn them into a prospect? And once they're a prospect, what do you do to get them to open an account with you?

Note: These aren't always clear-cut activities. The speed that someone moves through your sales funnel is partly determined by the urgency that they feel about how you can help them! Some leads turn to prospects quickly and can even become clients at the end of a relationship-building meeting. But not all prospective clients feel that sense of urgency so professionals should think about building a sequence of relationship-building activities.

Analyze your sales funnel

This is the roadmap that all of your prospective clients use on their journey toward becoming your clients as they move from lead to prospect to client. Look at the sales funnel you've just created and answer these questions:

• Reason to advance: Why should your prospective clients even go on the journey to end up at your office? Some professionals try to rush the process, attempting to jump people from the first stage of their sales funnel to the last stage (without any relationship-building in between). So, what would the impact be if you adjusted your message – instead of convincing leads to become clients, how might you invite them to move from the first stage into the second stage, where you build a relationship with them, and then how might you move those people from the second stage to the third stage where they become clients?

• Clarity and purpose: Do you have a clear and purposeful sales funnel? Once a prospect has started the journey, what can they expect next? Are you proactive in immediately moving them to that next stage or are you waiting for them to take action first? When you meet someone for the first time, what is your process for capturing information about them and following-up? How can you make this process faster for them and easier for you?

• Time and energy investment: Are there too many activities (or too many time-consuming activities) in one stage, and are these activities stealing your time and energy away from better activities? Are there too few activities in another stage, and do you need to bolster this part of your sales funnel with additional effort?

• The very best activities: Do your sales funnel activities resonate with your niche market? (For example: Will you really build credibility on social media with your niche market if they aren't active users of social media?) Which activities were the most influential in bringing your favorite clients into your office? And, which activities were most influential in bringing your least favorite clients into your office? How can you increase the activities that tend to generate the best clients?

Tracking: How do you keep track of who is in each of the three stages of your sales funnel? How do you ensure that no prospective client falls through the cracks? (Another advantage of paying attention to the number of people in each stage: You can forecast your new client sign-ups more accurately). What are the ratios as people move from one stage to the next, and how can you improve your skills to improve those ratios?

• Plug the holes: Not everyone will become clients. Some leads will exit before you can build a relationship with them; some prospects that you're building a relationship with will simply say "no" to your offer of becoming their financial advisor. So, do you know which stage is losing the most of your prospective clients and do you know why? Do you have a way to connect with them periodically just in case something changes for them?

• Skill up: If you want to grow the number of clients you have, but you don't know exactly where to focus, look at the answers to some of the questions above and decide which sales funnel activities are the most effective at bringing in the best clients (while also being effective uses of your time). And, look at the places in your sales funnel where you tend to lose people. Then invest some time in developing your skills in those areas.

Schedule time regularly to review your sales funnel and explore other ways to find new leads, build relationships with them, and invite them to become clients. By now, you should have a clear roadmap for your practice – one that will empower you to lead more of your prospective clients on a journey that culminates with them sitting in your office and opening an account with you.

 

The views expressed here are those of the author and not necessarily those of The Wealth Channel or The American College

Why Designations Matter

Sterling Raskie, MSFS, CFP®, ChFC®, CLU®

Fee-Only Investment Advisor and Financial Planner

Throughout my career I have had the occasion to talk with several financial advisors, planners, insurance agents, brokers, and other industry professionals about some of the reasons why people choose to pursue or not to pursue designations. I have heard differing views on the topic and thought I’d share some of my insights as to why I chose and still choose to pursue designations and degrees.

Before I do, let me start by talking about some of the reasons why the advisors I have spoken to decide not to earn a designation. More often than not, the typical answers that I receive are not having enough time, not sure which designation to pursue, lack of funding to afford the designation, and lack of support on earning the designation – either from their employer or family. On the latter two points, some companies may not be able to “support” the designation - think captive agents that get the CFP® or ChFC® designation. They may be allowed to earn it, but if they are captive agents to a specific company, meaning that they have to be loyal to the company first, they are not allowed to advertise it, put it on business cards or stationery, and most importantly are not allowed to act as a fiduciary – meaning that they have to put the interests of the company they work for first, then the client. This isn’t necessarily a bad thing, just different. Regarding family, many designations take a lot of time, energy and resources away from the family. Although these sacrifices are short-lived, some family members have a hard time with the time and resources being shifted momentarily.

One of the most ridiculous responses I heard came from an advisor I was having a conversation with regarding the coveted CFP® designation. Having found out that I earned it, we were discussing the finer points of what the designation means, what you have to know for the exam and so on. At the end of the conversation the advisor gave me a slap on the back and said, “I already make enough money and don’t need the designation. But have fun paying all those fees!” (Side note: as of this writing the advisor I was speaking to is no longer in the industry).

In my humble opinion there are reasons why you should and why you should not pursue a designation. As you can assimilate from the information above, it becomes clear of why we should not pursue a designation. It’s not for the “money” and it’s certainly not for the prestige (although you feel pretty good when you earn one). You shouldn’t pursue one if you feel forced to do so (would you want to work with an advisor if you knew he or she really didn’t want the letters after their name?).

Most advisors and planners pursue and earn designations because they want to. They want to better themselves, their clients and their industry. Now, I’d be lying if I said that having designations doesn’t increase your income. It certainly can. That being said, the increase in income is (and should always be) a by-product of learning, putting your clients first, and maintaining the integrity of the industry and the designation earned.

The real beauty of earning a designation is it teaches us humility. Why? Because it’s through learning and earning those designations that we truly realize how much we really don’t know – and how much more we need to learn. This industry has so much to offer and so much of it is ever-changing. To not continue to learn, earn designations and better ourselves is a disservice to our colleagues, our profession, and our clients – and most of all, ourselves.

How Spreadsheeting Ruined Long Term Care

Stephen Forman

Stephen is the Senior Vice President of Long Term Care Associates, Inc.

Do you remember how brisk long-term care insurance sales were in the 90’s? Remember when we didn’t have DRA Training Requirements, and no Google ads offering FREE quotes? Remember when we didn’t have Potential Rate Increase Disclosure forms? You know what else we didn’t have back then either…?

Stratecision.
In the last 10 years our industry has been buoyed by such endorsements as the “Own Your Future” campaign, the annual “Long Term Care Awareness Month”, and now the pan-industry “3in4NeedMore” platform, yet the combined lift of all these CTA’s have not been enough to counteract the downward force exuded by spreadsheeting.


SELLING ON VALUE
The best agents have always been those who do right by their clients. This has traditionally been understood as promulgating and recommending the best LTC solution—no matter the price. Or rather, where price is but one criteria among many.
So-called “needs-based” selling requires that the client’s needs are evaluated, and a plan tailored accordingly. From there, a broker can choose from among his arsenal of carriers to locate the most affordable bid… but “needs” are what are sold to. Walking away without closing on such a plan meant doing the customer a disservice, because he or she was not properly insured.


SELLING ON PRICE
Enter the spreadsheet. Producers love products such as Stratecision and VitaLTC. They swear by them, in fact. I’m not here to disparage either the products, the companies behind them, or their employees. However, no one can disagree they’ve changed the way LTCi is presented and sold. (In fact, I use the term “spreadsheeting” because this trend goes back as far as Excel and its analogs.)
Comparing multiple products side-by-side for your clients accomplishes many things, not the least of which is a pre-emptive strike against them attempting to obtain quotes from your competitors. It also exemplifies your expertise through a mastery of many products, and your trustworthiness because you’re willing to be transparent with industry pricing. These are all positives.
At-a-glance, your clients can readily see which product is the least expensive, and which costs the most. For the agent, this can become a powerful tool, either for or against a particular carrier. And herein lies the problem.


THE BEGINNING OF THE END
Selling on price may have always been the crutch of the lazy agent, but spreadsheeting was the great enabler. Its proliferation over the last decade has led to several undesirable consequences for our industry:


1. Bad press. As recently as last week, the Motley Fool repeated an old saw that carriers deliberately underpriced products in an effort to buy business, only to later raise rates. There is no proof that this was the case, but as long as agents continue in a race to the bottom, there will be little defense.
2. Disservice. By turning LTCi into a commodity-sale, we fail our clients and ourselves. First, the benefit configurations we custom-design begin to look like they came off a conveyor-belt. If the plan design is no longer “needs-based”, then cookie-cutters will do…and cookie-cutters is what are produced. Second, we begin to lose our fundamental sales ability over time—techniques such as “selling need”, “telling stories”, “asking questions”. If selling on price is the only tool in your toolbelt, then a “fire sale” is the only time you will make a sale. You could go broke waiting for the next one…
3. Loss of product innovation. Spreadsheets are great for comparing apples-to-apples, but what happens when you want to show an orange? Not so easy. I would contend that one of the underlying causes behind the failure of Prudential’s Evolution or MetLife’s LifeStage Advantage was their lack of “spreadsheet-ability”. During the design stage of new products, carriers are conscious of this fact now, and it has led to a rut in the “traditional” standalone LTCi product.
4. Carrier exit: As I’ve written elsewhere, any carrier marketing LTCi is only one bad product away from exiting the market. In the case of the carriers listed above, their market exits were directly preceded by non-spreadsheetable products. But there can be another reason: Live on price, die by price. If a carrier wants to make its name by being the “low-price leader”, then it must be prepared to suffer the consequences when that day comes to an end. Agents will take their spreadsheets and flee. Is that the industry we want for ourselves?
In case you missed the story, Walmart is now selling life insurance in their stores while Costco is doing the same with health. Both are part of a larger trend to commoditize insurance and de-value the role of the agent. For the life of me I have no idea why some agents would hasten their own demise!


For our part, LTCA has selected each carrier in our portfolio because its products boast a unique value proposition. If you're not promoting that value proposition, then you're vulnerable to any competitor who follows you into the home with a slightly cheaper product.
If we hope to see our industry mature, and develop a deep market rich with innovation, then we must return to “needs-based” selling. A continued focus on price—enabled by spreadsheeting—will only further depress sales by amplifying the negative consequences outlined above. I exhort my hardworking colleagues to return to fundamentals, and as always,

Good Selling.

The views expressed here are those of the author and not necessarily those of The Wealth Channel or The American College

Image Courtesy of http://www.recover-files.ca/recover-spreadsheet-files.html.
Image Courtesy of http://www.azlandscapesolutions.com/comparing-landscape-companies.html

Women and life insurance: The bridge to somewhere

Mary Quist-Newins, CLU®, ChFC®, CFP®

As the State Farm Chair in Women & Financial Services at The American College, Mary is also the author of Women and Money: Matters of Trust.

Pop quiz: Please identify the diagram below:

 

 

(1)

a) The 2009 Congressional Actuarial Tax Chart
b) Leonardo da Vinci's illustration of "the cycles of life"
c) Hypothetical illustration of the economic value of human life
d) A pizza oven
e) All of the above

The correct answer is (c). If you answered correctly, go to the head of the class. This diagram depicts one interpretation of the "Human Life Value" from Life Insurance, the book by Dr. Dan McGill, PhD, CLU®, edited by Ed Graves, CLU®, ChFC®, and copyright The American College.

As a financial planner, I have frequently thought this line of work had many parallels with bridge-building. We seek to bridge the gaps between today's financial realities and tomorrow's securities -- and across the chasms of risk.

Life insurance is often one of the most fundamental, necessary -- yet sometimes complex -- of the bridges we build. Determining the appropriate amount and type of the life insurance bridge is a function of analyzing and interpreting the economic aspects of human life value. The concept of human life value originated with University of Pennsylvania (Wharton School) faculty member, industry pioneer and founder of The American College, Professor Solomon S. Huebner. In a nutshell, quantifying economic value of human life incorporates annual income, expenses, years until retirement, inflation and the present value of funds needed for retired years.

So what does this have to do with women and life insurance?

Studies have shown that while women indicate they understand life insurance as a product, few have quantified its economic value. Put another way, most women have not "built the bridge" for their family's financial security in the event of their husband's and their own premature death.

Consider the following data from recent research conducted by Prudential Financial:
Nearly 80 percent of women say they understand life insurance well or somewhat well. (It is worth noting that life insurance ranks almost highest in women's understanding of financial products, second only to savings accounts.) (2)

However, few women have put a price on their human life value. In fact, just one in three have preparations for premature death including life insurance, and more than four in ten (44 percent) have not even discussed the issue with their spouse. (3)
The conclusion one might draw from these statistics is that here we have a situation where the product is arguably well understood, but its utility, perhaps, is not.

More data to chew on:
76 percent of women (69 percent of men) rate life insurance as very or somewhat important: (4)

Fifty-six percent of working women who have life insurance coverage do not believe or are unsure that the amount of coverage they have is adequate. (5)

46 percent of full-time working women have not taken any steps to determine their life insurance needs. (5)

Although 69 percent of Americans believe both parents in a household where one parent works and the other stays at home to care for children should have life insurance, just 7 percent report that to be the case in their home. (4)

While women have made significant gains in their economic contributions to both the workplace and home, their connection to her family's security is rarely made. Even if a bridge has been started, it most likely will not span the economic gulf that the family might find itself in. The average death benefit, at nearly $76,000 for a working woman, is about half that of her average male peer (about $143,000.) (6)

And, it's not just women who need a clearer picture of their economic human life value. Certainly, most men are underinsured, assuming an average death benefit in the low $140,000s. One of the most troubling statistics I have come across is that 80 percent of widows living in poverty were not poor when their husbands were alive. (7)

In light of these statistics, it would not be an overstatement to say that both women and men seriously underestimate the monetary worth of their contributions to the household. Here is a great "litmus test" question that dramatically illustrates the common lack of or low life appraisal from Associate Professor Ed Graves, CLU®, ChFC®, Associate Professor of Insurance and holder of the Charles J. Zimmerman Chair in Life Insurance Education at The American College: "Is the amount of coverage that you currently have in-force equal to the maximum amount you would seek in a wrongful death settlement?"

Help build the bridge

As a trusted professional, you are the engineer in helping your clients build better bridges to their financial security. Diligent fact-finding, well thought-out analysis of current and projected sources/uses of cash, researching and presenting alternative product options can set you apart.

As a financial planner, I found risk management, particularly related to human life value, to be one of the most rewarding aspects of financial planning. My experience has been that even the most stalwart opponents to life insurance (often male; sorry, guys) found it hard to argue with the "bridge" presented, including the objective facts, analysis, findings and alternatives. The processes of conducting a thorough and comprehensive data gather, analyzing alternative scenarios, and weighing product options along with their costs, pros and cons, draw one closer to clients. Good relationship building, of course, pays other dividends too -- often in the forms of multi-lining and quality referrals.

If you are in need of bridge-building resources for your life insurance clients, male and/or female, here are two suggestions:
1) Check out the comprehensive life insurance analysis on dinkytown.net. The site has one of the most robust "free" Internet tools I have seen. As background, Dinkytown develops and sells online calculators to financial advisors for posting on their Web sites. For the curious, Dinkytown is a neighborhood in Minneapolis.)

2) Apply this five-step procedure from the McGill textbook on life insurance for estimating economic value using a computer, financial calculator or compound-interest tables:

1. Estimate the individual's average annual earnings from personal efforts over the remaining years of his or her income-producing lifetime.

2. Deduct federal and state income taxes, life insurance premiums and the cost of self-maintenance.

3. Determine the number of years between the individual's present age and the contemplated age of retirement.

4. Select a reasonable rate of interest at which future earnings will be discounted.

5. Multiply (1) minus (2) by the present value of $1 per annum for the period determined in (3), discounted at the rate of interest selected in (4). (1)
Or, consider taking a Chartered Life Underwriter® (CLU®) course or refresher through TheAmericanCollege.edu.

Bridge-builders for life unite!

Double Jeopardy

Mary Quist-Newins, CLU®, ChFC®, CFP®

As the State Farm Chair in Women & Financial Services at The American College, Mary is also the author of Women and Money: Matters of Trust.

Ask any woman about long-term care, and she'll tell you it's not about insurance. It's about her family and her quality of life. It's about understanding the twin risks of LTC that women disproportionately face, determining what those risks mean to her and her loved ones, and guiding a proactive planning process. Women are in double jeopardy here because they are often both caregivers and receivers. This double jeopardy presents significant financial dangers.

RISK ONE: CAREGIVING

For many women, the first exposure to LTC occurs when they provide services or financial support to a loved one. Women are the vast majority of professional or formal caregivers; they're also the primary deliverers of informal home care. Approximately 75% of those providing home care are female, most often daughters. Women also spend 50% more time giving care than men.

While the high cost of facility care is common knowledge, the costs and consequences associated with giving care in the home are less well known. Consider these stark realities:

* Nationally, more than 6.4 million working women provide direct or indirect caregiving assistance. By 2010, 10.1 million employed women will bear this burden. As boomers age, these numbers could double by 2050.

* According to research from the National Center on Women and Aging, family caregivers lose an average of $659,130 over a lifetime in reduced salary and retirement benefits.

* Forty-four percent of female caregivers report high levels of physical strain or emotional stress, while employed caregivers are more than twice as likely to develop depression.

* Women who become caregivers are nearly three times more likely to end up in poverty and five times more likely to depend exclusively on Social Security.

RISK TWO: CARE RECEIVING

Lack of preparation about her own future care significantly magnifies a woman's financial risks. The chances the general population will need LTC is about 50%; for women over 65, it's more than 70%. Women are also more likely to be cared for in a facility and for a longer period of time. Seventy percent of nursing home residents are female, with an average stay of 3.7 years versus. 2.2 years for men. As a result, the average American woman is likely to incur more than double the LTC expense of the average male.

RISK THREE: DENIAL

Despite this double jeopardy, women have a disturbing tendency to avoid the subject of LTC. Consider:

* A Securian Financial survey found that 84% of respondents whose parents required care in their final years said no plans were made ahead of time.

* Just 18% of women talked to their spouse or partner about LTC, according to Prudential Financial research.

* Only 35% of women in a 2009 survey by America's Health Insurance Plan said they had thought about or planned for how they will cover LTC costs.

CALCULATING RISKS

To develop a well thought-out plan, the advisor must determine what the client understands about her risks and if she's taken any steps to reduce them. This means uncovering the client's own potential for needing care, as well as the likelihood that she will have to provide care for her parents, spouse or both.

Retirement plans that exclude the financial impact of being a caregiver shortchange many women. If indications are strong that a client will be a caregiver, the advisor needs to help develop realistic assumptions and incorporate them into her financial plan.

Regarding the client's own needs for future care, building her awareness begins with questions like:

* How likely do you think it is that you might need LTC?

* How familiar are you with different LTC arrangements and their costs?

* What plans have you made with your family should you require LTC?

Developing a personalized estimate of a client's LTC costs can be an eye- opening exercise. For a particularly good tool, go to www.medicare.gov/LTCPlanning. Beyond providing a wealth of unbiased information, the site features a personal calculator that gives an individualized projection of care costs and probability based on gender, age and health history factors. Geographic differences in care costs are also incorporated into the estimates. Once a client understands her risks, the advisor will analyze her financial preparedness to meet them. With the help of planning software, this step looks at projected sources and uses of cash in the likelihood of LTC, and how it will impact a spouse or dependents.

When analyzing LTC risks, remember that most planning software has serious limitations, says Craig Lemoine, CFP and assistant professor of financial planning at The American College in Bryn Mawr, Pa. An expert in software programs, Lemoine has extensive financial planning experience as well. Here are the primary questions he asks when evaluating LTC planning applications:

* Am I using goal-based or cash flow software? Goal-based software is top down. That is, total income and expenses are adjusted upward or downward to account for anticipated events (e.g., retirement expenses are 80% of preretirement expenses). Most basic planning calculators, including those found for free on the web, take this approach.

On the other hand, cash flow-based software is bottom up, which allows for line item adjustments to income and expense streams (e.g., turning streams on and off, modifying amounts, inputting independent inflation rates). Cash flow software creates a more detailed output. The advisor can accommodate a variety of expense situations for an at-home spouse, at-home care, assisted living and nursing facility care. Also, as inflation for care will likely outpace other costs of living, the ability to manipulate rates independently allows for far more realistic long-term projections.

* How is LTC coverage built into the program? Both cash flow and goal-based programs generally allow for single inputs on LTC coverage, simplistically reflecting coverage elements (e.g., waiting period, duration, 100% benefit payment). Lemoine says this leads to more of a "check-the-box" exercise than planning. While advisors can adjust expenses to reflect levels of care in cash flow-based software, coverage not needed on the resource side is typically reflected as phantom asset accumulation, leading to an under- or overstatement of net worth.

* How easy is it to compare alternative policies? Most software platforms allow you to analyze only one policy at a time. This makes it cumbersome to perform quantitative analysis and compare alternative coverage designs.

* How is probability modeling addressed? Most financial modeling software revolves around investment outcomes and probabilities, Lemoine says. "These projections largely ignore probabilities associated with personal risks." He says the current generation of software ignores questions like: "Will the benefit kick in?" "Will you outlive the benefit?" "Will inflation outplace the coverage?" To develop a deeper analysis, advisors must recognize and possibly address limitations.

TO INSURE OR NOT INSURE

After conducting a thorough risk analysis, one of the main decisions your client must make is whether to buy LTC insurance. Since insurance transfers risk, there are three basic options to consider before even looking at the product:

* Transfer all of the risk (provide 100% gap coverage, lifetime coverage, maximum inflation protection)

* Transfer some of the risk (provide partial gap coverage, limited benefit period, shared policies, simple inflation protection, LTC riders attached to other financial products)

* Transfer none of the risk (self- insure or take one's chances).

Regardless of which option the client chooses, the plan is key. If the choice is, "I will live with the risk," then the planner needs to ensure there are financial and family game plans in place to deal with the consequences. Many families are torn apart and women left destitute by leaving LTC decisions to chance. Financial planners can make a meaningful difference in their female clients' lives by helping them understand, quantify and adequately prepare to meet their risks. As with so many other financial goals, the plan's the thing.

 

Untapped Market

Mary Quist-Newins, CLU®, ChFC®, CFP®

As the State Farm Chair in Women & Financial Services at The American College, Mary is also the author of Women and Money: Matters of Trust.

ake these numbers, for example. More than half of the investment assets in the U.S. are controlled by women. Women also account for more than 40% of all Americans with gross investable assets above $600,000 and 48% of the country's millionaires, according to Oppenheimer's 2006 study Women and Investing. Nearly half the country's estates worth more than $5 million are controlled by, you guessed it, women.

But wait, there's more. Women's economic future is even brighter. American females have earned more bachelor's and master's degrees than men every year for three decades, leading to increased earning power. Add to that the generational and spousal wealth transfer these women have coming down the pipeline (estimates range from $14 trillion to $25 trillion) and it's clear why many predict that, by 2030, two-thirds of the nation's wealth will be in women's hands.

WASTED OPPORTUNITY

Despite the opportunity this thriving market presents, however, financial planners largely ignore women. Only a small minority of financial professionals actively seek to attract female clients, leaving a vast and lucrative market for advice significantly underserved.

A 2008 study by the Life Insurance Marketing and Research Association (LIMRA), for instance, found that only about one in six male insurance representatives and roughly half of all female representatives plan to target the female market. Considering roughly three out of four financial professionals are male-regardless of their business model-the weighted percentage of representatives marketing to women is less than 25%.

This makes the women's market one of the greatest growth opportunities for a financial planner today-an opportunity many have disregarded. This is baffling, considering study after study has proven that women are a receptive market.

In fact, women are more interested in receiving professional financial advice than men are. According to a 2008 study by Allianz, one half of women prefer to learn about financial products from financial professionals. Talk about a thirst for knowledge.

 

BUMPS IN THE ROAD

This, of course, is good news for financial planners-though that doesn't mean this market is without obstacles. Most significantly, women as a group, are subject to much financial change-even extreme change-over the course of their lifetime. For instance, women today are more likely than men to find themselves in poverty at some point in their life. That's because women are more likely than men to have to contend with lower lifetime earnings, longer life expectancy, singlehood, chronic and disabling health conditions, and lower levels of financial literacy. The death of a spouse can be especially debilitating, and can mean loss of one Social Security check, a pension and, in some cases, health coverage. Widowhood can also leave a woman with the couple's remaining debt, which is often quite high.

Together, these factors can mean a life of destitution-particularly for older women, even those who have been financially secure most of their lives. According to the Deptartment of Labor, women are twice as likely as men to live below the poverty line during their retirement years, and almost three out of four Americans over 65 classified as "poor" are female.

This obstacle, however, is your opportunity. Educated women are aware of many of their financial risks and want to avoid becoming part of a poverty statistic. In fact, according to Oppenheimer's 2006 study, the vast majority of women think they will live to be 80 or older, believe they will spend part of their retirement in a nursing home and expect to outlive their spouses.

Even better, they want to do something about it. One in three women is eager to strengthen her financial planning skills but just doesn't know where to begin, Allianz's survey revealed. Your services can be a solution.

Another potential roadblock in serving the women's market is that most women have high suspicion of-and very low regard for-the financial services industry. A 2008 survey by State Farm revealed that just one in three women trusted financial professionals, and that three in four female respondents were skeptical when first meeting with a financial professional. This trust was surely diminished even further over the last two years, thanks to Madoff and other Ponzi schemers.

Many women also feel disconnected and disrespected by the industry as a whole. According to research conducted by the Boston Consulting Group between 2008 and 2009, financial services ranks as the industry least in touch with what women are looking for. Women complained that financial services reps talk down to them, show a lack of respect and-most disturbingly-provide them with poor advice.

After looking at the numbers, it's apparent that financial planners hoping to attract female clients will have to work to establish their credibility. And sure, what professional wants to surmount such a high level of mistrust? But not doing so ignores an enormous opportunity to provide an underserved market with top-of-the-line service, a long proven strategy for business growth.

An exhaustive list of articles have surfaced over the years revealing ways in which to serve female clients, covering everything from appealing to women's conversational spirit to honing in on the infamous "bag lady" fear. But here's another simple way to serve this flourishing throng of clientele: Educate them.

 

WORTH THE EFFORT

While financial literacy in the U.S. is low for both genders, women lag behind men in their understanding of even the most rudimentary financial concepts. The good news, however, is that women want to learn. Research by Oppenheimer found that 90% of wealthy female investors want their planner to fully explain financial concepts and that they don't feel comfortable making investment decisions themselves.

The even better news: Clearly explaining abstract financial concepts to women can help you grow your business too. Of course, financial planners who frequently provide information that enhances financial literacy are twice as likely to receive referrals. But happy female clients are especially beneficial to acquiring new business, with a referral rate of 5.1 times. Men refer at a rate of only 1.3 times.

An advisor will hinder his (or her) practice from flourishing by disregarding a female clients' inclination to share experiences. Those who take the time to teach women about their finances will likely enjoy their loyalty, and that of her friends, family and neighbors. Clear, digestible education brings new clients-it's that simple.

JUST DO IT

Financial professionals can (and some might argue, must) work to improve the lives of American women. This year, there will be an unprecedented opportunity to do so. As part of April's National Financial Literacy Month, more than 100,000 financial professionals, coaches and educators will team up in the largest financial literacy campaign in history, Stand Up for Financial Literacy (www.stand4fl .org). Planners can participate in their local communities by holding town hall meetings and seminars or speaking to community organizations. Other industry groups and companies are offering similar initiatives.

However you choose to participate, financial planners who reach out to women's groups and audiences through educational initiatives will build trust-and quite possibly their business. Now is the time to stand up and make a difference in the lives of American women. Educate them on the opportunities ahead of them-and you just might see your own opportunities multiply.

Retirement and Social Security challenges for women

Mary Quist-Newins, CLU®, ChFC®, CFP®

As the State Farm Chair in Women & Financial Services at The American College, Mary is also the author of Women and Money: Matters of Trust.

Even before our country's current economic woes, one could reasonably argue that the vast majority of both American women and men needed trustworthy, competent and financial professionals to guide them. As markets have continued to unravel in recent months, that need has grown. Moreover, navigating the complexities of Social Security benefits and integrating them into a well-thought-out plan of action require significant expertise.

Here are just a few unsettling statistics for perspective:
Thirty-one percent of the U.S. workforce had no savings set aside.1

Forty percent of all Americans end up retiring earlier than planned.2

The U.S. savings rate experienced a steady decline from 1970 when Americans saved roughly 9 percent of their after-tax income to 2005, when the savings rate actually drifted into the negative.3
Since women, on average, have less savings than men, we can only imagine a more ominous picture. The sad fact is that many women face a nightmare of poverty in retirement. The data that illustrate this phenomenon are as tragic as they are startling:
Almost three-in-four Americans older than the age of 65 living in poverty are women.4

The median income for women over age 65 is more than one-third lower than men in the same age group.5

A full 80 percent of widows living in poverty were not poor when their husbands were alive.6

By some estimates, without Social Security, the poverty rate for elderly females would increase from about 12 percent to more than 50 percent.7
Factors that increase a woman's retirement risks and potentially compromise her Social Security benefits include:
Family matters: On average, women take 12 years out of their working lives to care for children and/or parents. 7 Fewer years in the workforce results in fewer dollars set aside for the future and lower Social Security benefits.

Lower earnings: The wage gap of about 20 cents on the dollar to the average earned by men translates to an even larger proportion of income that should be saved and smaller Social Security payments.8

Greater longevity: This means that a woman's retirement savings and her benefits need to stretch much further. To compensate for both higher life expectancy and a greater need for self sufficiency, some have calculated that women need to save as much as 2 percent more than men every year for 30 years.9

Singlehood: Women are more than twice as likely to be alone in their later years as men10. In 2004, according to the Social Security Administration, 61 percent of women older than age 65 living alone had an annual income under $15,000. Even adjusted for inflation, that income still falls below $20,000 per year.5

Sources of income: For 25 percent of unmarried women, Social Security is their only source of income.11
As financial professionals, it is essential for us to take note of these issues when helping our female clients with their retirement plans. It is all the more important when we consider how vital Social Security is for most Americans. Almost two-thirds of all beneficiaries older than age 70 are female and for three-in-four women, benefits represent at least half of their retirement income.12

Beyond the current state of affairs for women, it is likely we will see an increasing, not declining, dependency on Social Security in light of the current economic climate, persistently low personal savings and other risk factors. As such, it falls to us to not only become experts on the intricacies of Social Security benefits, but also when it might be best for a woman and her spouse, if applicable, to claim them.

In a 2007 article from the Journal of Financial Planning, Alicia H. Munnell, director of the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, suggested that it is generally advisable for single women to delay claiming as long as possible. For married couples, wives (who are most likely younger) should claim early and the husband should delay.13 However, with these, as with any "rules of thumb," making sweeping generalizations can be dangerous unless our clients are (pardon the pun) "all thumbs."

Since Social Security is the mainstay for many women, it's important for financial professionals to carefully analyze a range of benefits and alternative income (e.g., working and asset-based) options. And, it's not just her benefits that matter. Analyzing various scenarios on both spouses determines the impact of taking benefits earlier or later. As many women outlive their husbands, projections also must take into account what she might be entitled to as a surviving spouse with her potentially higher life expectancy. The health history and longevity patterns of both the husband and wife are also essential to take into consideration.

Simply put: Relying solely on basic assumptions, rules of thumb, or even the annual statement of estimated Social Security benefits will fall far short of what most women will need in a well-developed retirement plan.

An excellent resource for both financial professionals and the public is the Social Security Web site at www.ssa.gov. The site is rich in information, including frequently asked questions and the most comprehensive resource of all -- the Social Security handbook. The handbook provides exhaustive detail on all aspects of the program and will help you build the expertise that will aid many of your clients.

In addition, the Web site provides four calculators to estimate the impact of claiming benefits earlier or later. You can then plug those benefit amounts into planning software, along with assumptions on other income sources (e.g., pensions, asset yield and liquidation, employment, etc.), estimated expenses, longevity and inflation.

Becoming an expert in Social Security and how to optimize benefits in a woman's retirement might literally save her from a life of poverty. Most of us came into this business to help others. Here is a real opportunity for us to do just that.

The benefit of your hard work in putting together a well-thought-out plan? Industry studies show that planning not only increases a woman's confidence, but also increases the rates of implementation and cross-selling. This means not only greater retirement security for your female clients, but also more referrals, higher income and maybe even the satisfaction of knowing you made a real difference.

There’s No One With Endurance Like the Man Who Sells Insurance

Alan Press, CLU®, LUTCF®

Yes, indeed. The Man Who Sells Insurance has been around your neighborhood, motivated by commissions, since about the 1830s. The agency system for the distribution of life insurance has been with us for about 185 years. Now that’s endurance! That’s longevity!

Although we cannot be precise on this detail, he probably worked for the New York Insurance and Trust Company (no relation to the present day New York Life). He was paid 5 percent of the first-year premium and no renewals. Before long, though, competitors realized his value. His first-year commission doubled to 10 percent of the first-year premium. And he also received lifetime renewals of 5 percent. 


Once they understood how valuable the Man Who Sells Insurance could be, other companies began to bid for his services. The Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York (est. 1845), Mutual Benefit Life (est. 1845) and the Connecticut Mutual Life (est. 1846) all flourished, because they understood that their profitability depended on an ever-increasing cadre of highly motivated, well compensated agents, who could consistently do the difficult job of selling insurance every day.

Think of all the neighborhood pharmacies, florists, bookstores, hardware stores, travel agencies and other stores we all patronized. They are almost all gone. Why has the agency system survived, and indeed thrived, when so many other product distribution systems have essentially disappeared?

Every thoughtful reader will come up with his or her own rationale. My instinct tells me that the reasons involve three interrelated forces—the product, the people and the primary element, trust. Since the beginning, insurance producers continue to this day to make the agency system an indispensable element in the equation.

The product 

The sale of our products involves getting people to think and talk about the three things they want least to happen to them, their death, disability or old age. Many will ultimately face all of these without adequate resources to meet those challenges, unless they listen to us and act on our advice.

You can’t park a life insurance policy in your driveway and blow away your neighbors with it. You can’t wear one on your back, your wrist or your finger. If you tried to brag about your new million-dollar policy at a neighborhood cocktail party, somebody would probably ask you, “What are your other symptoms?” It would be an instant room-clearer. 

In contrast, we buy lots of different products from so-called salesmen. Most of them are no more than order takers. They don’t do anything to make us come through the door of their stores. If we don’t walk in, they have nothing to do. And we often know what we want before we enter. 
For example, 
over the course of my lifetime, I have probably bought 20 cars. In every instance I knew the exact brand, model, color and options that I wanted before I walked into the dealership. The various salesmen insisted on telling me how many 
seconds it would take me to get from 0 to 60 miles an hour, 
the number of gears in the transmission, about the speakers for the radio and how many 
miles per gallon I would get. 
I knew all of that before I walked in. The only information I wanted from him was how much it was going to cost me.

Whichever dealer gave me the most competitive price got the sale. 

Not one of them ever followed up with a call and said, “Your car is almost three years old. The warranty will end soon. We’d like to bring a new one with all of the nifty gizmos to your driveway and let you test-drive it for a few days. Then we will show you how we can get you into it at a price you will be comfortable with.” 
  


How many of you have ever had the experience of a total stranger coming through the door of your office and telling the receptionist, “I woke up this morning and decided that I want to buy a life insurance policy. Is there anyone here that could sell one to me?” 

In my 56 years in the business, it has never happened. But if it did, I would probably respond to him or her with a question of my own: “Are you on your way to New York Hospital for a heart transplant?”
The people 


It takes dedicated, highly motivated, well-educated advisors to sell life insurance. To overcome the procrastination instinct that inhibits so many of our sales. Advisors must face negative responses. We are paid for what we do, not who we are. We must be able to structure our own days. We must get ourselves to do the hardest job. We must continually prospect. 
  

Paraphrasing Albert E. N. Gray’s The Common Denominator of Success, we must be able to get ourselves to do the things we don’t want to do, the things that unsuccessful people cannot get themselves to do. We must get ourselves do them every single day. And, above all, we must do them all with integrity.

The reason successful advisors can command significant levels of income is simple. Very few people can consistently do the job well. It’s Economics 101: supply and demand. 

Trust 


We ask our clients to give us a significant amount of their hard-earned money in return for an eight or 10-page document that the vast majority of them will never completely read, and wouldn’t understand most of if they did. It is above all, a trust sale.
Only people can earn trust. There is no such thing as a life insurance company or agency that exists as an independent entity, apart from the men and women who work within it and define it. The organization that attracts and keeps quality people who understand their responsibilities to the individuals who buy from us because they trust us will be a good company, a successful company. And the opposite is equally true.

We tell our clients, “We will be there for you when you and your love ones need us. We will keep our promises when the things you don’t want to happen, happen, as they surely will.” That is an enormous responsibility that must never be compromised. The purchase of a life insurance policy is a trust-driven transaction. It can take years and years of consistent hard work to build and maintain trust. But trust can be lost forever in a matter of minutes if we do not continually conduct ourselves in a manner worthy of our mission.
For 185 years (with certain notable aberrations) the good men and women who manufacture, sell and service our products have been mission driven. There is every reason to hope and believe that we will be around for the next 185 years, if we continue to earn the trust and confidence of all those we serve and maintain the consistencies that are part of the life insurance equation.

“There’s No One With Endurance Like The Man Who Sells Insurance” is the title of a song written by Frank Crumit, published by Decca in 1935.

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

Talking to Clients About Overspending in Retirement

Zachary S. Parker, MBA, CFP®

Although outliving retirement savings has become a major concern for a growing number of adults, many have difficulty reconciling their retirement expectations and reality. Consider that:

• Pre-retirees (age 50-59) expect to live about 21 years after retirement and plan to spend almost 10 percent of their savings in each of those years (Wells Fargo 2009 Retirement Fitness Survey).
• Eight percent expect their standard of living to rise in retirement (Gregory Salsbury, Retirementology).
• Forty-seven percent of retirees have a written withdrawal plan and only 28 percent have a written budget for spending during retirement (2008 Wachovia Retirement Survey).
Financial advisors routinely deal with this disparity. In a 2011 survey conducted by Principal, 73 percent of advisors reported living beyond one’s means as the most common issue on which clients fail to be entirely forthcoming. According to the 2005 On Wall Street article “Confronting the Overspending Client,” financial planners report having to confront 10 percent to 30 percent of their clients regarding spending.

Clients whose spending threatens their retirement have three basic choices to prevent that from happening:

1. Stop overspending,
2. Compromise on retirement goals
3. Work longer

Because clients accustomed to years of overspending may not be able to entirely curb those habits, a combination of these approaches may prove necessary.
Stop overspending
The March 2011 Journal of Financial Planning article, “Motivating and Helping the Overspending Client: A Stages-of-Change Model,” by James Grubman, Ph.D.; Kathleen Bollerud, Ed.D.; and Cheryl R. Holland, CFP, applied a behavioral model previously developed to describe the behavior of drug or alcohol addicts to the issue of overspending clients. The article suggested that by understanding each stage (denial, ambivalence and action) and adapting their communication approach, advisors may be able to more successfully help spending addicts change their destructive behavior.

Advisors working with clients in the denial stage should focus on building rapport and helping the client compare their spending behavior against the retirement goals and dreams they identified during the discovery process. Maintaining a neutral and helpful approach provides the groundwork for the advisor to begin educating the client.

In the ambivalence stage, logical illustrations of the consequences of overspending—charts, graphs and spreadsheets—may have more impact. A summary showing all distributions, with the unplanned distributions in red, may help them visualize how far they have deviated from their plan. A calculator showing how withdrawing an extra $1,000 per month today impacts their plan in 25 or 30 years can help them understand the long-term consequences of their actions.

Clients in the ambivalent stage may respond more to shock therapy statements than they did in the denial stage. Some examples of statements advisors use to shock clients into change include:

• “Please indicate the date on this calendar when you want to receive your last distribution check.”
• “What are you going to do when you run out of money?”
• “What will it feel like to ask a friend or family member for money so you can eat?”
• “Do you think it will be easier to get a job at age 75 or to cut back a little now?”
• “Which of your children are you planning to live with when your money runs out? Have you spoken to them to see if that’s going to be okay? How do you think that will impact their family?”

As clients decrease denial and resistance and increase talking about the negative consequences of their spending, the advisor can begin moving them into the preparation stage. Getting input from the client on how they can change their behavior will increase their buy-in and the likelihood they will follow through during the action stage. In preparing an action plan, clients and advisors may consider emotional-based tools such as therapy or more intellectual or logical tools like budgeting. Advisors should help the client think through additional actions if life events, such as a marriage, divorce or death, derail their progress. Advisors should also be prepared for relapses and help the client examine what caused the relapse and how to get back on track.

Adjust retirement goals and expectations
In 2011, Sun Life’s Unretirement Index found 80 percent of people who planned to work at the age of 67 would do so to earn enough money to live well. The client’s definition of “live well” may require adjustment before or during retirement based on the realities of their accumulated assets and their ability to work. Advisors may need to help clients re-examine their retirement goals and set priorities. Compromising on retirement plans—for example, making trips shorter or reducing a planned legacy—could reduce the client’s feeling of giving up retirement dreams.

Like any skill, living within a spending plan takes practice for those who have never done it before. Some financial advisors help pre-retirees create a budget and ask them to live within it for several months. By testing the spending plan for several months before retirement, the client and the advisor get an idea of how realistic the spending plan will be for the client during retirement.

Work longer
Clients often reach the decision to delay retirement when they understand the spending level their retirement savings can support. The pre-retirement budget exercise may result in clients deciding to work longer and making more conscious decisions about their spending. But working longer is not a guaranteed safety net if clients’ retirement funds become uncomfortably low, particularly given today’s employment market.

According to the Social Security Administration, three in 10 workers will experience a disability that prevents them from working before they are ready to retire. To mitigate the risk that disability will reduce or eliminate a client’s ability to work as long as they hope, advisors should help the client review disability insurance. The number of years clients have until their target retirement date and their current accumulated retirement assets could affect the amount of disability coverage needed. Although many employers offer disability coverage based on a percentage of the employee’s salary, clients may need more coverage to offset the following:

• Loss of income for immediate living expenses
• Loss of money that would have been invested for retirement
• Depletion of current retirement savings to cover expenses related to the disability

Lay the groundwork now for successful retirement later
At some point in their career, most advisors will face the dilemma of approaching a client whose overspending threatens his or her retirement distribution plan. Advisors can help clients understand that having enough income to fully fund their retirement can requires some tough choices.
Because overspending can severely threaten a client’s retirement distribution plan, advisors should start early in the relationship to document their recommendations and the client’s actions. Helping clients change their emotional relationship with money and modify their spending behaviors can be gratifying for advisors, particularly when those clients can then enjoy a less stressful retirement. When advisors have the appropriate knowledge, skills and resources, those conversations can be more productive and can lead to deeper client relationships and higher client satisfaction levels.

Women in Field Management—Why Not More?

Bianca O’Brien, CLF®, CLTC

I began my career in New York Life’s headquarters in New York City and spent 19 years navigating the corporate environment. I loved it and was thriving when in 2004, after having worked more directly with the company’s agents and field managers, I decided I wanted to switch my career from a corporate environment to one that gave me entrepreneurial opportunity, control, flexibility and a path to field management. I never considered my gender an obstacle or a plus. I just knew I was as capable as anyone else to get the job done. You see, I had ambition, the willingness to work hard and a belief in myself and the company that employed me.

I became an agent and excelled. Four years later, in 2008, I was ready to become a partner, which was my first position in field management, and I received a promotion to senior partner in 2011. I currently manage and lead the Jericho Sales Office, which consists of more than 100 agents. 

As the number of women agents increases, it makes sense to believe this would correlate over time to seeing more women in field management positions. How do hiring managers ensure this happens? Here are some tips I use in my managerial role that are not new, but mainly a shift in thinking and mindset.

Tip 1: Take gender out of it completely

Are assumptions that managers have about a woman’s family responsibilities preventing growth? I believe that the skills of motherhood are similar to those required of leading managers—stamina, dependability, delegation, communication, self-discipline and prioritizing. I have witnessed many women who are successful leaders because they work smart and take time off to be with their families. It is not a lack of commitment but an ability to live a whole life that gives women staying power. 

Tip 2: Communicate the opportunity to move into a management role early on

Hiring managers need to present opportunities to men and women early in the interview process and ask them about their management goals up front. Women need to know the opportunity is there and if they are interested, they will take the proper steps to strive for a management position.
 

Tip 3: Be patient and understand the timeline

Women who will go into management may not follow a traditional timeline. Recruit them young, recruit them early, recruit them late—it all works for women. At New York Life a typical timeline for an agent to transition to management is two years, assuming they meet all the requirements. In my case, although I had met all the requirements necessary to become a partner, due to family needs, I was not able to transition until after my fourth year. This delay did not deter my goals to enter management and was not looked upon negatively. It gave me time to prepare for the move and to set a plan in place for a smooth transition under my own timeline.

Tip 4: Take the fear out of managing women

Remember, it is professional to be professional. There should be no issues with recruiting, managing or developing women. For many managers, they may perceive managing women in the field differently. The environment in the field is performance-based, which can often result in managing to results. Put everyone on an equal playing field and manage for the results expected.

Tip 5: Use the female field managers in your company to help recruit

Having female role models in the field manager position can help women to envision themselves in that role. If there aren’t any in your office, then use someone from another office. Many women’s groups in the industry can also be utilized. Women must be able to paint their own picture of themselves in management. They need to know that to be successful field managers they don’t have to act or look like their mentor. Management looks different to each of us and we must remember that we are not always recruiting ourselves.

To increase the number of women in field management, you may need to look to your own pool of women agents to find them or make a point of recruiting them. If you make finding women part of your recruiting plans and develop a strategy to implement the process, the number in the industry should increase. 

We are all from the same industry and deserve the opportunity to make the move to management. I am proof that women in our industry can be successful field leaders. Finding future women leaders is just a matter of letting them know the opportunity is there if they want it and providing the support required to make it happen.

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

Why Mutual Fund Expenses Matter—a Research Summary

David Nanigian, PhD

In his paper, Nanigian tackled one of the major unresolved questions about mutual funds: Why, unlike in the market for most products, does a negative relationship exist between price and quality in the market for mutual funds? Drawing upon prior research in behavioral finance, Nanigian developed a theory that relaxed monitoring standards by fund investors explain much of the perplexing negative price-performance relationship. He also showed that the more capital an investor has at stake in a fund, the more intensely he or she will monitor the mutual fund.

Mutual funds differ considerably in their minimum initial purchase requirements. This allowed Nanigian to test his theory through first sorting funds into two groups based on whether or not they had a minimum initial purchase requirement of at least $100,000, and then examining the elasticity of the expense-performance relationship within the two groups through regression analysis. He discovered that expenses generally do not have a significant impact on the performance of funds with a minimum initial purchase requirement of at least $100,000. However, consistent with the prior empirical studies that did not consider minimum initial purchase requirements, he showed that expenses have a negative and statistically significant relationship on the performance of funds with minimum initial purchase requirements of less than $100,000. The divergent results between these two groups provided empirical evidence in support of Nanigian’s theory.

Nanigian believes that most mutual fund managers do not have an adequate incentive to exert effort in managing their funds. He believes that investors should more carefully evaluate funds prior to investing and more rigorously monitor them afterwards. More intense monitoring will incentivize fund managers to exert greater effort and ultimately provide their investors with a level of quality that is justified by the price they charge. He also suggests that “investors who lack the specialized skill needed to evaluate mutual funds should obtain assistance from a competent personal financial planner.”

David Nanigian is an Assistant Professor of Investments at The American College and holds a Ph.D. from Texas Tech University, an MBA from UC-Irvine and a BBA from San Diego State University. He is an avid researcher on various topics related to mutual funds and regularly teaches a course on mutual funds in the MSFS program. A current draft of his paper is available for free download from the Social Science Research Network at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1977655.

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

Living too Long: Where will You Live and how will You Finance it?

Kevin M. Lynch, MBA, CFP®, CLU®, ChFC®, RHU®, REBC®, CASL®, CAP®, LUTCF, FSS

Kevin M. Lynch is an assistant professor of insurance and The Charles J. Zimmerman Chair in Insurance Education at The American College. Kevin.Lynch@wcinput.com

When a person retires, a shift in spending patterns tends to manifest itself throughout the different stages of a person’s retirement. Initially, as you leave the work force, there is, of course, a reduction in the taxes you pay. In the preretirement period, you were paying FICA taxes and spending money on work-related needs, such as commuting expenses, meals away from home, etc. After retirement, many of these expenses decrease while others increase. Household expenses decline steadily with age. Using age 65 as a benchmark, household expenses decline by 19 percent in the first decade of retirement, 34 percent by the end of the second decade of retirement and 52 percent by the end of the third decade in retirement. “Home and home-related expenses remain the single largest spending category for older Americans,” according to Sudipto Banerjee, of the Employee Benefit Research Institute. Banerjee further reports, “Health-related expenses are the second largest component in the budget of older Americans. It is the only component which steadily increases with age. Health care captures around 10 percent of the budget for those 50-64, but increases to about 20 percent for those ages 85 and over.”

As financial service professionals, what does this mean to you? How can you use this data to better advise your clients on retirement issues?

Because home and home-related expenses play such a major role in a person’s post retirement budget, it is important that you understand your client’s needs and desires for where they want to live and how they can afford to pay for it. 

To begin with, we will look at the age-old assumption that when people retire, they will downsize. I am, of course, referring to the practice of selling the larger family home, usually paid for, and using the proceeds to purchase a smaller, more suitable home in an area where the client wants to live during retirement. It is assumed that the proceeds from the sale of the older, paid-for home will be sufficient to pay for the new home in cash, and perhaps even have a surplus to be added to the client’s retirement income-generating assets. According to a Rand Labor and Population Working Paper (Banks, Blundell, Oldfield, & Smith, 2010), since the first studies of downsizing in the U.S. (Merrill, 1984, and Venti and Wise, 1989, 1990), there has been a reduction in the number of rooms in household residences as age increases. This research would tend to verify the commonly held belief that older Americans do downsize in retirement. In addition, when researchers study mobility in Americans age 60-70, there is evidence that, among the considerations primarily influencing the older American’s decision to relocate, is pursuit of a warmer climate, lower taxes and lower cost of living. For the oldest Americans, however (especially those over 80), being closer to family ranks higher in importance than do those considerations previously mentioned. For these oldest Americans, the need for care due primarily to the frailties of older age takes precedence over lifestyle and amenities available elsewhere. Because of the limitation of sample sizes of these oldest American’s, though, statistics do not tell the complete story. As your clients’ trusted advisor, you must explore their specific feelings and desires in this area.

Another issue with which your client may have to contend where downsizing is concerned is the major disruption to the housing market since 2008. In addition to major turmoil in the financial markets, which caused many to delay retirement between 2008 and 2010 due to decimation, or at least partial depletion, of their retirement nest egg, real estate values plummeted during the same period. The housing market, as we knew it, may be changed forever, according to research by The Demand Institute (Keely, van Ark, Levanon, & Burbank, 2012). The Institute’s findings indicate that although the worst is over for the U.S. housing market and a recovery is beginning, the recovery will occur in two stages and be led by a demand from buyers for rental properties. It is estimated that rental demand will help clear out the huge supply of existing homes on the market, which were a result of large numbers of foreclosures. Using 2005 as a baseline, during the recent disruption in the housing market, there was a 129 percent increase in foreclosures from 2005 to 2011. The Demand Institute estimates that it will take two to three years to clear out the oversupply of existing properties.

What does that mean to you and your clients? These factors in the real estate market may have a negative impact on older Americans wanting to sell large, expensive homes during the initial recovery stages, because rental demands will come primarily from younger people and immigrants, and younger people were hit particularly hard during the recession that is currently ending. In addition, the recovery will not be uniform across the states and will even be vastly different within states. This could affect your clients, as well, by making it hard to sell their current property and being in competition with others seeking to purchase smaller homes in which to spend their retirement.

“Where do I want to live in retirement?” and “How will I finance my retirement housing and household expenses?” are both important questions for you to help your clients resolve. The challenges in doing so will require your best efforts and perhaps the assistance of a real-estate professional to help your clients through the various stages of the market’s recovery.

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

Finding a Balance in Retirement Planning

Craig Lemoine, CFP®

Craig is an Assistant Professor of Financial Planning at The American College and holds the Jarrett Davis Distinguished Professorship in Finance and Accounting.

Financial professionals are constantly struggling to manage the dissonance between rational recommendations and the actual behavior of their clients. This dissonance reaches a crescendo as clients retire and age. Advisors face the challenge through planning investment portfolios, planning future spending and setting life expectancies. The rational client maintains an optimal portfolio, spends wisely and passes away according to actuarial tables. Actual clients rarely color in-between the lines. 

Rational investors buy when the market is low, hold their positions when times get tough and spend appropriately. Modern portfolio theory (MPT) is the basis for traditional investment philosophy and guides us to buy risk-appropriate, diversified portfolios. MPT encourages investors to seek an optimal combination of lowly correlated assets (domestic and international equities, bonds, cash, real estate, fixed accounts and commodities) that have the greatest risk-adjusted net performance.

MPT encourages investors to attain an optimal portfolio by building a market portfolio of assets that are tangent to an investor’s highest indifference curve and the capital market line. Conservative investors will invest in a higher percentage of risk-free assets, and more ambitious risk takers will lean more towards an optimal risky portfolio. As assets have lower correlations to one another, investors can create less risky portfolios and decrease their overall risk exposure. In layman’s terms, MPT asks us to buy a combination of risk-free and risky assets we are comfortable with and adjust them to stay in line with risk tolerance (see Figure 1).

 

With investments squared away, a rational client needs to address spending during retirement. The seminal permanent income hypothesis (Milton Friedman, A Theory of Consumption Function, Princeton University Press; nber.org/chapters/c4405.pdf) helps guide rational consumption decisions and provides a background for retirement. Stated simply, consumers tend to adopt the lifestyle of their parents and spend accordingly over their lifetime. For most of us, consumption is constant over a lifetime while income is not (see Figure 2).

 

Rationally, retirement planning is nothing more than finding a way to consume after our income line drops below a retiree’s consumption line. Ideally, a retiree saved while their income exceeded consumption; and they can utilize their nest egg through the remainder of their lifetime. While no uniform theory exists on how to spend down their nest egg, some measure of constraint dominates conversation. Financial advisors engage in conversations and debate if constraining withdrawals to 3 percent, 3.5 percent or 4.0 percent is an appropriate technique. Other advisors recommend practicing withdrawal constraint when viewing how many dollars can be distributed from one asset allocation bucket to another.

Rational clients make consistent distributions over their lifetimes, and if a rational client happens to be a 60-year-old woman she lives to be 84, according to the Social Security Actuarial Life Table (ssa.gov/oact/STATS/table4c6.html). To summarize, rational clients invest optimally while they are working and predictably spend their savings until they die at a point defined in the future. These three assumptions shape traditional thinking about retirement planning and each of them is fundamentally flawed.

Challenges to investing optimally
Clients are rarely invested in an optimally allocated portfolio, and they tend to favor simple and conservative investments. Actual clients sell when the market drops. Losing hurts and our very instinct is to avoid hurt and practice loss aversion (Erev, I., Ert, E., & Yechiam, E., 2008. “Loss aversion, diminishing sensitivity, and the effect of experience on repeated decisions,” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making). Clients sell after losing because they don’t want to continue pain; they miss out on periods of recovery and gain fear and trepidation. Fear can lead to avoidance of future losses, which may curtail investing in equities or other key components of a diversified portfolio.

Building an optimal portfolio requires access to a universe of investments that have low or negative correlations with one another. This universe extends well beyond traditional stock, bond and insurance options, and outside the comfort zone of many clients and their advisors. Commodities, international exposure, hedge funds, real estate, derivatives and nontraditional investments play a role in achieving optimal diversification. With additional diversification comes increased complexity and higher minimum buy-in thresholds/costs, both of which lead actual clients back to simpler and less diversified solutions. Clients who sell non-traditional asset classes lower their diversification, which increases their overall portfolio risk.

Spending
Actual clients have hobbies and emergencies. Either can derail the best of assumptions and retirement plans. Plans are generally structured to emulate a percentage of pre-retirement spending (70% is a popular number.) or from the ground up, determining a monthly target amount based on client goals. Both mechanisms work well for the first month a client retires.  The rational client may continue to spend exactly a target amount. Actual clients will spend dramatically less and dramatically more on a monthly basis. Spending must be structured in a flexible and fulfilling way.

When we don’t die at 84
Stagnant life expectancies are troublesome on two fronts. The obvious: outliving a set life expectancy can cause financial hardship. Life expectancy tables are not dormant—they adjust on an annual basis. A 60-year-old woman has a 50 percent chance of living another 23.97 years. When she turns 61 she has a 50 percent chance of living another 23.14 years, and when she turns 70 her life expectancy moves to 86. When she turns 86, there is a 50 percent chance she will be alive at 92. Retirement plans must be built for this contingency. Healthy people in 2012 can live a very long and productive life. 

Practicing excessive constraint is equally as troublesome. Clients have accidents, they are diagnosed with cancer and they have heart attacks. If half of 60-year-old women live to 83, half of them die before then. Excessive constraints on retirement spending may prevent clients from enjoying the wealth they built.

Financial professionals must remember that actual clients are never rational. Advisors must find harmony between quantitative recommendations and how clients actually behave. This harmony requires updates, monitoring and regularly engaging the client. When first retiring, monthly check-ins will help stabilize the plan and learn the difference between the actual retiree and rational client who engaged in the retirement planning process.

Retirement modeling requires advisors to assume rates of return, spending and life expectancy. Initial assumptions provide clients with a starting point but are not enough to provide lifelong guidance. Consistent monitoring and updating must take place through retirement to help clients achieve a balance between their retirement plan and actual behavior.

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

The Long-Term Care Risk—a Developing and Accelerating Crisis for Seniors

Ted Kurlowicz, JD, LLM, CLU®, ChFC®, CAP®

Ted Kurlowicz, JD, LLM, CLU®, ChFC®, CAP® Ted is the Charles E. Drimal Professor of Estate Planning and a Professor of Taxation at The American College.

Christopher P. Woehrle, JD, LLM

Christopher P. Woehrle, JD, LLM, is an assistant professor of taxation and The Guardian/Deppe Chair in Pensions and Retirement Planning at The American College and a subject matter expert on and champion of the ChFC® program.

The risk created by the costs associated with long-term care (LTC) should be easily understood and easily transferable to a private and/or social insurance mechanism. However, the risk has thus far been unprotected and costs have been largely borne by the individual through private payment or handled under the public option of the Medicaid reimbursement system. A number of factors are converging to make this risk even more untenable in the United States.

First, the population continues to age rapidly with the maturity of the Baby Boomers. The 2010 U.S. Census revealed that more than 42 million Americans are age 65 or older, and this cohort is expected to double by 2050. As the population ages, the risk of disability and the need for long-term care also rises. Also, most individuals eligible for Social Security are taking reduced benefits at the earliest possible age of 62, leaving them with reduced purchasing power compared to starting benefits at normal retirement age. Of all the projections that would affect the economy and the ability of the public sector to absorb these costs, the demographic forecasts are the most predictable.

Second, the size of the national debt and the impact of the slow-growing economy on the state budgets will increase the pressure to reduce both the number of claimants and the size of the reimbursement available through Medicaid. The primary weapon that the federal government has in its arsenal to reduce health care costs is to control the reimbursements provided by Medicare and Medicaid. This could further increase the costs of long-term care for private-pay individuals. The impact of the Affordable Care Act on Medicaid in this area has been considerable.

Third, the private option of long-term care insurance (LTCI) has not adequately addressed this problem. Although the Medicaid system has provided opportunity for an individual who purchases LTCI to preserve more assets through the states’ LTCI partnership programs, the benefit of such a program has not been clearly or persuasively marketed by either the states or private insurers. Perhaps even more ominously, three large insurers have terminated sales of new LTCI policies in the last two years.

The cost of LTC is staggering
Recent Medicaid numbers indicate that nursing home costs vary from a high of $10,285 per month in New York City to a low of $4,000 in Louisiana. The average cost nationally is more than $75,000 annually for a semi-private room in a nursing. The average monthly cost for assisted living facilities is 3,300 per month. In-home care will be costly and can exceed institutional care, depending on the amount of care the special needs person requires, but full-time nursing care would be an average of $432 daily. Recent data on inflation is even scarier. The inflation rate for nursing home costs far exceeds the inflation rate for other goods and services. This means that the inflation-adjusted real cost of nursing home care will double in 23 years.

Medicaid’s public option requires impoverishment
We need to start this discussion with a disclaimer. The rules for qualification for Medicaid are complex and involve an interaction of federal law and state administrative rules. Federal law provides guidelines and mandates implemented at the state level. The Department of Welfare at the state level often operates in a perceived gray area that may not mimic every aspect of the federal rules. On a case-by-case basis, it is critical to work with an attorney that specializes in elder care at the state level. However, the qualification for Medicaid does require impoverishment of the applicant, which ought to gain the attention of anyone in the population without unlimited assets and/or LTCI. Let’s examine the general guidelines for qualification for Medicaid and indicate where there may be significant state variance.

The state Medicaid programs must provide certain minimum benefits to qualifying persons including in-patient hospital services, nursing home care, and physicians’ services. States have discretion to provide additional services such as home health care services, private duty nursing services, hospice care, dental services, physical therapy and related services, nurse-midwife services, community supported living arrangement services, as well as other services. The states must also pay the Medicare B premiums of Medicaid recipients who also qualify for Medicare.

There is a three-pronged eligibility test for applicants to qualify for Medicaid, including the categorical status of the Medicaid applicant, his or her income and assets. The eligible categories are financial need persons, individuals over age 65, blind, disabled and U.S. citizens.
The income limitations depend on whether the state is an income-cap or a spend-down state. The income-cap states restrict Medicaid eligibility to those below the supplemental security income (SSI) limitation (actually three times the SSI monthly benefit amount). In these states, if the Medicaid applicant’s countable income exceeds the limit ($2,094 in 2012) by even one dollar, the applicant is ineligible for Medicaid. However, this is a maximum limit. A limit of $5,000 of annual income would cause ineligibility in at least one state. The worst scenario is the pure cap state, where any excess prevents coverage, or states that exclude nursing home care in their medically needy program. This could leave many individuals in a bind, unable to afford long-term care, but unable to qualify for Medicaid reimbursement. 

Other states have an income spend-down approach to cover individuals once their medical expenses reduce their income below the limit. Spend-down states would begin eligibility once the Medicaid applicant has spent income on health care to reduce income to the eligibility threshold.

The income test is based on amounts deemed available to the Medicaid applicant. In general, “anything received in cash or kind that can be used to meet needs for food, clothing and shelter” is available income. The state may consider the income and resources of the applicant and his or her spouse to determine whether he or she can qualify for Medicaid. States cannot require your other relatives to contribute, but any contributions other relatives make in cash or to provide and shelter are considered income. This rule may require rethinking the strategy of making gifts up to the annual exclusion for financially struggling older parents.

Only a portion of countable income is required to be expended for the applicant’s LTC. A number of deductions are subtracted from countable income for Medicaid purposes. The balance of income must then be used for the costs of care. These deductions include:
          • A personal needs allowance of $30 per month for an individual or $60 per month for an eligible institutionalized couple
          • An additional amount for the maintenance needs of a needy spouse or needy family living at home
          • Incurred medical expenses not paid by a third party, including Medicare or other health insurance premiums, deductibles or coinsurance charges, and care not covered by Medicaid
          • At the state’s discretion, an amount for maintenance of a residence for up to six months if a physician certifies that the applicant is likely to return home after that period

There is also an asset or resource limitation that would cause an individual to consume all assets on health or LTC expenses before Medicaid is available. Individuals whose resources and deemed resources exceed $2,000 (down to a low of $1,000 in one state), if single, or $3,000 ($2,000 in the lowest state), if married, may be ineligible for Medicaid benefits (until resources go below the applicable limit). The resources that must be counted for this purpose vary from state to state; however, the following rules generally apply.

Non-excluded resources (resources that must be counted to determine your eligibility) are cash, financial instruments convertible to cash, and real and personal property, which may be liquidated. The community spouse (the spouse not currently receiving LTC) can also retain a certain amount in non-excluded resources without affecting the institutionalized spouse’s Medicaid eligibility. The community spouse is allowed to keep a minimum of $22,728 (2012 figure) or half of the couple’s pooled nonexcluded resources, whichever is greater, but not more than $113,640 (2012 figure). Some states limit the retention of nonexempt assets to the floor amount. States have the right to increase the floor amount, but not the ceiling amount. However, some states have hardship exceptions if the budget of the community spouse can demonstrate the need for higher income and/or resources. Any resources retained by the community spouse in excess of this allowable limit will count as a resource of the institutionalized spouse and create ineligibility.

Excluded resources (not countable for eligibility purposes whether the institutionalized or the community spouse own such assets) vary by state, but the following are typically not counted as resources:
          • The house, trailer or mobile home used as a home
          • Household furnishings
          • Clothing
          • Personal effects
          • One family automobile
          • Burial space for the Medicaid applicant and certain enumerated family members
          • Life insurance coverage not exceeding $1500 face amount for the spouse and each dependent
          • Income-producing real property if the value and income produced are reasonably related
          • Irrevocable burial reserves
          • The community spouse’s pension funds
          • A qualifying annuity

Note that the individual practice with the state’s Department of Welfare may provide some limits on excluded assets, such as the value of the automobile. Also, even excluded assets will probably be subject to estate recovery to reimburse the state for Medicaid benefits provided to the decedent while he or she was alive.

These impoverishment rules should certainly frighten anyone in the family of someone needing to qualify for Medicaid. There had been planning techniques that could help a family preserve more assets, but such planning was significantly curtailed by the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. Like most planning, it is clearly advantageous to begin as soon as possible with qualified advisors. The planning should begin well before any Medicaid application will be made. There is a five-year look back for any transfers made by the Medicaid applicant. Any currently available planning techniques will potentially be on the chopping block for future government cost-containment legislation.

Filial responsibility laws—a terrifying new development
States provide that parents have a legal obligation to support minor children. Most states have requirements that provide for spousal support. However, 30 states also have filial responsibility laws. Pennsylvania recently moved its filial responsibility law into its Domestic Relations Code. It provides that the following individuals (with some exceptions) will have responsibility for the financial needs of an indigent person:
           • Spouse of the indigent person
           • Child of the indigent person
           • Parent of the indigent person

Note there is no limitation that the child be a minor to potentially obligate the parent for the indigent-child’s expenses.

Thus far, it does not appear that states will use the filial responsibility statutes to deny the eligibility of an indigent person to Medicaid. However, nursing homes or health care facilities have begun to initiate suits under the statute. A very troubling result was reached recently in a Pennsylvania decision (HCR v. Pittas, 2012 PA Super 96 (May 7, 2012)). The Court held a child financially responsible to the tune of $92,943 for the nursing home expenses of his parent. Interestingly, the nursing home resident had a pending appeal for qualification under Medicaid. And the parent had not made any asset transfers to the child held responsible for these expenses. Nothing in the filial responsibility statute required the court to take into consideration that public resources would soon be available to provide for the parent’s LTC. Also, the law allows the health care provider to institute a lawsuit against any of the children for the indigent parent’s support without any consideration of the impact this might have on the relationship between siblings. Do we have your attention yet?

Why aren’t Americans dealing with the LTC risk?
Although there has been some growth in the private LTCI marketplace, only a small percentage of potentially affected Americans have any form of LTC coverage. Surveys indicate a surprising lack of understanding of the LTC risk. For example, 75 percent of individuals under age 55 reported that they had no idea of the cost of institutionalized LTC. These individuals would certainly be affected if a parent became impoverished by the costs of LTC. Presumably, there will be less ignorance among the senior population. Data is certainly available. MetLife and Genworth have annual cost-of-care reports available to the public. Maybe the cost of LTC is too staggering and creates deniability for those at risk and their family members.

There are also appears to be a general state of denial among individuals most likely to face the risk of LTC in the immediate future. A recent survey by the National Council on Aging indicates some surprising opinions of seniors concerning their future state of health. For example, survey respondents age 70+ indicated that 66 percent felt their health would be the same, somewhat better or much better in the next 5 to 10 years. Only 31 percent expected their health to be worse.

Multi-generational solutions—there may be no other place but home
The cost of LTC and the impoverishment rules of Medicaid will have an impact on both the individual who needs LTC and his or her heirs. A recent study by three college professors (Poterba, Venti and Wise) found that 46.1 percent of Americans die with assets less than $10,000. The costs of LTC certainly have added to that depressing statistic. Even if the Pittas case previously discussed is an aberration, the high cost of care in the impoverishment rules of Medicaid will reduce or eliminate the inheritances of many family members of individuals who have the need for significant LTC.

Given the current financial stresses on Federal, state and local governments, the expansion of any public program to assist with the costs of long-term care expenses is unlikely. All the traditional public options are stressed and will be so for the foreseeable future.

So where does a senior citizen turn for help? A recent MetLife Mature Market Survey “Multi-Generational Views on Family Financial Obligations,” suggests parents would do well to rely upon their adult children who often have a strong sense of obligation or responsibility. But even that sense comes with a limit. According to the study, many adult children are willing to allow a parent to live with them if the parent is not healthy enough to live alone without caregiving, or if a parent is having difficulty making ends meet.

While planning for an increasingly uncertain future with LTCI policies may seem an inadequate response, it well may be the only viable one assuming parents do enough advance planning to make the cost of LTCI manageable. Perhaps the cost sharing of premiums by family members interested in preserving Mom and Dad’s estate could be a viable strategy.

If elderly parents are anticipating assistance from adult children, they need to raise the possibility of that need sooner rather than later. Adult children need to be on the alert early for signs that support of their parents may be required. Proactive communication between the generations leading to timely planning likely will help the elderly dealing with some of the severest financial and economic challenges in recent memory.

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

(How) Do You Estimate Your Client’s Life Expectancy?

Michael Kitces, MSFS, CLU®, ChFC®, CASL®, CFP®, RHU®, REBC®

Michael is the Director of Research for Pinnacle Advisory Group, a private wealth management firm located in Columbia, Md. michael@kitces.com

To do a financial plan for a client, it’s necessary to determine the client’s time horizon, which most commonly is the length of time the client is expected to live. The client’s life expectancy can impact the number of years of anticipated retirement, and even the age at which the client chooses to retire. Unfortunately, though, it’s difficult to really estimate how long a client will live, and the consequences of being wrong and living too long can be severe—total depletion of assets. As a result, many planners simply select a conservative and arbitrarily long time horizon, such as until age 95 or 100, just in case the client lives a long time. Yet in reality, the life expectancy statistics are clear that the overwhelming majority of clients won’t live anywhere near that long, which can mean unnecessarily constraining their spending and leading to a high probability of an unintended large financial legacy for the next generation. As a result, some planners are beginning to use life expectancy calculators to estimate a more realistic and individualized life expectancy for a client’s particular time horizon. Will this become a new best practice?

Setting a retirement time horizon
While being conservative in setting a time horizon for retirement withdrawals and taking into account an individual’s personal and family circumstances (e.g., good genetics and longevity in the family) is certainly prudent, is it too conservative to just arbitrarily set a long life expectancy of until age 95 or even 5 years longer based on longevity in some family members? After all, as the following chart indicates (from “Spending Flexibility and Safe Withdrawal Rates” by Michael Finke, Wade Pfau, and Duncan Williams from the March 2012 issue of the Journal of Financial Planning, and based on the Social Security Administration period life table for 2007), the probability of a joint life expectancy of 30 years for a 65-year-old couple (to age 95) is already as low as 18 percent. A 35-year life expectancy for that same couple (to age 100) has a mere 3.7 percent likelihood, which means adding 5 years of longevity for good genetics on top of an already low probability scenario is a pretty huge adjustment.

While genetics do clearly play a role in longevity, it’s important not to adjust too much based on limited family data. For instance, in many cases planners add 5 years of joint life expectancy for what in the end is just one family member who happens to still be alive in very old age! The reality is that even a relatively unhealthy family with poor longevity can still end up with one long-living family member due to random chance! In other words, taking the life expectancy of one or two family members from the recent past and generalizing it to the client’s future isn’t necessarily much better than taking an example of one technology stock like Apple and concluding that all technology stocks will be fantastically profitable in the future. Especially if you’re planning for a couple, and the family member is only from one side of the family!

Individualized life expectancy
So what’s the alternative? Some planners are beginning to use life expectancy calculators available on the web, which analyze a wide range of factors from family longevity to health issues to behavioral habits, to try to get a more accurate picture of the client’s life expectancy than a few anecdotal family data points. The most popular option appears to be the site LivingTo100, which draws on data from the New England Centenarian Study to try to get a good picture of how likely it is for the client to live to age 100 and what his/her individualized life expectancy would be.

Following this approach, the client (or each member of the couple) goes through the calculator’s questionnaire and gets a personalized life expectancy. The plan can then be crafted according to the customized life expectancy factors rather than generic assumptions. While this is straightforward for a single client, it’s a little messier for a married couple, as the software still only gives an individual life expectancy for each member of a couple, and not a joint life expectancy for both. A rough rule of thumb would be to add about 5 years to the longest life expectancy of the couple to adjust for joint life expectancy. Ideally, the life expectancy tool should accurately calculate a joint life expectancy.

At the client’s discretion, the planner may then add further to the life expectancy to be more conservative, as a life expectancy by definition is a 50th percentile result, meaning there’s a 50 percent chance the client could outlive the time horizon (and therefore potentially outlive his/her money). On the other hand, it’s worth noting that if the Monte Carlo results are already very conservative, it’s important not to also make the life expectancy factor extremely conservative, or the combined probabilities of failure may be so low that the client’s lifestyle is unnecessarily constrained when small adjustments along the way would have been sufficient to keep the client on track. After all, a 90 percent Monte Carlo success rate for a 90th percentile life expectancy is actually a 99 percent probability of success for the overall plan!

Is it worth estimating life expectancy at all?
Many planners I know still suggest it’s not necessary nor appropriate to estimate a client’s life expectancy at all, given that life expectancy is just a probabilistic estimate, and there’s always still a risk that the client will live to age 100. Accordingly, they suggest we should just set every client’s retirement time horizon to an arbitrary conservative number like age 95 or 100, just to be certain the client doesn’t run out of money on the planner’s watch.

The reality of the life expectancy tables is that the overwhelming majority of clients will never live this long, or even come close. And even while life expectancy continues to increase over time, most improvements in life expectancy have been driven by eliminating diseases and reducing mortality for the young (especially infant mortality); the death rate for people in their 80s and 90s has only fallen modestly in the past 50 years.

This is problematic because, in the end, excessive conservatism does have a cost—it can greatly impinge on the client’s ongoing lifestyle and opportunity to enjoy the money while health is good enough to do so. For instance, according to the research, the difference between a 40-year time horizon and a 20-year time horizon is a 5 percent+ safe withdrawal rate versus a less-than-4 percent withdrawal rate. This means a couple that has some health issues and a low likelihood of living much beyond 20 years, who still receives a 35-40+ year arbitrary time horizon, must endure a lifetime spending cut of 20 percent, per year, forever (and a very high likelihood of' accidentally leaving a giant unspent financial legacy behind)! Alternatively, a client with a shortened life expectancy might even choose to retire earlier, knowing that the retirement time horizon isn’t as long, and that consequently not as much savings is needed.

Ultimately, because being too conservative does have a cost—just as being too aggressive—life expectancy calculators may well become a best practice for planners in the future, as they represent an effective means to ensure that the client’s plan matches a time horizon that is reasonable given his/her life expectancy. Of course, clients may adjust up or down from there, but at least they will be grounded to a reasonable life expectancy starting point.

So what do you think? Have you ever used a life expectancy calculator to estimate a time horizon for your client’s retirement plan? Would you encourage a client to spend more if he/she had a materially below-average life expectancy? Is a life expectancy calculator a more objective way to estimate life expectancy and time horizon for a client? Is there a particular tool that you use? Or do you just consider it a waste of time, or a risky alternative to just picking a conservative time horizon?
 

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

Senior Designations Back in the Spotlight—a Regulatory Update

The period before a major election typically generates little action on regulatory and legislative issues in Washington, but two items do bear watching this fall. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) has begun work on recommendations for the use of senior designations, and the SEC and the Department of Labor continue to struggle with how to approach any broader application of a fiduciary standard of care.

Will there be fewer professional designations in the future?
The American College estimates that there are now about 287 financial services credentials that could be used with the public. Because consumers have no real means of determining which of those represent rigorous education, letters after advisors’ names are all viewed equally. The American College has been speaking out about this issue for almost a decade.

Some lighter programs may be valuable as continuing education for advisors. Not all marks, however, are legitimate designations appropriate for use on an advisor’s business card.

Enter the CFPB. Under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, the CFPB’s Office of Older Americans is empowered to promote financial literacy for consumers 62 and older. While the CFPB has no jurisdiction over insurance, the recommendations they make to Congress and other regulators as well as the guidance they offer consumers can have an impact on the educational marks advisors choose to pursue.

The CFPB issued a request for public comment this summer about the use of senior financial advisor certifications and designations. When their work is complete, we believe that for the first time there could be a way for seniors to gain a qualitative view as to which credentials are meaningful for their advisors to hold.

What separates a good credential from a weaker one?
In our public comment letter to the CFPB, The American College suggested that any designation used with a senior should represent at least nine semester credit hours of education. That’s the acid test between lighter marks and those that are meaningful: is the education there? It is a criterion that was missing from the earlier model rules on senior designations adopted by many states. A minimum national standard for the level of education required for valid credentials will go a long way in eliminating the public use of lesser designations.

Candidates for an acceptable designation should also meet appropriate experience requirements and complete closed-book, proctored exams covering the coursework. Continuing education requirements are essential as well.

Two areas—accreditation and standards of practice—have caused confusion among regulators and even some certification providers. The top level of accreditation is regional accreditation, the mark of educational excellence given to top colleges and universities. Other types of process-based accreditation are not as rigorous. While top designations and certifications should have enforceable ethics codes, the best marks should not discriminate against certain business models by attempting to mandate standards of care that differ from what regulatory authorities require.

A better-educated advisor is a significant benefit to seniors.
Regulators should encourage quality professional education for advisors serving seniors. It isn’t enough to focus on reducing the use of light or “weekend” credentials. Advisors with more professional education pose fewer compliance risks and are more likely to counsel seniors in appropriate ways. FINRA and other regulators should be cautious about releasing ambiguous guidance that results in companies prohibiting the use of high-quality professional designations.
 

We believe the CFPB may get it right.
The CFPB’s orientation toward consumer education for seniors may have a significantly positive effect on the quality of advisor education. With a governmental agency clearly identifying the minimum national standards for a meaningful designation, we see advisors, client companies and consumers all gravitating toward designations that represent real educational value. Stay tuned for more on this issue as the CFPB prepares recommendations over the coming months.

There has been no significant movement on an expanded fiduciary standard.
While several vocal proponents of a broader fiduciary standard continue to pummel the SEC with their views, it seems the SEC may be taking seriously their responsibility to do a full cost-benefit analysis. Still with no identified problem a change in established standards of care is intended to solve, regulators are beginning to understand just how complex the issue is relative to preserving the consumer choice, access and value provided by multiple business models.

The Department of Labor also continues to work on a revision to the standards of care under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), seemingly without adequate coordination with the SEC. Because their original proposals in this area met with such strong resistance from all sides, we can only hope that their next draft will present a more rational solution, especially relative to standards of care for advice on IRAs.

Pay attention. We’re moving into a period of opportunity and risk.
While no significant movement may occur before next year on any of these issues, it is important that we stay aware of any progress and continue to support our industry advocacy groups. What is good for consumers is ultimately good for our profession, and we need to make our voices heard to ensure that good intentions on the part of regulators are translated into what is truly in the best interest of the public.

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

Why Advisors are Getting the Gen Y Pink Slip

Maria Ferrante-Schepis, MBA

The insurance industry remains befuddled by Gen Y, more specifically those born after 1980. Carriers are trying to figure out when and how to build products for them. Intermediaries are trying to capture them on social media. Advisors are trying to figure out how to keep them as clients after their parents die.

Finding and attracting youth to this industry has become tougher. We’ve been blaming the economy, the inability to reach the middle market profitably and a host of other things for why this is true. But are these problems, or are they symptoms of a bigger issue?

After examining this for years and hearing opinions from people who are outside of the industry, it is very possible that the life insurance industry is losing relevance to the newer generations.

Irrelevance sounds strong. However, we must recognize that irrelevance is a perception, and perception is reality, and reality impacts business. There are three main drivers and all present opportunity for those willing to explore new ways of thinking.

• Death isn’t what it used to be. Back in the days when life insurance sales were good and more families had coverage than they do today, death was a top-of-mind risk. Disease, workplace hazards, even wars brought to mind the impacts of the loss of the family’s breadwinner. Today, we have far greater workplace safety standards. People are living much longer due to medical technology advances, and the financial impacts have been severely lessened when you consider the growth in households with two working spouses. This is social progress. Some would consider it a threat.
• They don’t understand us. The language of insurance has not changed much at all over centuries. Maddock Douglas’s 2010 study reveals that Gen Y does not relate to our language. For example, the word “retirement” is a positive word for boomers. It means freedom. Gen Y sees it as something to do with old people. They don’t see the cessation of work as part of their future.
• They can’t engage with us. Younger consumers are driving a trend that Wikinomics calls prosumerism. A prosumer is a mash-up of professional and consumer. Examples include YouTube, where you can be your own movie star, and Shutterfly, where you can create your own photography studio. Prosumers want to engage and create custom experiences. They can’t do that with insurance products. A Gen Y CEO of a new company indicated that life insurance is the only product that she’s forced to buy in a way that she cannot control. People like her feel the process is outdated.

Let’s examine how the problem manifests for the advisor.

Boy meets girl. Boy advises girl. Boy fails to stay relevant to girl’s children. Girl dies. Children take the money and run.

If Gen Y sees our industry as irrelevant, then when the time comes for them to manage their own or inherited wealth, they will resort to means that are the most familiar to them.

Where do they turn to for advice?

Gen Ys turn to parents for some advice, but will go to their friends and co-workers most. They even turn to their employer’s HR director to determine what 401k choices they make.

What are their aspirations?

Gen Y wants to do many things with their money. They are a charitable, cause-driven and social generation. They are full of ideas to make the world a better place. This sounds like a good job for the financial and insurance industry to be involved with.

Innovation is a solution.

While the word innovation conjures up many different definitions in people’s minds, in our business we are required to define innovation in a specific way, so that it is applied correctly. Innovation is when a consumer insight drives an idea, and then the idea is executed well and you make money from it. An idea without insight is just an invention. For example, the Iridium phone by Motorola was a multibillion-dollar invention to allow people to communicate from the most deserted parts of the world, and relevant to a very small number of people. Time magazine considers it one of the top 10 biggest tech failures of the last decade. The insurance industry has many such failures, but they have not gone on record in the business journals.

Insight unearths tension that is unresolved. When it is resolved, opportunity is abundant. We define insight in a form that looks like this: I [statement of fact] because [reason] but, [tension].

Gen Y insights might include the following:

• “I believe getting financial advice is important because I don’t want to risk losing the money I’ve saved, but I am afraid that advisors are just trying to sell me something.”

• “I would like to be covered for risks because I care about my family’s future, but I find it is confusing and boring to think about.”

• “I want advice I can trust because I care about my future, but I don’t really know who to turn to.”

• “I want to plan for my future because I have big aspirations, but I am more worried about risks to my career success than to my health/life.”

Some of the tensions may make industry professionals uncomfortable, but the most forward-thinking people use it to invent the future.

What are some of the things that you can do to invent the future using the new consumer insights? Consider these:

• Be present in your client’s kids’ lives. I don’t mean attending their weddings, sending them birthday cards or trying to sell them anything on Facebook. Figure out how to be found by them. The prosumer is out there looking and forming opinions anyway. If you find your specific area of expertise on a subject they really care about, they will find you.
• Stop word pollution. Consider the words, phrases, tonality and form of your communication. Does it sound like a conversation or a dissertation? Is it really long and linear, or is the information chunked into digestible pieces? Could visuals and videos help bring your points to life? Younger consumers don’t read the same way we used to. It is not because they are illiterate; it is just survival in an information overloaded world.
• Get Gen Y practice. Find places where you can serve Gen Y. My best friend is one of those HR directors that young employees turn to. She is well aware of the liability she is taking on by giving 401(k) asset allocation advice and wants to be relieved of it. Can you find a few smaller employers that might be open to having you come in and assist their employees with choices? Even if you don’t make much money doing it, the Gen Y muscles you build will be valuable to your practice.
• Redefine the business you are in. – If death/illness in not a top-of-mind risk, what is? Are there ways to partner with the insurance companies and financial institutions you work with to find the risks that young people care about today and help mitigate them? Can you broaden the definition of what you do for clients?

Find ways to identify with potential Gen Y clients and meet them where they live rather than expecting them to come to you, and your potential for new, younger clients will increase exponentially.

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

The Future of Independent Life Insurance Distribution

Executive Summary

This research paper provides an insightful and comprehensive review of the evolution of the consumer, the profile of the independent producer, the impact of the financial crisis of 2008, as well as the historical trends, future threats and opportunities for the life insurance industry.

The evolving consumer presents future opportunities and potential threats resulting from increased diversity, changing family structures and the erosion of industry trust. Key research findings include:

          • Hispanic, Asian and African American ethnic groups growing at an accelerated rate
          • Basic family structures evolving toward multigenerational households
          • Women as the primary decision-makers in African American and single households
          • Generational differences’ influence on the propensity to purchase life insurance, the preferred delivery method and product preference
          • The middle market determined to be an under-served segment for pure protection products and the wealthy with upside market potential for investment-related life insurance products for wealth transfer and estate planning purposes

Research regarding the independent producer reveals key differentiators among producer segments, provides an overview of behavioral trends and identifies critical sales support issues.
          • Producers in the independent channel are differentiated by affiliation, type of firm if affiliated, compensation structure and the product mix of their book of business.
          • Troubling behavioral trends include the aging of the life insurance sales force, the lower productivity of experienced producers, the discontinuation of securities registrations, and the agent turnover and exodus from the industry.
           • Four critical sales support areas that facilitate growth, efficiency, productivity and proficiency of a producers practice are defined as: marketing and business development, technology, back office support and professional development.

The study of the financial crisis of 2008 provides a discerning overview of its significant, negative impact on the life insurance industry including the erosion of earnings, decrease in capital and surplus, forced bankruptcies, necessitated government bailouts, stimulation of rigorous regulation and the damage to the industry’s reputation.

The analysis of historical performance in the life insurance industry addresses the industry’s shrinking capacity, past sales trends, market share by product type and the recent consumer “flight to safety.”
          • Historical trends in the life Insurance industry reflect a decline in the number of insurers as a result of economic factors, regulatory environment, and industry competition and consolidation. 
          • The number of independent agents is projected to continue to decline.
          • Life insurance sales had been demonstrating steady sales growth peaking at $14.3 billion in 2007 (influenced by STOLI and IOLI purchases) and then dropping precipitously by 18% to $11.8 billion in 2009, with fixed universal life dominating market share from 2004 to the present.

This research paper concludes by identifying and examining threats and opportunities and their implications for the future of independent life insurance distribution. An overview of a LIMRA scenario-planning article provides an insightful, futuristic view of four unique scenarios based on assumed, predictable trends and unpredictable uncertainties.
Under all four scenarios with varying, underlying, environmental circumstances, there were common themes: the consumers’ view about the need for life insurance as pivotal to the future of the life insurance industry; government regulation as important and influential in driving or discouraging competition and/or consolidation; the three ethnic groups, Hispanic, Asian and African American, as important demographic segments on which to focus; face-to-face, producer-driven life insurance sales dominating distribution; and fixed universal life insurance maintaining the largest market share.

Opportunities and threats are defined for the consumer market, the independent distribution channel, and product design and pricing; the influence of different but possible economic and regulatory environments is also contemplated.

Consumer opportunities are identified in the:
          • Three ethnic groups, Hispanic, Asian and African American, with the Hispanics making up the largest segment and the African Americans with the greatest probability of market penetration
          • Aging Gen X and Gen Y with increasing income and accumulated assets providing life insurance sales opportunity with the development and implementation of technology and online tools
          • Middle market and wealthy household segments presenting pure protection and investment-related life insurance product sales potential, respectively
          • Evolving, multigenerational family structure indicating the need for revising contract structuring and titling
          • Women’s market representing a unique opportunity for future life insurance sales due to their high level of engagement in the workforce and their position as the primary decision maker in single and African American households

Insurers will attract independent producers through “best practice” sales and service desks and a broker-dealer platform that provide optimal sales support for prospecting, technology to increase efficiency, back office support and professional development. The insurer of tomorrow must be able to attract and support multilingual producers and understand broad cultural differences. Unique product design and pricing opportunities are presented by the ethnic groups, middle market and the wealthy. A sluggish economy may influence consumer concerns and raise awareness of the need for life insurance, and a steady, stable regulatory environment will support and sustain life insurance sales growth.

Threats include the inability of the insurance industry to reach important ethnic groups, recruit and retain talent, provide adequate producer practice management support, curtail the expansion of online distribution and maintain product profit margins, which could individually and/or collectively have serious implications for the future of life insurance distribution. The backdrop of a peaceful and prosperous economic climate coupled with either a restrictive or relaxed regulatory environment could potentially create an untenable situation for the future of independent life insurance distribution.

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

Renae Gupta

Jon Dressner

Jon is Senior Vice President/Chief Creative Officer for the LIFE Foundation. He has served as a member of the LIFE staff since June 2003. jdressner@lifehappens. org

Renae Gupta and her two siblings never lived a charmed life, but they were comfortable.

“We lived in a nice house in the suburbs, a classic white picket fence house,” said Renae, 20. “But everything changed.”

When Renae was only 9, her mother Celeste Rye was diagnosed with colon cancer. 

During Celeste’s eight-year illness, she was unable to work. The family received financial help from Renae’s dad, who had been divorced from her mom since Renae was 4, and the children did what they could to earn money.

Celeste received a small monthly check from Social Security’s Supplemental Security Income (SSI). It wasn’t enough.

There was no disability insurance.

Renae’s older sister Shereen took on work to help with the family’s bills. But when she graduated from high school and started college in 2006 when Renae was 16, it was Renae’s turn to step up. 

“When Shereen left I kind of took the main spot of oldest sibling, so I started working two jobs to help bring money into the house and support the family,” she said.

Renae worked as a grocery store cashier and in retail sales, but what she really wanted was to attend Penn State University to study biology. While she kept her grades up, helped care for her mom and worked, she realized a costly college like Penn State was a long shot.

Before long, Renae was accepted to her dream school for the 2009-2010 academic year. She wanted to make it work, but because of the high tuition and the needs of her family, Renae decided to delay her start for a year.

“Soon enough I realized how unrealistic this dream was,” she said. “I knew the most important thing now was not myself, but my family.”

She kept working, and in 2008 her mom’s condition worsened. Her sister Shareen left school and came home to care for Celeste, who could no longer get through a day on her own. 

There was no long-term care insurance.

There was no shortage of encouraging words from Celeste, who believed in her children and wanted them to find success — and she never wanted to hold them back.

“Even in the midst of her death she was not only strong for herself, but for her three kids as well, assuring us that we could and would go on fine without her,” Renae said. “We were shocked when we realized this was her pride speaking, and that we had just taken on a huge financial burden that no one knew how to handle.”

That’s what happened in 2009, when Celeste died.

There was no life insurance.

“Had there been life insurance I think that the transition would have been a lot easier,” Renae said.

The Gupta children were in for an enormous life change. They stayed in Missouri for a few more months so that Renae could graduate from high school, and then the children moved to Rhode Island to be with their father.

No more four-bedroom home. They would now live in a one-bedroom apartment with their dad.

And a pricey college like Penn State?

“I decided not to go. It’s so expensive,” Renae said.

The siblings continued to do what they could to raise the money they desperately needed, even selling off their possessions — including the ones that reminded them of Celeste — for cash.

“All of the furniture, art and items connected with my mother and the time we had with her were put out for sale,” Renae said. “I tried to stay strong as I watched not only my dreams of college, but all the memories of my mother disappear.”

The difference insurance could have made
Renae said she doesn’t remember ever talking about insurance with her mother, but now she sees that disability, long-term care and life insurance policies would have meant a different future for her siblings and herself.

“It would have made a huge difference for this family because it wasn’t just one person who was suffering,” said Brian Ashe, treasurer of the LIFE Foundation and president of Brian Ashe & Assoc. in Lisle, Ill.

Ashe says insurance is not just about the person who falls ill or passes away. It’s about the survivors.

“If you love somebody, or you owe somebody, or you owe somebody because you love somebody — people are going to have to go on and they will be left with liabilities that can hamstring them for a lifetime,” he said.

Families with bills to worry about say that finding room in a budget for insurance premiums can be a challenge. Or, they say, “It will never happen to me.”

We know that’s not true.

To drive home that point, Ashe tells a story based on the famous scene in the movie The Deer Hunter, in which several characters are forced by their captors to play Russian roulette.

It’s a game of odds.

“With a one-in-six chance of taking a bullet, your chances of success are about 83 percent. Pretty good. But would you take that chance?” Ashe said. “Of course not, because the consequences of being wrong are catastrophic even though the chance of success is high.”

When people make decisions about disability and long-term care insurance, they shouldn’t concentrate on the probability of it happening to them, Ashe said. It’s the consequences of doing nothing that families should focus on.

When helping a family gain perspective about the costs of insurance policies, it’s essential to ask the right questions so that a family can imagine those harsh consequences. For example, with disability insurance, Ashe suggests asking potential clients what their most valuable asset is. Most people will say their home or their 401(k).

“Wrong,” Ashe said. “It’s their paycheck.

“If we say to a wage earner, ‘Would it make a significant difference in your life if you had $200 less per month?’ most would say it would be tight but not a significant difference. If we then ask, ‘What about $4,000?’ they say that would be a significant difference,” he said.

Then explain to the client that if they pay $200 per month for a disability policy, if they get sick or hurt, they’ll receive the $4,000 per month to stay in the world they’re in right now.

Long-term care insurance, while a very different coverage, can also help ease the burden of an unexpected illness.

“From the consumer’s viewpoint, there can be the perception that health insurance will pay the bills for rehab or a custodial care situation,” Ashe said. “If you look at averages, it’s somewhere around $5,000 to $7,000 a month for care. A family can be brought to its knees and in most states they’d have to spend down their assets before there would be any assistance from Medicaid.”

Looking to the future
Though Renae declined her Penn State admission, she was later accepted to Alaska Pacific University where she received a very large scholarship. As a freshman, she plans to study environmental science.

Still, money is tight, and Renae worries about her dad, her sister and her younger brother Clayton.

She said her father took out his own life insurance policy when Celeste was ill, but he doesn’t have disability or long-term care. It’s something she plans to discuss with him, she said.

“It’s not just the responsibility of the person whose life is on the line. At the end, it will affect everyone around you,” she said.

Renae says when she has a family of her own she’ll absolutely have insurance.

“I don’t want anyone’s life to be put on hold or have to suffer because I make the decision not to get insurance,” she said. “You have to be prepared. Then, maybe it doesn’t have to be as difficult if something happens.

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

Charitable Retirement Planning for High-Capacity Clients

Phil Cubeta, CLU®, ChFC®, MSFS, CAP®

You are sitting with a couple, age 62. She is a successful executive; he teaches high school. Soon, she will exit her job with more than either need for lifetime financial security. Her main concern is what she will do with her life, her time and talents, along with her money, once she stops working. He, too, wants to live a purposeful life. To help such clients, you might ask:
          

          • Where would you like to have a positive impact?

          • When would you like to have a positive social impact? Now? Later? At death? Beyond death?

          • How active would you like to be in driving that impact? Just give money? Invest time and talent?

         • Who joins you in this work? What nonprofits? Your children too?

          • What does your ideal day look like in retirement? Are you taking it easy? Playing golf? Or are you active in the community making a difference?

Consider these 12 strategies to enhance your client’s life and impact.

1. Life insurance
Don’t just think of insurance as a gift. Consider it a tool in an overall plan. Maybe heirs get insurance proceeds and charity gets an asset the kids don’t want. Perhaps insurance in a family trust cherry picks assets from the estate that the children want, leaving cash in the estate to go via bequest to charity. Or insurance replaces gifted assets. Or, maybe the insurance goes to the kids in the right amount, and the rest of the estate goes to charity.

2. Charitable remainder trust (CRT)
The donor gives an appreciated asset or cash and receives an income back. The appreciated asset can be sold without capital gain inside the trust. In addition, with a CRT the donor gets an income tax deduction for the remainder interest. At the end of the trust term, the remainder goes to charity.

3. Gift annuity
These are a promise by the charity to pay the donor an income for life in return for a gift. They work much like CRTs in that the donor can gift cash, securities or other assets, get an income back and have the remainder for charity at the donor’s death. Again, the donor gets a deduction upon setup for the actuarial remainder interest. The median size gift annuity is in the range of $50,000. Some go as small as $10,000.

4. Commercial immediate annuity
No, a commercial immediate annuity is not charitable in itself. It is just a great way to guarantee a life income, or income for a term of years. Yet, such annuities, and other security products like Long Term Care and health insurance, are critical parts of a comprehensive charitable plan. In the case of our affluent couple, the clients might secure their own income with a commercial immediate annuity, secure the children’s inheritance with insurance or a bequest, and then think of the rest as money for social impact.

5. Family foundation
Within limits allowed by law, the donor gets an income tax deduction for gifts during life into the foundation. At death, anything that goes in reduces the taxable estate. Grants from the foundation go to charities in line with donor aspirations. Family foundations can be a great way to teach values to heirs and to pass on a family tradition of informed generosity. Generally, private foundations are funded with cash or gifts of appreciated publicly traded stock.

6. Donor advised funds
These funds are offered by, among others, community foundations and the nonprofit subsidiaries of many for-profit mutual fund complexes. A donor advised fund can accept cash or assets. Some will accept hard-to-value or illiquid assets such as land or closely held stock. In any case, when the asset goes in, the donor gets an income tax deduction and the estate size is reduced. Grants, as with a foundation, are then made from the fund to the donor’s chosen charities.

7. Life estate
Say the donor has a residence, vacation home, farm or ranch. With a life estate, the donor can live on the property until death, at which time the charity takes possession. For setting up this life estate in proper form, the donor gets a hefty income tax deduction. Consider using the tax savings to buy insurance. 

8. IRA to charity
IRAs are great assets for retirement income, but are subject to both income tax and estate tax at death. Why not consider sending the IRA to charity at the donor’s death, and replacing it with life insurance for the heirs? 

9. Bargain sale
Here the donor sells an asset to charity at a bargain price. The donor has made a gift, then, of the bargain element, and has made a sale of the sale element. If it is an appreciated asset, the basis is spread proportionally across the gift and sale elements. The bargain element creates an income tax deduction. Meanwhile, the charity has the asset to advance its mission, and the donor has cash for whatever purpose he or she wishes.

10. Volunteering and board service
In making a commitment to a charity, donors may consider volunteering, or taking a board seat. 

11. Bequest
Most planned gifts to charity are bequests. Gift planning does not have to be complicated.

12. Integrated planning
Get clients going with “giving while living.” Then think about how best to keep it going after they are gone.

Your role
By asking good open-ended questions, you can help wealthy clients articulate the life they want to lead. Through charitable strategies within an overall plan, you can help them achieve a fulfilling retirement and a lasting legacy. They will appreciate what you have done and will refer others who need such purpose-driven planning set up.

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

Prospecting in the Senior Marketplace

David Cohen, CLU®, ChFC®, LUTCF

David Cohen, CLU®, ChFC®, LUTCF A member of the MDRT, David has served as president of both the Columbus NAIFA and FSP chapters.

Every financial advisor seems to want to do business in the senior market. How come? It’s simple—like bank robber Willie Sutton once said—that’s where the money is!

Just because the senior market may have more money to buy insurance and other investments doesn’t necessarily mean they are excited and willing to do business with you. Before you make that first phone call or seek that first referral, my advice is to understand their common characteristics and needs. From that point forward you can create a prospecting and marketing plan that can help you become their most trusted advisor.

The primary desire for the senior market is safety and security. As retirees, they are tremendously apprehensive about spending down their assets and worried about outliving their resources. The fear of outliving their financial resources ties in directly with their desire to remain independent. The last thing they want to do is burden their children financially or otherwise. Seniors take great pride in their ability to remain independent and active.

For obvious reasons, mature adults are much more sensitive to healthcare issues, especially those related to Medicare and long-term care. They understand the frailties of aging and the need for associated medical care, and they are concerned about the affordability of such care, if needed.

Other senior characteristics are more subtle. The primary goal of retirement for most people is to have more time to do things not possible during their child-rearing and working years. Seniors have time to take trips to exotic places, get involved in community or non-profit organizations, pursue hobbies and interests, and learn new things. And, unlike your younger clients and prospects, they have more time during the day to meet with you. However, they are also more deliberate. Dealing with safety and coming to investment decisions may take them more time, and their buying cycle may be extended. The key to success in marketing financial products to them is patience and maintaining a low-pressure consultative sales demeanor.

Let’s now turn our attention to the common needs and concerns of seniors. The first issue, financing healthcare, is certainly an attention getter. The healthcare needs facing older Americans provide financial advisors with an opportunity to serve their community while growing professionally. Many seniors do not fully understand the risks they face. They know that healthcare costs are rising and that Medicare has some limitations. They realize that a serious illness can wipe out their life savings. The problem is that they are unsure of how to manage these risks. As a financial advisor you can help seniors find the answers to these concerns. They simply need your expertise and guidance.

Everyone is interested in increasing their disposable income, and the senior market is no different. Where seniors differ is in their sources of income. Prospects in the senior market may or may not be working. What your prospects will typically have in common is a pool of accumulated assets representing a lifetime of savings from working. You may be able to offer them valuable advice them on annuities, mutual funds and life insurance.

Closely associated with increasing their retirement income is reducing taxes and reaching their estate planning objectives.

Seniors’ paychecks may have been replaced by generous pension checks. Mortgages may have been replaced by equity in their homes. However, once income tax deductions for mortgage interest and exemptions for children are no longer available, many seniors find that they are paying taxes at higher, not lower, rates than in earlier years. We, as financial advisors, have products that can help seniors to reduce taxes. Our goal is to be able to sit down with them and explain how annuities and life insurance can offer substantial tax benefits.

Lowering estate taxes and estate settlement costs are traditional planning goals for seniors. Traditionally, estate planning has focused on the disposition of assets at death. Unfortunately, traditional estate planning has often ignored the impact of long-term care. Too often, individuals become incapacitated without having formalized plans for healthcare or asset management. The results have been smaller estates with sometimes little or nothing left for heirs. This situation can be resolved with our help in conjunction with a qualified estate planning attorney and CPA.

Now let’s turn our attention to four prospecting methods you may want to consider to integrate the senior market into your overall goals as a financial advisor.

1. Current clients

Go through your current client list and determine how many senior clients you have. Sit down with each of them and simply ask if they would refer you to other seniors. Perhaps you could review with them how you have helped others reach their financial goals in later life. Never forget, satisfied clients are your greatest source of new prospects. Ask if they could arrange a breakfast or lunch meeting with you and their referrals. Retired seniors have the time for a leisurely breakfast or lunch, and this third-party influence can help you secure many appointments.

2. Strategic alliances
Who are the eldercare lawyers in your community? Call for a time to sit down with them so you can explain how your products and services fit into the overall financial plans for seniors. The lawyers prepare wills, trusts and healthcare agreements; you can fill in the rest.

3. Seminars and workshops
Probably the most popular prospecting method for seniors is conducting seminars or workshops. At a seminar or workshop you can introduce an array of subject matter, from annuities to Medigap policies. You can either conduct the seminar yourself or bring in other experts such as lawyers, CPAs or trust officers. I recently attended one of these seminars where the presenter, who was from the Social Security Administration, discussed Medicare and Medicaid. It was highly received and valued by the attendees. Please remember, the purpose of a seminar or workshop is not to sell anything—just educate. To begin this process, perhaps you could invite three or four of your current clients who think highly of you and ask them to bring along one or two couples. This can get the ball rolling. The financial advisors who are successful in the seminar business understand that in order to succeed you need to plan a number of seminars in advance. You may want to plan six seminars over the next 12 months. This will give you an opportunity to judge if this prospecting method is working for you.

4. Retirement communities
Talk about target marketing. Everyone living in a retirement community is generally retired. Keep in mind, though, that just because it may be called a retirement community doesn’t necessarily mean the people who live there are not in good health. Retirees often choose to live there because they have downsized. The kids have gone and a huge home is more of a burden than a blessing. If you can find just one person living in a particular community, you may eventually be able to speak with almost all of them.

I would suggest that you make a list of all the characteristics and needs of the senior market and be able to explain to some of your selected clients how important it is for seniors to review their individual situations to ensure they have peace of mind, knowing either what needs to be done or confirming that everything is okay. This very same approach can be used with CPAs and attorneys who specialize in a senior clientele. Having a written document or even a brochure adds tremendous professionalism. It demonstrates how much time and research you have devoted to helping seniors. I assure you, the referrals and introductions will flow your way.

When it comes to seminars, check with the various marketing companies and inquire about the various costs associated with a public seminar. If you choose to provide seminars for various businesses or social organizations, talk with the executive director of a particular organization and offer a short preview of what you would be presenting. This adds tremendous prestige to you as a professional financial advisor.

Retirement communities and condominium associations have at least one meeting per year. Again, sit down with the president of the retirement community and discuss the various characteristics, needs and concerns of seniors and discuss how you can help seniors reach all of their goals and objectives.

By following these tips, you should have all of the referrals you will ever need.

The senior market is huge and getting larger. The baby boomers of the 1960s are becoming seniors and the wealth they control is enormous. However, with increased life expectancy and increased healthcare costs, the risks of not having enough money are also on the rise. The basis of the financial services profession is to provide money when it is needed most, including death, long-term care needs and an income that clients cannot outlive. What a great time to be in our profession.

Good luck, good prospecting, good selling.

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

Retirement Strategies that Beat Father Time

Curtis Cloke, CLTC, LUTCF

While most people refer to him as Father Time, in the financial industry we have a more accurate, yet slightly less friendly, name for him: longevity risk.
If longevity risk, the risk of outliving one’s money, was an easy problem to solve, most companies would probably still be offering pensions. But, for most people, that benefit is long gone. And with reports projecting that Social Security trust funds will run dry by the year 2033, this problem only looks to become more complicated.
However, with a well-developed retirement strategy that incorporates the use of deferred income annuities (DIAs), boomers and seniors can establish a floor of essential retirement income using fewer assets, while also leaving room for liquidity, additional growth and opportunity, and legacy goals. If implemented correctly, advanced laddering techniques can lessen longevity risk, combat inflation and even provide extra income to deal with long-term care needs that arise. In addition, by incorporating the right kind of option riders, installment or cash refund and life or joint life with period certain, you preserve and protect your principal deposit and some guaranteed growth dead or alive.

Why living long has become so complex
If you look back just 100 years ago, the average U.S. life expectancy was close to age 50. Now, data shows us that if you take a married 65-year-old couple, there is a 50 percent chance that one spouse with live to 92, and a 25 percent chance one will live to 97. Also consider that centenarians, the age group of people 100 and up, are the fastest-growing age segment in the United States. People are living longer and longer, and what used to be a 10 or 15-year retirement may now be 35 years or more. That is a long time to go without a salary!

Retirees are exposed to numerous other risks, including those associated with:
• Health care
• Long-term care
• Sequence of returns
• Market volatility
• Inflation
• Deflation
If they only live a few years into their retirement—say they retire at 65 but only live to 68—none of these risks will likely matter. From a financial standpoint, their retirement will likely be successful, although short. However, the longer they live, the more exposed they become to all the other risks, any of which could have a devastating impact on their portfolio.
For instance, consider the impact of inflation. Let’s assume 2 percent annual inflation (which is less than most financial advisors would). Over the course of 10 years, the purchasing power of $1,000 goes down to $817. While this is a steep drop, most likely it would not completely ruin a person’s retirement plan. However, if you consider the same inflation rate over a 35-year period, $1,000 would decline to a measly $493 of purchasing power. That’s like taking a 50 percent pay cut! Inflation and longevity alone can have major consequences, but with the other retirement risks mixed in it can become deadly.

DIAs: the best cure for father time
DIAs, basically a single premium deferred annuity with an income annuity component, are the ideal vehicles to create a floor of essential retirement income. Just like the single premium immediate annuity, the income payments are known and fully defined at the time of purchase. In this case, however, the income payments can be delayed from as little as 13 months up to 50 years into the future. Modern DIA contracts may also allow a change date rider and some flexibility of the actual start date even after the purchase of such contract.
With no fee drag, favorable tax treatment, mortality credits and the option for built-in inflation protection, DIAs provide the opportunity to create more income using fewer assets, which allows room in the portfolio for liquidity, growth and legacy objectives. Because the annuity is deferred, it allows the principle more time to grow over an established period, and thus can generate a high payout rate for the annuity holder. In short, it pays to delay.
DIAs can also help mitigate the sequence of returns risk. The worst time for your clients to take a major hit to their portfolios is the five years before and after they retire, frequently referred to as the retirement “red zone.” A major financial hit during this stage can dramatically decrease the amount of money they can safely withdraw each year and increase the chance of living too long. With the DIA, a person could invest their money at age 55 with a 10-year deferral, protect it from market volatility and know the exact income payments they will begin to receive at age 65.

Advisors must always prepare clients for inflation and the high health care costs associated with living beyond 90. One option is to mix a DIA with a fixed index annuity (FIA) or variable annuity (VA) that has a guaranteed withdrawal benefit (GWB) rider so that clients can start taking income if needed. This approach allows the FIA and VA assets to accumulate over a longer period of time and, if the FIA or VA is needed for additional income, it will provide higher withdrawal rates at older ages. Some contracts even allow for turning the income on and off. If the income is not needed, it can be used for the client’s legacy goals. Another option provides an increased payout if your client requires long-term care. By managing health care risks this way, you reduce the likelihood that your client will have to dip into legacy assets to pay for long-term care expenses.

While Father Time presents a complex problem for retirees, with new product developments and some creative financial planning, advisors will be able to make their clients money last as long as they need. The key is to take the retirement income they have into consideration and determine how much more they will need to maintain their lifestyle. Then DIAs can offer a powerful option to fill that income gap and create a solid foundation upon which to build a successful and long-lasting retirement.

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.
 

Understanding Grief: What Financial Professional Need to Know

Paul M. Brustowicz, MSM, CLU®, ChFC®

In 2010 life insurance companies paid out billions of dollars in death claims to widows, widowers, children and other named beneficiaries. Delivering the proceeds of a death claim is a part of the financial planning process that happens every day. In her book, Widow to Widow, Genevieve Davis Ginsburg recommends that widows keep their insurance proceeds at interest with the insurance company until they feel comfortable making a financial decision. Although it is common sense advise, common sense is often lacking during the grieving process.

The financial professional knows what has to be done for the survivor: cover other claims filed, assets gathered and bills paid and maybe a new financial plan. What they may not be aware of is that they are working with someone in a fragile state of mind, someone who may not be thinking rationally because they are grieving the loss of a loved one.

What is grief? What can an advisor expect from the bereaved? What are the challenges of working with the bereaved? How will an advisor grieve the death of a client?

This author is neither psychologist nor grief counselor. My interest in the subject comes from my experience in the industry and in life. I have delivered life insurance proceeds to five widows and a bereaved parent. I have observed grief in widows, widowers and bereaved parents (Did you know that there is no word for bereaved parent?). I have attended seminars and workshops on grief, and I have read extensively on the subject. I have grieved the loss of my parents, my grandparents, my wife’s parents, my friends and my son. Am I an expert? No. Am I experienced? Yes.

Grief defined
The death of a loved one brings on an emotional mélange known as grief. According to author Alan D. Wolfelt, Ph.D., “Grief is the constellation of internal thoughts and feelings we have when someone loved dies.” Grief is internal while mourning is external.

Mourning is everything the bereaved may do to express his or her grief. Some outward signs of grief include crying, dressing in black or wearing a black armband or ribbon. Those roadside monuments that appear at an accident site or location where someone died represent mourning by the friends and relatives of the deceased.

The bereaved are often affected with a wide range of emotions, physical symptoms and even cognitive impairment during the first year of loss. What is important to remember is that no two people will grieve in the same manner. The grief experience is as unique as the widow or widower experiencing it. The financial advisor should be aware that their client may experience shock, fear, anxiety, rage, anger and many other emotions. These can appear immediately or even simultaneously, and the bereaved has no control over these emotions. What counts is how the bereaved deals with his or her emotions. And it is the emotional well-being of the bereaved that psychologists study.

In the 19th and most of the 20th century, the psychological community thought of grief and bereavement as forms of depression. The bereaved had to work at their grief to overcome it and become healthy and functional survivors. In the latter half of the 20th century the stages of grief emerged as the road map for the bereaved. If the bereaved didn’t pass through denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance, they weren’t healed. Current research has pushed aside the stages of grief in favor of a natural or innate resilience that accounts for the recovery from grief.

Another view of grief
In The Other Side of Sadness, Professor George A. Bonanno presents research that demonstrates grieving does not occur in stages but in waves. He references Bisconti, Bergeman and Boker, who measured the emotional well-being of 28 widows over 98 days. In a controlled experiment with two of these widows, the variability pattern of their emotional well-being—happiness and sadness—oscillated over time. They both eventually plateaued into a level emotional state close to happiness: one after 61 days and the other after 92 days.  

Bonanno attributes the individual uniqueness of the grief process to what he calls resilience. He defines it as the ability to deal with extreme stress. He characterizes the resilient person as someone who has many positive factors. The resilient person has better financial resources, better education, better physical health, a broad network of friends and relatives, and fewer life stressors to worry them. He contends that this resilience is innate but has not gone so far as to say it is genetic. What the financial professional needs to take away from this is that some clients may bounce back from their grief a lot sooner than others. The resilient are able to make their loss more bearable by bringing up comforting memories of the deceased and move to reconciliation and acceptance much faster.

I have observed resilience in the various bereavement support groups I have attended. The resilient person shares his or her grief experience with the group describing how feelings have changed over the months or years since the loved one died. Anger has subsided; there is no more bargaining; sadness comes and goes but is no longer a permanent guest. Her life is getting back to normal, a new normal without the deceased. The newly bereaved find it hard to believe what they are hearing from the resilient person, but she assures them that she was just like them when she was widowed. She is nearing the end of her grief journey and looking forward to a different life.

Five ways of grief
So if grief comes in waves like a roller coaster ride, rather than stages, what happens when the ride ends? Susan A. Berger, Ed.D. proposes that most bereaved will take one of five exits to embark on a new life as a Nomad, Memorialist, Normalizer, Activist or Seeker. Berger’s premise is that the bereaved reinvent themselves to successfully work through their grief. I believe that an understanding of the five ways of grief will position the advisor to provide advice that is meaningful, relevant and specific to the individual bereaved. 

Nomad
Nomads are the wanderers of griefdom. These are the bereaved who would rather run away, literally or figuratively, from the feelings that have beset them since the loss of a loved one. Nomads can be self-destructive, abusing alcohol and drugs; or they can appear to be fully functional for short periods of time before they move on to the next job or community where they think they might be fulfilled.

It is important to recognize that all newly bereaved will exhibit the characteristics of Nomads for a time before they move into one of the other four ways of grieving.

A good example of the Nomad is Neal Peart, the drummer of the famous rock band RUSH. Peart became a Nomad when his daughter and wife died within 12 months of each other in 1997. He recounts his nomadic way in the book, Ghost Ride - Travels on a Healing Road. Peart traveled more than 20,000 miles on a BMW motorcycle throughout Canada, the United States and Mexico before he returned to his home in Ontario.

Memorialist
Memorialists want to honor their loved one in a tangible way. It might be a scholarship, a memorial fund or a foundation. You won’t have any trouble recognizing memorialists. They want to accomplish some good for society in the name of their deceased loved one. The Nobel Prizes and Susan G. Komen for the Cure are two well-known organizations that have their origins as memorials to the deceased. One of the most famous memorials in the world, the Taj Mahal, was built by a grieving widower.

The concern of memorialists is that their loved one will be forgotten, that no one will remember the deceased’s name, life or accomplishments. Financial planning takes on a whole new dimension when working with a memorialist. The whole realm of estate planning that involves charitable giving may now come into play. There may be a need for trusts, annuities and life insurance to achieve the goals of the memorialist.

Normalizer
Normalizers tend to be in the majority of the bereaved. They look to recreate their life as they knew it. Widows or widowers may remarry. Bereaved parents may adopt a child or children. There may be more or enhanced family activities. The challenge here is for the normalizer not to move quickly into the new normal. The advice about not making large financial decisions for at least a year applies to family decisions as well. I know of one widower who in his haste to get back to normal remarried within a year of his loss and then headed to divorce court a year after that. Aside from the emotions involved, there were financial repercussions. This is where financial planners can advise clients to exercise caution when considering financial decisions that could have dire consequences.

Activist
Social justice is the domain of the activists. With compassion and empathy, activists will pursue a cause to bring about a change for the good of society. Their mantra could be: “What happened to me should never happen to another parent, child or spouse.”

Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD) is a well-known organization that started with an activist mother. Another activist parent is responsible for Amber Alerts, legislation that requires public notification when a child is missing. For every public story, there are dozens of private stories of activists making a difference in the everyday lives of others. 

As with the memorialist, the financial planner can assist the client in finding ways to honor their loved one with a charitable foundation or a charitable gift of life insurance.

Seekers
Seekers are the existentialists or the spiritual among the bereaved. Seekers were not necessarily religious before their loss but now are looking for answers in a spiritual dimension.

Seekers are asking the big questions—the hard questions. What is life all about? Is there really a God? Is there life after death? Will I see my loved one again?

Frank Bianco’s teenage son, Michael, died in a car accident. Frank sought answers to his son’s death from a higher power. His search led him to several monasteries where he encountered God on a level he never expected through prayer and interviews with the monks. Frank’s search became a book, Voices of Silence, about Trappist monasteries and the men who inhabit them. Frank took his book on the road. He spoke to bereavement groups and church groups about his search for answers, acceptance and reconciliation with the death of his son.

Another seeker who turned his loss into a book is Rabbi Harold Kushner. His book is better known than his name: When Bad Things Happen to Good People.

If the Seeker is looking to change his/her lifestyle, then the advisor needs to help him/her draft a new financial plan and manage resources. The seeker will need a financial plan that allows him/her to make the journey without financial worries to distract them.

Intuitive and instrumental grievers
There is yet another way to look at grief. As previously mentioned, people grieve in different ways, and it should be no less surprising that women and men grieve differently. These differences have been labeled as intuitive and instrumental by researchers Terry Martin and Kenneth Doka. According to them, women are intuitive grievers who go with the emotional flow, whereas men are instrumental grievers, holding back on the emotions by doing busy work.

Mortality tables will not be denied and the financial professional can expect to be working with more widows than widowers as the client base ages and death claims start to materialize. The financial professional should be prepared when working with a widow to encounter someone whose emotions are at the surface. Most women are ready, willing and able to share their feelings and cry as intuitive grievers.

The financial professional can expect the widower to be more stoic, the manly man. An instrumental griever, a man will find things to do and keep busy rather than acknowledge his feelings. He will throw himself into his job, his hobby or sports. He will build a deck, paint the house or clean out the garage rather than confront his feelings of loss.

There is a paradox about life insurance industry and the concept of intuitive and instrumental grievers. According to LIMRA, 80 percent of life insurance producers are men. Most often, it will be a man who works with a widow to settle the death claim and plan the future. As an instrumental griever, a male financial professional can provide a sense of normalcy and security to the widow and the family. The challenge for the male financial advisor will be to display some feelings or emotion at the family’s loss so as not to be considered non-caring. 

On the other hand, an intuitive female financial professional, aware of her own feelings, can provide emotional comfort and support to the widow along with financial advice. Her challenge will be to keep emotions under control so that she can be an effective advocate for the family.

The financial professional should not be surprised by the emotional energy required to successfully deal with the grief that comes with the loss of a client or friend. It is the degree of the relationship that determines the reaction to the loss: was the deceased a stranger or a friend; was the death unexpected and did it come as a shock or was there a lingering illness? Financial advisors are not immune to the dimensions of grief and need to be aware of their feelings.

Grief and the financial advisor
By understanding the ways of grief and the male/female coping styles, the financial professional can approach the bereaved with confidence and compassion.

The financial professional is in a unique position to advise the bereaved client, not as a grief counselor, but with financial advice. They can help the nomad find the way home, the memorialist keep their loved one’s name alive, the normalizer stay in the family home and community, the activist achieve social justice and the seeker realize the depths of their soul.

Finally, the advisor needs to do what they do best: be a good listener. The bereaved will want to talk about their loss and their loved one. The financial professional needs to be prepared to listen and understand the grief the bereaved are experiencing.

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

Advisors Key to Averting Long-Term Care Crisis

Shawn Britt, CLU®

Shawn Britt, CLU® Shawn is Director of Advanced Sales with Nationwide Financial in Columbus, Ohio. britts@nationwide.com.

Don’t expect the Affordable Care Act to help solve America’s long-term care dilemma. While the Supreme Court’s decision to uphold the health care overhaul is significant, health care costs in retirement remain an issue, and having to pay for long-term care out of pocket is devastating many retirees’ finances.
However, financial professionals can be key to helping their clients avoid a long-term care crisis; and if they address the issue with their clients, they can build stronger relationships and begin building their business as well.
People living to age 65 have a 70 percent chance of needing some type of long-term care (LTC) in their lifetime (according to LTCI’s Revolutionary Evolution, Nov. 1, 2011, Life Insurance Selling). Nevertheless, only 17 percent of Baby Boomers currently have any type of LTC plan. Despite the statistics, people just don’t see the need. It’s also hard to talk about an unpleasant topic like nursing homes.

Have “the talk”
Bringing up the subject of long-term care may be difficult but, in fact, may be one of the most important discussions clients will ever have with their financial professional. Unfortunately, too many clients avoid the subject like a contagious disease; thus, too many financial professionals shy away from the topic. But first put careful thought into your approach and proposed solutions.
The most common mistake a financial professional makes is in the approach. When you say the words “long-term care” to clients, they often hear the words “nursing home.” This can cause the client to shut down, for this is not a discussion they want to have. The good news is we know statistically that 49 percent of new LTC claims are for home health care, and another 24 percent take place in assisted living, which may simulate a home-like setting (according to The American Association for Long-Term Care Insurance (AALTCI) 2011 Sourcebook).
Because most people would prefer to receive care in their home as long as possible, consider using an approach such as: “Mr. and Mrs. Smith, as part of what we want to accomplish today with your financial strategy, let’s discuss how to keep you in your home longer should you no longer be able to care for yourself.” This approach can help change how the client views the conversation into something positive—being able to remain in his or her home.
 

Focus the discussion toward women
Discuss long-term care with both the husband and wife present, and position long-term care planning as a way of protecting the surviving spouse from financial impoverishment. But focus the discussion on women because they are the ones most affected as caregivers and the cared for (according to a Caregiving in the U.S. study by the National Alliance for Caregiving, 2008 WISER).
Not surprisingly, more long-term care policies are issued to women—66 percent, compared with 34 percent to men. The claims experience is almost identical with 67 percent of all LTC claims for women while only 33 percent are for men (according to the AALTCI 2011 Sourcebook).
 

Use analogies to help with client objections
Anyone with a mortgage is required to have homeowners insurance. Virtually no one would dream of not having it. For the vast majority of Americans, our home represents our largest financial asset, and its loss, without insurance to replace it, would be devastating to our financial security.
The chance of losing your home to fire or major damage is 840 times less than the chance of needing LTC (LTC Tree, What are the chances of needing long-term care? June 2010), and yet, most affluent households carry homeowners insurance while only 22 percent have a plan for long-term care in retirement (The MarcoMonitor, 2010-2011). And when you consider the population as a whole, even fewer people (10 percent) have planned for LTC coverage.
If this risk is not addressed with some form of protection, the costs associated with LTC are just as capable of devastating a person’s financial security. What clients may not realize is that the costs of long-term care are expected to quadruple by 2030 when the last of the Baby Boomers will reach retirement age. By then, a semi-private room in a nursing home is expected to cost around $265,000 per year (according to Life and Health Advisor 2010, Don’t let clients get blindsided by unexpected long-term care costs).

Make sure you understand the important differences between products and their features
Understanding the various LTC options available opens the door for LTC sales you may have overlooked. In addition to traditional stand-alone LTC policies, there are now asset-based LTC products and solutions linking LTC riders to life insurance and annuities. Each of these products addresses a different client need and/or obstacle. Make sure you understand what protection the products offer. The type of care that qualifies for coverage varies between companies, and some companies may limit claims to permanent conditions only. By having a thorough understanding of the different categories of LTC solutions—as well as their features—you will have a better chance of putting a solution in place for your client.

Connect the dots among the client’s LTC needs, goals and financial picture
Once you know what products are available, it is important to connect the dots. Each client has a different big picture outlook and/or ability to qualify for an LTC solution. For example:
• Stand-alone LTC policies may appeal to a client who is looking for the most customizable and comprehensive coverage. These clients have the needed liquidity combined with a desire for choice in plans. And for those with a significant family history of LTC events, this offers the best source for maximum coverage.
• For someone unable to pass health qualifications, or someone with limited assets for annual premiums, an annuity/LTC-linked product may offer assistance. Good news: Some available annuity/LTC products require no underwriting. While this solution may provide less monthly benefit and fewer coverage options than other solutions, it’s still a help to someone with no alternatives. Plus the unused contract value goes to a beneficiary.
• For people who can afford a large single premium and are looking for good LTC coverage with asset retention and a return-of-premium feature, an asset-based product may be appropriate. However, your client may not have the desire or ability to lay down a large sum of money at once.
• For clients looking to leave as much money as possible to beneficiaries, preferring flexible premium options and choice of base insurance product, a life/LTC-linked product might supply a suitable plan. The entire pool is available to be paid as monthly LTC benefits, and whatever is left in the pool is paid as a death benefit. While this plan may not provide quite as much in LTC benefit, it generally does provide a greater amount that can be left to beneficiaries.
Careful analysis of a client’s financial situation, thorough knowledge of product opportunities, a compelling story and forethought to approaching the LTC discussion will allow you a better opportunity to offer your clients the type of LTC coverage they are more willing to purchase for protecting their assets, protecting their family from burden and protecting their own choices for care. Knowing how to talk with clients about long-term care and offer solutions for their specific needs can help you strengthen your current client relationships and forge new ones.

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

Practicing techniques to stay relevant is key to satisfying your clients.

Debra Boblitt, CLF®

Our customers’ expectations are constantly evolving. Competition and technology drive consumers to demand products faster, cheaper and with a better customer experience than ever before. Unless you deliver perfection, customers will continuously have a reason to keep looking for their definition of a better deal. The phrase “instant gratification” isn’t just a term for younger generations.

This pace of change challenges us to remain relevant in a world where our products can be purchased online faster than you can drive to your client’s home. The following four skills will assist you with maintaining the edge needed for success.

1. Pace
Do you know the commercial in which the woman says, “That was so 27 seconds ago”? Although quite funny, the premise holds true outside of cell phone speed—the pace of change today is nothing short of dramatic. If you take too much time to make decisions, you will lose your clients’ interest and risk your credibility with them. In our world of text messages and news at the touch of a screen, learning to respond quickly under pressure is vital. I have recently implemented a 48-hour rule. Any decision is to be made within 48 hours of my leadership team discussing the situation. Pace is driving our clients’ expectations and it’s imperative we exceed them.

2. Flexibility
Most of you reading this article are in personal production. The makeup of your clients couldn’t be more diverse: demographically, economically or socially. Similarly, there is no one-size-fits-all methodology to sales. It is not about you—it is about your customers. Creating an environment promoting flexibility and responding to changing customer expectations is essential. Who decides if the way you deal with your customer is effective? You? I would argue it is your customers’ expectations that should drive the method in which you market, hold conversations and close a sale. It is not about how you want to meet with them or the discussion you want to have. Instead, being flexible with your customers is about putting their needs and expectations first. You must evolve with your customers. What they expect today will be different than their expectations tomorrow.

3. Relevance
Have you ever asked yourself how best to compete with companies whose sole marketing strategy is price? Clouds of competitors surround us. The grocery store near my home actually has pamphlets for life insurance near the checkout line! Agents must challenge themselves to remain relevant in the eyes of consumers. They expect companies, and their sales associates, to be powerful, confident and experts in their field.

• Power is the ability to accomplish tasks quickly and accurately for your clients the first time.
• Confidence is the ability to portray certainty in your purpose.
• Expertise is a factor for clients. We can continue to develop our expertise through self-development, continuing education, embracing innovative technology and being adept at social media.

Now is the time to change the status quo. It’s your responsibility to make yourself relevant to current and prospective customers.

4. Communication
Did you know there are more cell phones in the world than televisions and computers combined? From texting to Facebook, email and click2chat, consumer preferences for communication methods change frequently. Most agents look for a silver bullet for success. My advice: Know your customers’ communication preference. Period. Ask them, and execute on it consistently.

During the time it took you to read this article, more than a thousand people have signed up on Facebook. Change is all around us, continuous and gaining momentum with each passing day. Embracing this pace, intentionally keeping yourself relevant, being flexible with your clients and communicating with them in the method they prefer will help you not only stay in the game, but most importantly, exceed customer expectations.

As Senior Vice President at State Farm Insurance Companies, Debra Boblitt, CLF®, develops vision, strategy and direction for more than 4,500 State Farm agents and employees in Tennessee, Ohio and Kentucky. She has served on The American College Foundation’s Board of Directors for two years and in 2012 was selected as Secretary of the Executive Committee for the Board.

PULL QUOTE SUGGESTIONS:

“Creating an environment promoting flexibility and responding to changing customer expectations is essential today.”

“Pace is driving our clients’ expectations and it’s imperative we are running ahead of it.”

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

There’s No One With Endurance Like the Man Who Sells Insurance

Alan Press, CLU®, LUTCF®

James O. Mitchel, PhD, CEBS

Yes, indeed. The Man Who Sells Insurance has been around your neighborhood, motivated by commissions, since about the 1830s. The agency system for the distribution of life insurance has been with us for about 185 years. Now that’s endurance! That’s longevity!

Although we cannot be precise on this detail, he probably worked for the New York Insurance and Trust Company (no relation to the present day New York Life). He was paid 5 percent of the first-year premium and no renewals. Before long, though, competitors realized his value. His first-year commission doubled to 10 percent of the first-year premium. And he also received lifetime renewals of 5 percent. 


Once they understood how valuable the Man Who Sells Insurance could be, other companies began to bid for his services. The Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York (est. 1845), Mutual Benefit Life (est. 1845) and the Connecticut Mutual Life (est. 1846) all flourished, because they understood that their profitability depended on an ever-increasing cadre of highly motivated, well compensated agents, who could consistently do the difficult job of selling insurance every day.

Think of all the neighborhood pharmacies, florists, bookstores, hardware stores, travel agencies and other stores we all patronized. They are almost all gone. Why has the agency system survived, and indeed thrived, when so many other product distribution systems have essentially disappeared?

Every thoughtful reader will come up with his or her own rationale. My instinct tells me that the reasons involve three interrelated forces—the product, the people and the primary element, trust. Since the beginning, insurance producers continue to this day to make the agency system an indispensable element in the equation.

The product 

The sale of our products involves getting people to think and talk about the three things they want least to happen to them, their death, disability or old age. Many will ultimately face all of these without adequate resources to meet those challenges, unless they listen to us and act on our advice.

You can’t park a life insurance policy in your driveway and blow away your neighbors with it. You can’t wear one on your back, your wrist or your finger. If you tried to brag about your new million-dollar policy at a neighborhood cocktail party, somebody would probably ask you, “What are your other symptoms?” It would be an instant room-clearer. 

In contrast, we buy lots of different products from so-called salesmen. Most of them are no more than order takers. They don’t do anything to make us come through the door of their stores. If we don’t walk in, they have nothing to do. And we often know what we want before we enter. 
For example, 
over the course of my lifetime, I have probably bought 20 cars. In every instance I knew the exact brand, model, color and options that I wanted before I walked into the dealership. The various salesmen insisted on telling me how many 
seconds it would take me to get from 0 to 60 miles an hour, 
the number of gears in the transmission, about the speakers for the radio and how many 
miles per gallon I would get. 
I knew all of that before I walked in. The only information I wanted from him was how much it was going to cost me.

Whichever dealer gave me the most competitive price got the sale. 

Not one of them ever followed up with a call and said, “Your car is almost three years old. The warranty will end soon. We’d like to bring a new one with all of the nifty gizmos to your driveway and let you test-drive it for a few days. Then we will show you how we can get you into it at a price you will be comfortable with.” 
  

How many of you have ever had the experience of a total stranger coming through the door of your office and telling the receptionist, “I woke up this morning and decided that I want to buy a life insurance policy. Is there anyone here that could sell one to me?” 

In my 56 years in the business, it has never happened. But if it did, I would probably respond to him or her with a question of my own: “Are you on your way to New York Hospital for a heart transplant?”

The people 

It takes dedicated, highly motivated, well-educated advisors to sell life insurance. To overcome the procrastination instinct that inhibits so many of our sales. Advisors must face negative responses. We are paid for what we do, not who we are. We must be able to structure our own days. We must get ourselves to do the hardest job. We must continually prospect. 
  

Paraphrasing Albert E. N. Gray’s The Common Denominator of Success, we must be able to get ourselves to do the things we don’t want to do, the things that unsuccessful people cannot get themselves to do. We must get ourselves do them every single day. And, above all, we must do them all with integrity.
The reason successful advisors can command significant levels of income is simple. Very few people can consistently do the job well. It’s Economics 101: supply and demand. 


Trust 

We ask our clients to give us a significant amount of their hard-earned money in return for an eight or 10-page document that the vast majority of them will never completely read, and wouldn’t understand most of if they did. It is above all, a trust sale.
Only people can earn trust. There is no such thing as a life insurance company or agency that exists as an independent entity, apart from the men and women who work within it and define it. The organization that attracts and keeps quality people who understand their responsibilities to the individuals who buy from us because they trust us will be a good company, a successful company. And the opposite is equally true.
We tell our clients, “We will be there for you when you and your love ones need us. We will keep our promises when the things you don’t want to happen, happen, as they surely will.” That is an enormous responsibility that must never be compromised. The purchase of a life insurance policy is a trust-driven transaction. It can take years and years of consistent hard work to build and maintain trust. But trust can be lost forever in a matter of minutes if we do not continually conduct ourselves in a manner worthy of our mission.
For 185 years (with certain notable aberrations) the good men and women who manufacture, sell and service our products have been mission driven. There is every reason to hope and believe that we will be around for the next 185 years, if we continue to earn the trust and confidence of all those we serve and maintain the consistencies that are part of the life insurance equation.


* “There’s No One With Endurance Like The Man Who Sells Insurance” is the title of a song written by Frank Crumit, published by Decca in 1935.

Originally published in the Winter 2012 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, The High Cost of Longevity.

So Many Studies Can’t All Be Right

There was a large dose of “wait and see” embedded in the overwhelming Dodd-Frank financial reform legislation in the guise of an extensive number of studies to be conducted by various government agencies. While the purposes of the studies vary, many will constitute the basis for additional regulation or rulemaking. The SEC alone is creating more than 100 rules and completing 20 separate studies required by the law, all in a limited time- frame with no additional resources.
Three hotly anticipated studies have recently been released—two by the SEC and one by the Government Accountability Office (GAO)—that have the potential of changing the way financial ad- visors work and the way they are regulated. First the good news: the GAO, which had been charged with determining whether regulation of financial planners is adequate, reached a balanced and well- reasoned conclusion. They found that while most, if not all, of the activities planners engage in are already fully regulated, there may be some issues with uneven enforcement and opportunities for in- creased consumer clarity on roles, titles, and duties.

GAO study: new layer of regulation for financial planners not warranted The primary challenge with the Dodd-Frank approach in initially mandating the GAO study is that it was built on a false premise. It assumed that “financial planning” is a separate and distinct profession, which, of course, it isn’t. Instead, “planning” is a discipline that crosses many professions
and could be used by accountants, insurance experts, attorneys, investment advisors, and others. How would you begin to define what constitutes a planner for purposes of separate regulation and oversight other than through the wide range of activities they perform? Using that approach, almost any financial services professional could be deemed a “planner.”
Luckily for both advisors and the public, the GAO didn’t see the need for duplicative regulation and appeared to see through the private agenda that was behind the study’s inception. A few planner groups want to set up their own self-regulatory organization (SRO) reporting to the SEC to control education, credentialing, and standards for their membership. The GAO didn’t buy it.
What the GAO did observe—and it continues to be important—is that consistent enforcement must be in place to protect consumers at both the state and federal level. They also found that some consumer confusion remains as to the titles, duties, and standards of care for various types of financial professionals. Some advocacy groups have concentrated on the use of particular titles, which is arguably the least critical issue for consumers. If, for example, separate regulations were established for anyone calling herself a “financial planner,” advisors could quickly change their titles to “wealth man- ager” or “financial consultant” instead.
It’s much more relevant to talk about the credentials and qualifications that stand behind any one of a dozen common titles being used with the public. The American College continues to carry on the fight for strong credentials. Consumers deserve the expertise of advisors who hold their CLU®, CFP® certification, or ChFC® —along with other quality marks—rather than rogue designations earned in a few days at a seminar.
The GAO ultimately made three recommendations: (1) for the NAIC to review consumers’ understanding of standards of care relevant to the sale of insurance; (2) for the SEC to take up the issue of titles and designations; and (3) for the SEC to collaborate with states to better understand complaint data associated with financial planning activities and which practices might benefit from additional oversight in the future.
As for the SEC, as noted earlier, they have their hands full. It seems unlikely that they would willingly broaden the scope of any of their current studies. It is fitting that the NAIC should look at standards of care for insurance sales, because the various groups yelling “fiduciary” every time there’s an open microphone or editorial page don’t seem to understand how insurance works. To be an agent of the company and a fiduciary for the client at the same time is not really workable, at least not in the true sense of what being a fiduciary means. What’s a little sad about the whole debate is that the various voices in the standards of care debate all really want the same thing—to serve consumers well with the highest ethical standards—there’s just disagreement on how to achieve that end and assure the continuation of consumer choice, product and service availability, and low-cost distribution models.
That brings us to the SEC studies, including their examination of standards of care for broker/dealers and investment advisors. Broker/dealers have operated effectively for years under a rules-based suitability standard, while investment ad- visors have worked within the framework of a principles-based fiduciary standard. Some argue that the suitability standard is easier to enforce and that it promotes “before the fact” regulation, while the fiduciary standard is more nebulous with actions more often evaluated “after the fact.” Nevertheless, there has been a long push to harmonize the two standards when advisors are providing investment advice about securities to retail customers. The argument goes like this: why should ad- visors performing essentially the same function, albeit under two different business models, operate under different standards? Isn’t that confusing to consumers?

SEC study: a uniform fiduciary standard for broker/dealers and investment advisors?
An SEC staff study followed that line of thinking and recommended that the SEC pursue rulemaking to move to a uniform fiduciary standard for broker/dealers and investment advisors when providing personalized investment advice about
securities to retail customers. The specific standard would be to act in the “best interest of the customer without regard to the financial or other interest of the broker, dealer, or investment adviser providing the advice.” In addition, the study recommends harmonizing disclosures (making sure they’re in plain English), and addressing disparity in other regulations and consumer protections between the two business models.
On the surface, there’s nothing much there with which to disagree. The trouble lies, as it often does, in the details. Will consumers actually benefit from this fundamental change in regulation? Will their costs go up? Will their investment results be better? Will their choice of and access to products and services be diminished? On the subject of cost impacts alone the study spends almost two dozen pages essentially

Saying, “who knows?”
In conjunction with the report two SEC commissioners, Kathleen L. Casey and Troy A. Paredes, issued a statement op- posing the study as it is currently written. Their main com- plaint was that the fundamental research wasn’t done on any of the issues above, and that the case wasn’t effectively made to justify such a major overhaul of regulatory structure. Separately, NAIFA surveys also have indicated that implementation of these changes could force some of their members to change business models or move away from middle-market clients to effectively mitigate the added cost and compliance burdens.
Are consumers actually better served if broker/dealers determine—once the new standards and rules are in place—that it’s in their financial and compliance interest to move to a fee-based model? How will the availability of variable and proprietary products be impacted? It’s true that Dodd-Frank has language that says receipt of commissions or selling from a limited product set should not violate a uniform fiduciary standard per se, but that’s not the same as assuring that the implementation rules for the new standards are business mod- el neutral.
And that’s the key question: if the SEC moves ahead with this rulemaking—after any Congressional intervention or the impact of public comment periods—will the resulting interpretive guidance be workable for all business models and avoid significant additional compliance burdens and costs? Will it protect consumer choice and access?

During a recent House Financial Services subcommittee hearing, legislators appeared concerned about where the SEC is headed, both on the fiduciary duty and on the issue of advisor enforcement. Here’s hoping the SEC is more thoughtful about this issue than some of the self-interested advocacy groups and coalitions who are attempting to drive this debate. Keeping middle-market consumers front and center in the discussion is critical, and we can only hope their true best interests will be protected in the final analysis.

SEC study: who should be watching investment advisors anyway? Another SEC staff study deals with the core issue of enforcement. Over the years broker/dealers have been examined much more frequently un- der FINRA’s jurisdiction than investment advisors have been by the SEC’s Office of Compliance Inspections and Examinations (OCIE). It’s a sore point for broker/dealers, who would like to see more balanced enforcement, and it’s clearly in the best interest of consumers to toughen the oversight of investment advisors.
The SEC has an enforcement capacity issue. While the number of investment advisors has grown and the assets under management have grown faster still, OCIE staff has been reduced. The number of ex- aminations of registered investment advisors has dropped 29.8 percent since 2004. Only 9 percent of RIAs were examined in 2010. With the current budget battles front and center in Congress, it’s unlikely the resource issue will be mitigated anytime soon.
Responsibilities for regular oversight is split with state authorities based on assets under management, and Dodd-Frank raises the thresh- old from $25 million to $100 million. Even given that change, growth in RIAs subject to OCIE examinations will continue to outpace the SEC’s resources.
The SEC study on this subject punts the issue back to Congress with three alternatives to consider: (1) leave enforcement with the SEC but fund increased resources with user fees; (2) set up one or more new SROs to manage RIA enforcement at the federal level; (3) let FINRA handle examinations for dual-registered advisors. While none of these solutions is ideal, the problem clearly needs to be addressed. User fees will overlay additional costs on advisors, and some feel FINRA is not experienced enough in enforcement under a fiduciary standard of care.
The idea of multiple SROs and giving advisors a choice of which to join sets up the possibility of regulatory arbitrage and extraordinary complexity. You can bet some interest groups will be engaged in trying to carve out their own regulatory areas if this path is pursued. While the answer will probably be either user fees or FINRA, we’ll have to wait and see where Congress goes with this issue.

The bottom line: stay engaged in the debate
Regulatory issues too dry for your taste? Too apt to change with the vagaries of political fortunes or too distant in impact? Let’s not kid ourselves. The resolution of these contentious issues can change the way we are able to serve consumers and conduct our practices. Stay informed through your connections with The American College, state your opinions vigorously in the public debate and comment periods, and support industry advocacy groups such as NAIFA, AALU and others. Your involvement in these issues has never been more important to achieve the ultimate result of steering public policy toward the public good.

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

Mildred F. Stone, Insurance Trailblazer

Virginia E. Webb

Virginia E. Webb Managing the Knowledge Center at The American College, Virginia does research for faculty, students and graduates, as well as administers the technical services department of the Vane B. Lucas Memorial Library.

Mildred F. Stone came of age when the life insurance industry was predominantly a male-dominated business. Born in Bloom- field, N.J., in 1902, Mildred graduated from high school in 1920, the same year that the 19th amendment was approved and women were given the right to vote. Well-traveled and bright, she was encouraged to continue her education.
Stone chose Vassar, was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and graduated with a B.A. in 1924. After a short stint as a part-time home economics instructor at the local high school, a friend urged her to explore other career possibilities. He was a young assistant vice-president at Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Company in Newark, N.J. Stone joined the company in 1925 intending to work for only two years; she worked for Mutual Benefit Life for 43 years.
Back then The American College had not yet been incorporated. Stone was only the second woman to earn her CLU® designation in December 1928. When asked about the complexity of her exam questions, Stone related her questions were “simple,” and not “like a graduate degree as it is to- day.” She attributed that to the lack of quality books in the field of life insurance and life insurance selling at the time. She thanked Dr. Huebner for making this area “a major source of study.”
Stone encouraged many other women to enter the business of life insurance. In a 1976 American College Oral History interview with late historian and archivist Marjorie Fletcher, Stone explained: “The American College and the CLU® movement
gave women a chance to be established ... smart women took the CLU® exam ... women who were aggressive and ambitious saw this as an opportunity.” She saw The American College as recognizing women in leadership positions, even in its earliest days. She strongly believed in the visibility of women. Stone would later go on to write the biography of Ellen Putnam, another woman industry pioneer who received her CLU® in 1930 from The American College.
Although Stone never sold life insurance, her legacy in the industry is assured. In 1934 she was elected the first woman officer at Mutual Benefit Life. The industry at that time had expanded greatly due to “World War I’s military life insurance pro- grams that had set $10,000 as a standard premium for young men.” Stone’s first job title was as Agency Personnel Secretary. Her role was to maintain “positive employee relations” in the company. In 1957, she wrote “A History of the Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Company,” and she retired in 1968.
Stone never forgot the education she received at The American College. She began her writing career with “A Short History of Life Insurance” in 1942.
In 1950 she published “Better Life Insurance Letters” (second edition in 1957). In 1960 she published the quintessential biography of Dr. Solomon Huebner, founder of The American College. The Teacher Who Changed an Industry was written to “present Solomon Huebner the man as well as the educator ... writing the story of (this) remarkable man has been a great privilege.” The year 1963 saw the publishing of the first history of The American College, called “A Calling and Its College.” Placing a great value on history, she noted: “His- tory enables us to look with two eyes... and to know why things are as they are. His- tory shows how problems have been solved. History leads us to appreciation of what has been done for us by people who have gone before. From this kind of understanding comes a proper evaluation of what we have today, guidance for the developments of tomorrow and inspiration for us to serve in our times.”
Stone found the time to give back to her New Jersey com- munity, where she lived her entire life. Diverse organizations such as the Bloomfield Board of Education, Phi Beta Kappa, Audubon Society and Bloomfield Cultural Commission all benefitted from her effort and expertise. Other positions
Stone held included serving on the Board of Governors of Northeastern Bible College and as a founding trustee of the Oakeside- Bloomfield Cultural Center. Throughout her life and career, Stone was a speaker before many life insurance, civic and club groups. She was honored with Bloomfield’s Outstanding Citizen Award in 1956, and Fairleigh Dickinson University honored her in 1964 as one of New Jersey’s Outstanding Women. Stone was awarded The Huebner Gold Medal (the College’s highest honor) in 1981.
Mildred Stone certainly enjoyed a life well lived. She reached the milestone of her 100th birthday and in May 2002 was honored by The American College with a Resolution of Congratulations. The Bloomfield Public Library also honored Stone with an exhibit showcasing her life. She laughingly recounted that she never found the right man and was affectionately known as “the
mother of the agents.” She died in November 2002.

The author gratefully acknowledges various works written by Mildred Stone and biographical works that were used as source material for this article. Many thanks to the Women’s Project of New Jersey, the National Women’s History Museum and The American College 1976 Oral History Mildred Stone interview by Marjorie Fletcher.

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

The Risk of Public Pension Plans

Karen Eilers Lahey, Ph.D.

Karen is Professor of Finance at the University of Akron, a Charles Herberich Professor of Real Estate, a Fitzgerald Institute Fellow in Entrepreneurship and a member of The American College’s Board of Trustees. klahey@uakron.edu

Defined benefit (DB) plans are the predominant type of retirement plan provided to individual workers by public pension plans and, historically, by private pension plans. Corporations have gradually shifted to defined contribution (DC) plans in an effort to reduce the liabilities that DB plans create for them and the increasing requirements for reporting these liabilities on their balance sheets (FASB 158). Leigh Anenson and I noted in the Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy in 2007 that the public sector has seen an increase in DC plans in recognition of the continuing problem of underfunded DB plans and increasing demands on state budgets. There are two major differences between corporate and public DB plans. Public DB plans are not regulated by the federal government and there is no guarantee of benefits to employees as provided by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) to corporate DB plans.
From the individual state employee’s viewpoint, the risk of a public DB pension plan is that he will not receive the benefits that he anticipated in retirement. For 10 of the 50 state teachers pension systems, there is no contribution to Social Security. For these individuals, a reduction or elimination of pension benefits would mean that the basic safety net provided by Social Security would not be avail- able. From the viewpoint of governors and state legislators, the risk of public DB pension plans is that the necessary contributions will place such a strain on state funds that other necessary commitments will not be met. Compounding the risk to state governments is the fact that, historically, many
states have failed to make necessary yearly payments to their pension plans.

What do public retirement plans look like? State and local retirement plans offer a wide variety of plans, benefits, contributions, vesting requirements, retirement requirements and funded ratios. Each of the 50 states has different plans, and within each state who is covered and what coverage is pro- vided varies. Public pension plans can include those for teachers, fire and police, judges and other state employees. The largest plans are offered at the state level and include both DB and DC plans. In a DB plan, the government must provide an annual retirement income benefit that is based on a formula using the number of years worked, final average salary and some percentage of that salary. The assets in the plan remain with the pension plan, and it has the responsibility for choosing appropriate investments and bearing the risk of poor selections be- cause the plan guarantees the benefits to employees. A trust fund manager in the form of a politically appointed or member-elected board is responsible for managing the plan and this may imply an opportunity for politicians to influence decisions that should be made on a fiduciary basis. The DB plan’s riskiness is a function of market declines in port- folio investments, an aging work force with an in- creasing number of retirees with higher salaries and insufficient funding from the state.
In a DC plan, the government makes a contribution to the plan and has no further liability for the employees’ retirement income. The trade-off for the employee is that the funds in the plan belong to the individual rather than the plan and can be moved when a job change occurs. Additionally, the individual decides on the as- set allocation for the funds that are needed to provide retirement benefits and may not have sufficient understanding of the process to provide an adequate retirement.
Stuart Michelson, Natalie Chieffe Vickie Bajtelsmit and I provided a base line analysis of DB and DC plans for college faculty at public institutions of higher education as of 2007 in the Financial Services Review. Our sample was based on the largest institution by enrollment in each of the 50 states. A total of 68 percent of universities offered their faculty a DB plan, 90 percent offered a DC plan and 50 percent offered faculty both. The average employer contribution was 7.46 percent and the average employee contribution was 4.92 per- cent, for a total average contribution of 12.38 percent. Unlike corporate DB plans, no federal rules govern vesting in public pension plans. This leads to a wide variety with the average number of years required for vesting being 5.79 years. All DB plans specified the youngest age at which faculty can retire and the average age was 56.65 years. The funding ratio (market or actuarial value of assets divided by liabilities) measures a plan’s financial health, and 79 percent of the funds in 2005 were underfunded. The average assumed rate of return for public DB plans was 8.01 percent.

What are the projections for public pension plans in the future? Authors of the 2008 working paper “The Intergenerational Transfer of Public Pension Promises,” Robert Novy-Marx and Joshua Rauh, found there was a “50 percent chance of aggregate underfunding greater than $750 billion and a 25 percent chance of at least $1.75 trillion (in 2005 dollars)” of under- funding by 2020. Their estimates were based on 2005 state pension funding, asset allocation and estimates of liabilities.
In a 2010 study by the Pew Center on the States, the estimated gap between assets and promised benefits for state public DB pension plans and healthcare benefits was a trillion dollars as of 2008. The estimate did not include the market downturn in 2008, which occurred after the reporting fiscal year for most plans. A grade of solid performers (16), needs improvement (15) and serious concerns (19) was provided for each of the state pension plans as the basis for suggesting that state legislatures should reform their states’ retirement plans. The study argued that the underfunding problem is a result of failure by state governments to provide adequate funding, volatility of pension plan assets, increase in benefits that are not funded, and inaccurate assumptions.
Julia Bonafede, Steven Foresti and Russell Walker provided the 15th yearly report in 2010 by Wilshire Consulting on public pension plans based on 125 plans. This is the same number of plans examined by the Pew study. They estimated that the funding ratios for 2008 have dropped to 65 percent, noting that this result did not reflect the recent market rally that started in March 2009. Asset allocations increased from 65 percent in equities including real estate and alternative investments in 2000 to 66.8 percent in 2009. Lastly, they forecast a long-term return of 6.9 percent, which is below the median actuarial expected return assumption of eight percent.
Mary Williams Walsh, in her New York Times business piece, “Public Pension Funds are Adding Risk to Raise Re- turns,” stated that corporate plans that are well funded are moving their pension funds out of stocks. Public pension plans and corporate plans that are not well funded are adding junk bonds, foreign stocks, commodity futures, mortgage- backed securities and hedge funds to their pension portfolios in the hope of improving their return
According to the Wall Street Journal article “Gurus Urge Bigger Pension Cushion” by Gina Chon, the question of an appropriate discount rate (expected return on investment) has recently received attention because of a proposal by the Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) to require a reduced rate and asking for comments (Chon, 2010). Sixty-one pension plan administrators and 27 state treasurers expressed opposition. Other GASB issues include calculation and re- cording of pension liabilities by funds as well as a shortening of the amortization period.
Potential solutions to the public DB problems appeared in Chris Farrell’s Bloomberg article, “Pension Envy Vexes Underfunded Public Workers.” He suggested bringing all public employees into Social Security so that there is a floor benefit. Employees could then be offered a supplement 403(b) plan with a low-cost guaranteed annuity. DB plans need to slash their future payouts to levels similar to the income replacement offered by Social Security if they are to become solvent.

Conclusions
The current state of public DB plans predicts a continuing problem that must be solved if employees are to receive a reasonable retirement benefit and state and local governments are going to be able to fund the plans. While it would seem that the solution is to move to DC plans, that is only feasible for new employees and would not solve the problem of current liabilities of these plans. Both public and corporate retirement plans need to be examined at the federal and state levels if future employees are going to be able to retire in a financially secure manner.

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

You Don’t Need Compliance Approval to Listen

Robert Shore

Rob is the CEO of shorespeak, LLC and Wholesaler Masterminds.com. He coaches financial services distribution professionals and publishes I Carry The Bag...the official magazine of wholesaling. shorespeak@gmail.com

Since the dawn of the age of social media a short five years ago, financial professionals have been analyzing their potential entry point into this new world of connectivity, transparency and conversation. Most are still on the sidelines. As evidence of the this fact, in October 2010 at the Schwab IMPACT conference in Boston some 1,600 financial professionals gathered for a session with the co-founder of Facebook, Chris Hughes, and the co-founder of Twitter, Biz Stone. At the end of the session, in a live poll of the audience, they asked two questions: 1. How many members of the audience were
using social media as part of their practice?
2. How many members of the audience, after listening to the panel discussion that just took place, would start to explore using social media for their practice?
In both cases less than 10% of the hands in the room were raised.
So, why is it that financial professionals are so reluctant to step out into the social media world?
One reason trumps all others: compliance. Most governing bodies frown on the social media engagement; others ban it outright.
For example, FINRA views participation in online conversations the same as public appearances, and blog posts as advertising. Those wishing to make their businesses present via the big three platforms of LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter need to do so while trying to navigate both the choppy compliance waters and the simple fact that deter- mining an entry point from which to drink from the social media fire hose is overwhelming at best.

How do you select an entry point for social media? When asked the same question at the conference both social media leaders had the same suggestion: Start by listening.
Social media is comprised of three distinct levels of participation:
• Listening: wherein your goal is to simply consume the enormous amount of information that is available to you via these social media channels.
• Talking: when you choose to join in the conversation and offer your opinion or perspective through comment, tweet or post.
• Collaborating: has you contributing to a body of work next to others. Think Wikipedia.
While talking and collaborating might be difficult to compliantly navigate, the important news is that you simply don’t need compliance approval to listen. Add to that the fact that listening via the technology described here is free, and you have no reason not to make this your point of entry.

Why listen?
Our research has led us to the conclusion that the sales process in a post Great Recession world is different than it has ever been. Most prominent among the differences is that your prospects (and even your clients) are now prepositioned to not trust a thing that you say. And that’s not surprising. Our general suspicion of politicians, bankers, Wall Street and government has never been higher.
With that in mind, we need to establish a more expeditious path to a foundation of trust, and we need to build the trust root system as deep and strong as possible—and that’s where listening comes in.
We’ll use the technology to find valuable insights and/or common ground from which to either start building, or improve upon, our relationships.
Here’s an example: Recently I was preparing for a speech in front of a large broker-dealer. As part of my preparation I started to listen to the available information and insights that I could glean about the firm. Among the pieces of information I picked up was that the CEO was a member of the National Speakers Association (NSA). In fact, he was well thought of in his Atlanta chapter and regarded as a fine speaker. As luck would have it, I am also a member of the NSA.
When we met do you suppose that our mutual connection through the NSA expedited the formation of trust in the relationship? You bet it did.

What are you listening to?
The best-in-class financial professionals are always great students of the business. As such, they take the necessary time to stay informed and consume as much information as necessary to keep them on the leading edge of their craft, listening to:
• Competitors • Centers of influence
• Strategic partners
• Product partners
• Clients • Prospects
• Industry information

How to listen?
We always recommend that our clients set up an RSS reader to access all of this information. Think of an RSS reader as a personal listening outpost. You tell the reader what you want to get information on and it collects that data from across the Internet. By having the reader do the work you are no longer repeating the process of clicking on bookmarks and rifling through sites in search of interesting content every day.
The most popular reader, and one of the easiest to use, is Google Reader located at google.com/reader.
From this one place, you can access your favorite dailies, periodicals, trade journals, etc. If they have an RSS feed (and most do) you get the information served to you without you clicking through endless web pages to find it. In addition, you’ll be able to get posts from your favorite columnists, commentators or bloggers within hours—no need to go to their site to get it.
Using Google Reader also gets you a direct channel to in- formation as it develops from social media sources like Twitter and LinkedIn.
In the case of Twitter, simply go to Twitter Search at search. twitter.com and key in a search term. For example, say you have a need to follow an industry, consumer brands, and a large player in that industry, Coke. Type in Coke and see real- time results of what people are tweeting about Coke. With the click of the RSS button you can save that search and let your personal listening outpost, aka Google Reader, take over. It will deliver all of the tweets that develop mentioning Coke. Every day, all day.

Using this same example, you can now search for Coke in- formation:
• Via all blog posts at Google Blog Search: google.com/ blogs
• At over 5,000+ news outlets via Google News: google. com/news
• By subscribing to the Coke company page on LinkedIn to learn about who is new to the company or who has recently departed at Linkin.com/company/157327
• Directly from Coke by going to their corporate communications page at www.thecoca-colacompany. com and clicking on RSS
• With Google Alerts at google.com/alerts

Repeat this process for any and all people, industries, key- words or topics on which you want to stay abreast. Once set up, your stream of information to your outpost will continue until you tell it to stop.
Want to get step-by-step instruction on setting up Google Reader? Visit our site at shorespeak.com/blog/learn-google- reader/.
While the next evolution of social media may or may not include the same big three players (Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn), what is certain is that the immediacy, transparency and hyper-connectivity of communication will not suddenly recede. And in a world where the need to stay informed conflicts daily with the constraints of available time it is critical that financial professions find a way to access this information in the most efficient way possible.
While you may still be trying to crack the social media code and post your first tweet or send your first poke, use the avail- able technology to stay informed and get the upper hand— just start to LISTEN.

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

You Can Make a Paperless Office Happen

Donald F. White, CLU®, ChFC®, AEP

Donald is CEO of Treasure Coast Financial Services in Stuart, Florida. He is an Excalibur Knight of the MDRT Foundation and a current Top of the Table qualifier. dwhite@tcfin.com

Just 10 years or so ago the idea of having Adobe Acrobat on a PC was cutting edge. Today, Acrobat is on version 10 and a printer option on virtually every machine. Yet, in spite of the technology avail- able, the vast majority of life insurance agents and financial planners cling to their file cabinets like they are the Holy Grail. But I’m here to tell you that going paperless is not only possible, it is really no longer optional.

My story
It was 2002. Filing and keeping track of mountains of life insurance application requirements, trade confirmations, investment statements, tax documents and other account paperwork was becoming overwhelming. Our worst nightmare was compliance audits. They normally took all day and we were constantly written up for one deficiency or another because of a lack of paperwork. We generally had it all, but with one person filing one way and another person filing another, we just never knew for sure exactly where it was. Paper documents consumed 20 four-drawer file cabinets and wasted more than 150 square feet of our office space. Additional staff was going to be needed just to handle the paper- work! Finally, I woke up and said, “There has to be a better way.”
So, that year we decided to build our own building, with one condition—no file rooms. We were going paperless.

Ditch the paper
We began drawing up the plans for our building. I decided biting the bullet and investing in scanning and electronic filing software would save us time, a bunch of money and create a more efficient work environment. First, we invested in desktop scanners. Then we purchased an easy-to-use electronic filing software system called Cabinet NG, which provided a simple way to categorize our electronic files in much the same way I would have liked my paper files to be organized.
Once we had the software and the scanners in
place, our initial commitment was to eliminate any new paper. Every new application, account statement, new account form, whatever, was scanned and filed in Cabinet NG. There was a learning curve, but in a few weeks, my staff was used to scanning all documents and then shredding the paper copies. But what were we going to do with the file drawers full of old paper? The truth was that appeared to be our greatest challenge. With construction on the new building without a file room well underway, it was time to tackle the old stuff.
At this time, my assistant, Kathy Walsh’s daughter was in college and we asked her if she would work for us that summer scanning and reorganizing our paper files into electronic files. Working closely with her mom, Jennifer methodically reviewed, scanned and electronically filed every piece of paper. It took a couple of months, but by August she was done. Every cabinet was empty. Save for current cases not yet to the filing stage, we were a paper- less office.

Our first audit—surprise, surprise!
A couple of months after we moved to the new office (circa 2003), we had our first compliance audit. The auditor had never conducted an audit where the records were filed electronically. What normally took a full day was over in two hours. Better yet, we had zero deficiencies.
A while later the head of compliance called me. He was thrilled with the efficiency of our system, all e-mails and client communication handled and filed in one place. No more sticky notes. But he was also concerned about security. How were we backing up? What assurance could I provide that if the system crashed we could get back up and running? I called my systems management consultant and he recommended a double redundant backup. So, every night we backed up to a tape drive sys- tem, and every week we download our entire system offsite to an online backup service provided by Iron Mountain. In 2003, this was all new ground. Today most B/D and insurance companies understand electronic filing, but then we were plowing new earth.
The compliance people signed off on our backup system but the true test came a year later when Hurricanes Francis and Jeanne hit. For a week after the eye each storm hit our town communications were nonexistent. The phones were in and out, and the electricity was out for a full week. Many offices and homes were completely destroyed. Water and paper files do not coexist very well, but once our phones were back and the power restored, we did not skip a beat.
On another occasion our server crashed. Everything on the server was gone. Two days later we had a new server, and an hour after that everything was restored from the backup tapes.

Results: effectiveness, efficiency, professionalism Today we have a seamless system of scanning, backing up and shredding paper. Our client files are organized in Cabinet NG. On top of the electronic file cabinets, we have an automated database through Advisor’s Assistant (AA) and an online as- set tracking system through Albridge. These three tools have changed the way we do business. Albridge gives us the ability to consolidate client accounts. AA gives us a way to save correspondence, make notes, track our calendars and manage client information online and through a local network. Everything in our office is internally networked. So anyone in the office can see my calendar, access client accounts and manage files.
Going paperless has not only promoted a more efficient and effective means to manage client accounts, but has made us much more professional. Now if we could just get the insurance companies into the 21st century.

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

Tablet Computers Coming on Strong

Matt Henry

Matt is Consultant to The American College on The Wealth Channel. Since 1995, he has helped clients, from start-ups to Fortune 500 companies, effectively and responsibly use mobile and web technologies to better sell to and service their clients. matt.henry@ theamericancollege. edu

The ability to consume and present multiple forms of content on a portable, connected device, as well as access a depth of productivity and other business-related apps, has led to the emergence of the tab- let computer as a legitimate business communications and presentation tool. Financial services and insurance businesses have led the way, with some estimates suggest- ing that more than 35 percent of all busi- ness usage for tablets occurs within those industries.
Tablets provide inherent benefits over other presentation devices. Lighter and more portable than laptop computers, tablets still have the capability to present written, visual and video-based documents quickly and clearly. With more than 60,000 native iPad apps available, a figure that should double this year, financial professionals have access to a number of productivity, content and presentation tools.

Apple ipad
Apple has clearly led this trend, with more than 15 million iPads sold in their first year of launch. The successful launch of the iPad 2, with some estimates at one million in sales on its first day, shows that Apple is still a firm leader in this market. The sec- ond-generation iPad offers a number of notable up- grades from its top-selling predecessor. It includes a faster processor and more memory, improving performance, particularly with regard to the viewing or presentation of graphics-intense or video- related content. It has multiple cameras to allow for full-screen video conferencing. The iPad 2 also has a slightly different physical design; it’s lighter and thinner than the original iPad.
The launch of the iPad 2 has brought with it a flurry of new accessories and add-ons, including a simplified and more seamless way to connect to presentation screens and projectors. A variety of keyboards are available as well, making data input on the device more practical. Additionally, Apple’s distribution deal with Verizon ends the AT&T monopoly and allows users a broader choice of connectivity plans.
This combination of new features and accessories will enhance the iPad’s ability as a tool for financial professionals to communicate and present to cur- rent and prospective clients. The device, best known for its entertainment purposes, has evolved into a functional and effective business tool.
Other manufacturers have begun to capitalize on this tablet trend as well, and this year will see the launch of multiple competitive devices.

Blackberry playbook
Late in 2010, Research in Motion (RIM), the manufacturer of Black- Berry smartphone devices, announced a launch for the BlackBerry Playbook, intended to compete directly with the iPad and Android tablet devices. The Playbook is expected to first gain traction among cur- rent BlackBerry users, who will enjoy its synchronization capabilities.
The Playbook has several notable differences from the iPad, including a much smaller size (7 inches versus 9.7 inches for the iPad). The Playbook also boasts a faster processing speed than the iPad, and it will fully support open Web standards such as HTML 5. Perhaps most importantly, the Playbook supports Flash video and applications, allowing access to a richer variety of Internet-based content. This enhanced access to Web content will help to mitigate the relatively small number of apps available on the Blackberry platform, currently only 20,000 but expected to more than triple by the end of this year.

Android tablets
Led by the Samsung Galaxy Tab, the Android-based tablet market has significantly impacted Apple’s previous near-monopoly on the tablet market. During the first three quarters of 2010, the iPad represented more than 90 percent of all tablet sales, a number that fell to around 75 percent during the fourth quarter. Unlike the Apple and BlackBerry tablets, the Android operating system developed and supported by Google is open to multiple manufacturers. As such, a long line of companies, including Motorola, Asus, LG and Dell, have announced their own Android-based tablet for 2011.
The variety available among Android devices is expected to further erode Apple’s dominance in this market, resulting in more choice among financial professionals. Like the Playbook, Android devices support open Web standards and Flash video/ applications, an issue that Apple will need to address to keep its market share.
Tablet computers have proven to be an effective tool for financial professionals to stay current on important industry issues, to communicate with clients and prospects, and to enhance general business productivity. The growing diversity in this market, once controlled by Apple offers professionals new choices in features, functionality and available apps that will help them better achieve their business goals.

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

Joining the iPad Revolution

Mike Scovel, MSM, CLU®, ChFC®

Mike is Senior vice president in charge of the west central zone at New York Life, and is a member of the Presidents Circle at The American College. mscovel@nyl.com

Laptops—They are so 1990s! What are you doing to distinguish your agency as cutting edge and relevant in today’s market place? A step in the right direction might be as simple as a $500 investment in your technology program within your firm. I am talking about investing in an iPad or Android tablet to demonstrate that you are connected to what’s current and hip. Laptops are what the Gen Y’s parents used. When a touch pad is pulled out during a meeting with a prospect, the typical first reaction is “How do you like it? How does it work? I want to get one of those myself someday.” Instantly, you have gained a level of sophistication beyond the typical yellow pad and pencil salesperson. Clients perk up as they realize that you are in the know on the most effective, up- to-date technology for building client relationships and maximizing space.
What can you use an iPad or other touch pad for in your current business practice? It’s a great pro- gram to show the typical sales slides you use when pitching your clients or prospects. Using the iPad as the display vehicle versus using laminated slides or a laptop is much more powerful because of the sharp display and size. Most companies’ sales talks are set up as PowerPoint presentations or PDF files, which work fabulously on the iPad and bring a new flare to the presentation. The quick shift to the Internet to get data from the company Web site or third-party confirmations takes just seconds, as the switching from program to program is almost instantaneous. Many other applications can be just as quickly accessed, such as financial calculators and note-taking tools that make fact finding fast and transferrable. Company-created videos can be readily available to promote a process or product and add a different element to your sales presentation. All together, the visual combinations you can use to show opportunities to your clients become limitless and give a new face to the old sales process.
The first step in incorporating an iPad or similar device into your work life is knowing what model to purchase by understanding the differences between the multiple versions on the market. The models come with different storage capacities and an ability to use 3G service to connect to the Internet in areas where Wi-Fi is not available. Models range from 16 to 64 gigabytes of storage. If only used for business, the 16 is probably be fine, but if you want to use an iPad for a movie player while traveling or on personal time, or you have a large number of company- owned videos to load, these items use up more storage. The other option when purchasing a touchpad devise, the ability to add 3G service, is a business essential for visits with your clients away from the office. 3G costs approximately $25 a month.

If you already have one or plan to purchase an iPad soon, here are some notable programs (apps) you might find effective for use in the financial services industry:
• Goodreader – This file management program allows you to bring in Word, Excel, PowerPoint and numerous other data formats and disperse them to other programs once in your iPad.
• Keynote – This program becomes your presentation program. Download your company sales talk into this program and you will have a professional way to walk your clients through your process.
• AudioNote – This must-see application is an incredible tool for taking notes, either by typing or in free hand while at the same time fully recording the entire conversation in audio format, which can be saved to your files back at the office.
• PowerOne – This financial calculator with hundreds of financial calculations is both easy to work and easy to demonstrate with your clients. This program can be mastered in minutes and provides effective computations that even your clients can use.
• Notebooks – This might be the most critical program to organize one’s thoughts into an effective reference library to keep all creative ideas, client information, personal information and business models in one spot. Use it to compile the key initiatives you plan on implementing in your business.
• Neu.Notes – This free program creates an electronic white board that can be projected to show everything you are writing on the screen. Just imagine the impact of replacing the white board with an electronic tablet you hold in your hands; it removes the need for a physical white board or easel at your future meetings.
• Priority Matrix – Based on well-known author Steven Covey’s priority matrix that divides tasks into what’s urgent, important, not important, and so on, this program is a great way to organize your time and ensure you are devoting enough time to the important issues in your business.
• World Cultures – This clever program allows you to look up what is socially acceptable based on your client’s culture or community. It will keep you in the know on appropriate greetings, communication style, personal space habits, eye contact rules, gender issues and taboos, to name a few. For example, if you had
a meeting with a potential client from Ireland, you would want to know that you should avoid referring to the Republic of Ireland as part of the United Kingdom, or that “Mick” is a derogatory term and a major insult to an Irishman.
Of course, everyone has a little non-urgent, unimportant time on their personal priority matrix. For those moments, check out Word With Friends. It’s basically Scrabble® for your iPad.
To sum up, I am suggesting we all bring our technology into the next decade. I have chosen the iPad to be the tool on which I run my business, but there are many options. Do your homework, select the process you can most quickly in- corporate into your business model and bring your business into 2011!


Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

The American College Has Gone Mobile

I am from Generation X and used to think Atari was fascinating technology. I grew up in the infamous era preceding computers, a time when I used to knock on my friends’ doors to see if they could come out and play. In high school, we would talk on phones that were connected to walls, and we even had one that was a rotary. In college, everyone took notes with pen and paper and completed essay exams in those
little blue books. Today I watched a lecture on my phone while waiting for my train to arrive. Oh, how the times have changed.
By the way, this lecture was free and from Harvard University. Yes, Harvard—because we live in the Information Age where knowledge is shared freely and immediate access to information is easier than ever. Educational institutions now have the opportunity to allow their students to access courses online, interact with other students virtually and learn without physically attending class on a cam- pus. Having the ability to take practice quizzes, use discussion boards and download content has made learning not only easier and more engaging but, ultimately, more powerful. Technology has revolutionized the idea of what can be gained through homework and learning outside of the classroom.
Speaking of revolutionizing technology, iTunes U was released in 2007, and it has radically changed our ability to distribute knowledge over the Inter- net. Apple made the decision to allow institutions to use iTunes for free management and distribution of content. This is a game changer in terms of how educational institutions can teach and reach their students. We can now use multiple forms of instruction and provide options to students that have never been available to them before. And think about this: Some content just requires passive learning, meaning that teachers must explain to students the concepts and information they must understand before they can move on to the next stage of learn-ng. Obviously, this takes time, and in the past that always meant classroom time. But imagine that a student listens to that required lecture before attending class. Now the very important face-to-face time between teacher and students can be spent using other, more hands-on learning strategies such as debates, dialogue, brainstorming and Q & A. Online games, simulations and virtual worlds, which provide an engaging, interactive environment, are also changing the way students are learning. For example, Penn State now requires academic advisors to be available for meetings within the virtual world of Second Life (a free 3D virtual world where users can socialize, connect and create using free voice and text chat). While this may seem like just fun and games, people learn in many different ways—that’s the point. It has been researched, proven and written about time and time again that students retain more information with these strategies.
To reinforce my point, I like to reference a graphic originally developed by Edgar Dale, a U.S. professional educator. His Cone of Learning illustrates that as a student progresses into more engaging learning activities, the likelihood of retaining knowledge is much greater. And isn’t this really our primary goal as educators, for students to retain as much knowledge about a subject as possible? As convenient as it is to access educational materials online, we have until recently always needed access to the Internet through our PC or laptop to use it. Fortunately, there’s now an app for that. In the spring of 2010, Blackboard, Inc. released an app for Apple and Sprint products that provides Internet access via mobile devices. The American College is on top of this cutting-edge technology. Just one month after Blackboard’s app was re-
leased, we downloaded it to our test environment and began creating courses for use with the application. The engagement and convenience of online learning is now completely mobile for our students.
At the same time, we partnered with Apple to distribute our content through iTunes U. In addition to providing audio and video content, we also are creating standard downloadable ebook textbooks viewable on most ebook readers.
So, back to that lecture I watched from Harvard University. I downloaded it for free directly to my iPhone. Maybe it’s not the most ideal viewing device, but it’s definitely the most convenient. And that’s the goal, to give students the option to learn at the place, time and method of their choosing. Mobile learning!

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

Leveraging Technology to Build Customer Value in 2011

Matt Henry

Matt is Consultant to The American College on The Wealth Channel. Since 1995, he has helped clients, from start-ups to Fortune 500 companies, effectively and responsibly use mobile and web technologies to better sell to and service their clients. matt.henry@ theamericancollege. edu

Technology continues to grow at a rapid pace, not just in terms of speed and availability, but also in user adoption. The growth of social media and the pervasiveness of mobile devices suggest that the financial services industry will continue to see change at an even faster rate.
Two key areas of current and future technology growth provide real and immediate opportunities for financial professionals.

Mobile devices
The fastest growing segment in consumer technology, smartphones are expected to represent 30 per- cent of mobile devices by the end of 2012. Added to the sales of the iPad and its competitors, there will be more than 100,000,000 mobile smart devices actively used in the US alone.
Carriers, agents and advisors have recognized this trend, and they have begun to launch new initiatives to take advantage. While some of the following options provide better opportunities than others for financial services professionals, it is important to understand each.
• Mobile ad banners, similar to traditional Internet banner ads, appear on the phone’s screen along with mobile web and application content. Most current mobile advertising is geared towards music, entertainment and games, aligning with the content most readily available via mobile device. As mobile financial and insurance transactions evolve, there will be more relevant opportunity for financial services professionals.
• App development refers to customized applications, or apps, that are either preloaded by the device manufacturer or downloaded by the user. With more than 300,000 apps available for the iPhone, and countless others available for BlackBerry and Android devices, it can be difficult to differentiate within the app world. Many carriers and independent agents have, successfully launched apps that range from simple to highly complex and interactive. The American College has just introduced an app for The Wealth Channel. Visit the App Store in iTunes now.
• Mobile web development is the development of a mobile version of a standard Web site. Set to display properly on the smaller phone screen, the mobile Web site will typically have a streamlined menu and limited content. Mobile web sites are different from apps in that they are platform independent and will run on an iPhone, BlackBerry, Android or any device with a web browser.

Social media
Social media has become a catchall term to de- scribe the proliferation of professional networking and personal interaction sites and platforms that have emerged over the past several years. Three of the most important, as many are already aware, are Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn.
• Twitter (www.twitter.com) is a free service, with 150 million users, that allows the broadcast of text-based messages limited to 140 text characters to specified followers. And while corporate policies and legal restrictions limit some uses by financial professionals, Twitter has proven effective as a way to share information among peers and clients. It can also provide consumers with a direct line of feedback to a carrier, agent or advisor.
• LinkedIn (www.linkedin.com) is a professional networking site that facilitates discussion and interaction between specialized and industry groups. With 100 millions users, LinkedIn has evolved into a robust set of like-minded communities that have access to the experience and knowledge of the other participants.
While there are restrictions related to the use of LinkedIn by some financial services corruptions, active participation in LinkedIn forums can provide advisors and agents with a broader, deeper knowledge of industry issues and real-world suggestions for problem solving, which can help to create more customer value.
• Facebook (www.facebook.com) is an online community that allows users to post immediate information to their group of friends. With 500 million+ users, Facebook is the undisputed leader in the social media world. Financial professionals, however, have struggled with how to include Facebook as a part of their marketing efforts.
Continuing advances in technology are inevitable. The carriers, agents and advisors that succeed will be those who balance the use of this technology while remaining focused on providing customer value.

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

Trading the Golden Years for a Platinum Engagement

Larry Grypp, CLU®, ChFC®

Larry Grypp, CLU®, ChFC® Larry is President of the University of Cincinnati’s Goering Center for Family and Private Business and Co-founder of the Center for Executive Transitions.

As veteran financial advisors, many of you have the opportunity to counsel clients on various major life transitions—starting a new family, selling a business or planning for the wealth transfer of an estate. You may even have experience in managing the financial elements of another profound client transition: retirement.
But when the lens turns on our own preparation for this transition we often find that we have not done the due diligence necessary to make the right decisions for our families, our businesses and our- selves.

It’s time to take those steps
I spoke to the Quarter Century attendees at the Million Dollar Round Table (MDRT) annual meeting in Vancouver last year and we reviewed aspects of their succession and transition plans as they made decisions on whether they would rev up, slow down, step down or sell their practices. For financial services professionals, there are four distinct succession possibilities:
• Continue working—or “die with your boots on in the saddle;”
• Sell your business to someone in your current practice, agency or broker dealer;
• Sell your business to an outside party; or
• Develop and sell an institutionalized business.
While each of these approaches has benefits and drawbacks, the three selling options normally take years to complete—from initial planning through final integration. Even with an interested buyer, structuring the deal, identifying the management and leadership of the successor firm and ironing out terms of client management takes time. It’s a complex process. If you are considering your business succession, Mark Tibergen and Owen Dahl authored an excellent book that covers these topics and more. “How to Value, Buy, or Sell a Financial Advisory Practice” emphasizes ways to maximize the value of a practice and offers vital information for both buyers and sellers.
However, there is an entirely separate consideration that financial advisors, or any business professionals, must consider as they plan their succession transition, one that receives strikingly little attention: your personal transition beyond a traditional career.
The first element we often consider when faced with the prospect of our own retirement is, of course, financial. Establishing a secure foundation to see us through our golden years has likely been a primary focus of our retirement planning, if not our only focus. But another critical element to a successful retirement transition lies beyond that base level of financial security in a sense of purpose.
During my 38-year financial services career I would suggest that people plan, save and invest, telling them, “You must be prepared for three de- cades of life after your traditional career.” Then, on March 1, 2008, came the realization that I, myself, had three decades of life ahead. What would I do? Who would I be?

What will you do? Who will you be?
These are more challenging questions than many realize. In my own situation, I knew that a future of just leisure was not a viable solution. After all, I had been in a leadership role in business for de- cades. To suddenly not have a role to play was deeply unsettling. I felt empty, even resentful. I did not even like being called retired. But that’s what I was, and it was up to me—as it is up to each of us—to define the next period of our lives.
I realized that I needed to engage in something fulfilling, work that allowed me to spend time with my family but also to give back to the community, whether that community was down the street or around the world. Uncovering the specifics of meeting that need took focused work and guidance, including deep discussions with those who had walked the path before me.
Much of the research suggests that transitions to the third quarter of adult life are most effective if begun while in your traditional career—ideally during the last two or three years. I did not earnestly begin the process until I was already transitioned out of my traditional career, but, in working with others, I have found the process is far less tumultuous if you plan for the next stage of your life before you embark upon it.
During my transition, I met and began working with Bob Parsanko, a business coach. While describing my disciplined process and goals in my next life phase, Bob indicated there was an opportunity to assist others like me. Together we founded the Center for Executive Transitions to address this powerful need among business owners, executives and professionals for guidance in successfully shaping life after retirement and creating encore careers.
Many baby boomers realize as we approach this next phase that we have a need to understand how to live with purpose, joy and contentment. Some retirees, particularly men, have a difficult time sculpting a new self-definition entering retirement. For many, the very concept of retirement is profoundly distressing. In fact, the highest suicide rate by far is found
among Caucasian men aged 65 and older. George Eastman, founder of Eastman-Kodak Company, ended his own life just two months after his retirement. He left a note that read: “My work is done, why wait?”

We don’t think that is a viable solution to the retirement question?
The true solution is to identify your purpose as you transition into the third quarter of your adult life. Whether there is something that you WANT to accomplish, NEED to accomplish or that you are CALLED to accomplish, this purpose holds the key to your fulfillment, and to your ability to leave a lasting and meaningful legacy.
There is no one solution for everyone—nor should there be. Your retirement transition and the purpose that you find are as unique as you are. The beginning place, however, is simply to start asking questions. If you want more ideas and suggestions, consider visiting The Center’s Resource Library at www.cet.us.com. There you will find articles, websites and movies—along with the top 12 books that we have read on this subject.
No matter what, know that whether you are on the brink of retirement or considering it within the next five or 10 years, if you want to make the most of this platinum opportunity, the time to begin is now.

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

Innovative Strategies to Enhance Charitable Giving

Jerry Borrowman, MSFS, CLU®, ChFC®, CAP®, LUTCF

Jerry Borrowman, MSFS, CLU®, ChFC®, CAP®, LUTCF Director of Advanced Markets for the Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company at Cambridge Financial Center in Salt Lake City, Jerry is also a member of The American College Alumni Association Advisory Board of Directors.

The classes I took live at The American College to qualify for the Chartered Advisor in Philanthropy (CAP®) designation are among the most meaningful of my career because of the potential to use life insurance products to help worthy causes. Plus, charitable giving devices can often reduce a family’s estate tax burden with tax-favored replacement of donated values to heirs using life insurance. I find philanthropy to be an intriguing and exciting aspect of our business. Returning home, I made an effort to reach out to charities to share ideas on how to build their endowments only to find that many charities are unaware of the power of life insurance and annuities to help them achieve their goals. In some cases fund-raising professionals are even suspicious of our motives and worried that planned gifts will reduce much needed current gifts. Since those early days I have moderated my approach to first provide basic training to key individuals at the charities on how life insurance and annuities can help build the endowment while providing excellent planning opportunities for clients. Because of that I have been invited to speak at conferences in several states on “10 Innovative Strategies to Enhance Charitable Giving.” It is gratifying to hear the “a-ha” moments in the group as individual fund-raising professionals, attorneys and accountants catch the vision of what we can do to help their best donors and clients. Two of those strategies strongly illustrate the flexibility of life insurance as part of the planning process.
Let me start by saying that these ideas will only have traction with well-established charities that have a dependable current cash flow that provides for their staff and charitable needs. Planned giving means that the benefit of the gift will often be received at a future date, most often to help build an endowment fund. Charities must be patient when courting large gifts to fund these programs, so it’s important that you acknowledge to your key contacts at the charity that you are aware of their current needs for donations, and that the ideas you share will supplement what their donors are already doing rather than replace it.

Using life insurance to magnify a charitable gift
Life insurance may provide a charity with a depend- able rate of return on donated funds that mature as a death benefit. You should be aware of two tax regimes in considering this strategy:

1. Charity owns the policy: A client donates money to the charity, which then pays the premium on a policy owned by the charity on the life of the donor. This provides a current tax deduction to the client, but he or she has no ownership rights in the policy. The charity is the beneficiary and has access to policy cash values during the life of the donor. Some practitioners suggest that the charity should take partial withdrawals or dividend surrenders, not policy loans, as policy loans may create Unrelated Business Taxable Income (UBTI), which creates unnecessary taxable income. State insurable interest laws may restrict a charity’s ability to make the initial purchase of life insurance on the life of a donor. In that case most practitioners feel that it is appropriate to have the individual apply for the policy on his or her own life and, once in place, donate the policy to the charity, because insurable interest applies only at the time of application.

2. Client retains ownership: In this case, the client names the charity as the beneficiary and does not receive a current tax deduction because the policy owner retains all interests in the policy, including the right to change the beneficiary. At death the proceeds will be paid directly to the charity free of both estate and income taxes (because of the unlimited charitable deduction available to estates). This strategy allows the policy owner to retain access to policy cash values just in case he or she needs them, but to benefit a charity at death.
Giving a charity an interest in a life insurance policy is a generous act on the donor’s part. In some cases the rate of return on policy values may be so attractive to a charity that it wishes to add additional funding to the policy beyond that contributed by the donor whose life is insured. As long as the charity has permission to do so from the donor, this is a generally accepted practice. This may be a great way for the charity to increase the return on its money, particularly in the current environment of low interest rates on certificates of deposit and other fixed income accounts. Consider annual premiums and single premium life insurance policies using whole life and guaranteed no-lapse universal life policies.
For example, suppose a 60-year-old male client wishes to provide a $1 million endowment to his alma mater at death. He can do this a number of ways using life insurance:
• $31,471 equals annual premium for whole life insurance. In this case the initial death benefit of $1 million grows to $1,649,584 at age 85 and the cash value grows to $651,000 (based on 2011 dividend scale, which is not guaranteed. This provides an annual internal rate of return of approximately 3.5 percent
on cash value and 5 percent on death benefit at life expectancy), which is very favorable in today’s market. The charity has use of policy cash values as needed.
• $14,304 equals annual payment needed to guarantee a no-lapse universal life policy. This contract builds nominal cash value, but the internal rate of return (IRR) on death benefit is very positive.
• $8,879 equals annual payment needed to guarantee a no-lapse survivorship index universal life policy assuming a spouse of age 60. Again, cash value build is nominal ($270,844 at age 85, decreasing thereafter), but if held to the joint life expectancy, the IRR on
death benefit is more than 7 percent guaranteed. That’s a remarkable benefit in today’s economic climate.
Think of it this way: A client is able to donate $8,879 per year to a favored charity. Certainly the charity will be grate- ful, but they’re not likely to name a building after him. But that same tax-deductible $8,879 used to pay the premium on a survivorship policy is guaranteed to result in a $1 million endowment. Not only will that provide great recognition for the donor’s family, but it also will provide an ongoing stream of income to the charity in perpetuity, if desired. That’s the power of life insurance to help a charity build its endowment program.
But it’s not the only way. A charity may wish to acquire life insurance on the life of a well-established donor whose death would adversely affect the charity—most likely a member of the Board of Directors or fundraising committee. If the char- ity has the means, it could acquire $1 million of protection on the same 60-year-old male using a single premium policy:
• $470,000 is the single premium needed to fully fund a whole life policy. This creates an immediate death benefit of $1,004,581 and an end-of-year cash value of $447,849. The cash value at the end of year two
is $474,673, more than the initial premium. If held to life expectancy at age 85 the cash value would grow to $1,684,344 at the 2011 nonguaranteed dividend scale, and the death benefit would more than double to $2,007,917. Even at a zero dividend rate, the guaranteed cash value would grow to $804,993 with a death benefit of $1,004,581. The IRR on this approach currently exceeds 5 percent by year 10, demonstrating a favorable way to reposition charity assets to increase rate of return while providing a death benefit.
• $219,169 is the single premium cost of providing $1 million of guaranteed no-lapse universal life.
• $160,439 is the single premium needed to fully fund a guaranteed no-lapse index survivorship universal life. This provides an IRR in excess of 7 percent per year guaranteed. The $160,439 is guaranteed to mature for $1 million with no market risk.
As you can see, life insurance may be a great way for a charity and its donors to provide guaranteed returns on their assets.

Using SPIA/Life to provide increased current income
How do you provide a 75-year-old with 6.1 percent income guaranteed for life? You do it using this strategy, which also may be used by a charity to increase the real return on its existing cash assets. This is an idea I learned about from John Homer, CLU®, ChFC®, a great local agent who is a leader in MDRT, as well as an advocate for advanced training in the industry. John has used this idea to provide enhanced cash flow to his clients, as well as to help charities realize a much greater return on their existing assets. He wrote an article for another publication entitled “The Perfect Storm for Charities.” As you may know from watching the movie or reading the book The Perfect Storm, there must be three conditions for a perfect storm to form (the kind that has incredible force of unusual magnitude). In the case of the charitable perfect storm, the three elements are: 1) reduced contributions, particularly from wealthy donors; 2) increased demand on charities because of lost jobs; 3) lower return on existing assets because of the historic low interest rates being paid on certificates of deposit and other interest bearing accounts.
How can financial services professionals help? Consider two products sold by insurance companies: life insurance and life income immediate annuities. Used in combination they can provide some great benefits. Consider an example:
A 75-year-old male in excellent physical condition purchases a single premium immediate annuity (SPIA) with no refund from Insurance Company A. The current payout is $103,000 per year guaranteed for life (10.3 percent of the original premium). This same client goes to Insurance Company B and applies for a $1 million guaranteed no-lapse universal life policy. He is approved at an annual premium of $42,000. The difference between these two numbers ($103,000 - $42,000) is $61,000 per year. In other words, the client has taken a $1 million asset that may be earning 1 percent to 2 percent in a certificate of deposit and replaced it with a guaranteed net life- time income of $61,000 while his heirs or charity will receive $1 million income tax-free from the life policy at his death. That’s the same as providing 6.1 percent income for life. And, once approved, it is risk free (benefits are paid based on the financial strength of the life insurance companies that issue the annuity and life insurance policy).

Annuity payout versus life insurance premium
Here is a table of sample values. This table assumes an insurable client who purchases a guaranteed no-lapse universal life policy from a $135 billion highly rated mutual insurance company, as well as an annuity from a second carrier. Rates are based on November 2010. Actual rates and payout will depend on the medical insurability of the client/donor, payout rates in effect at time of purchase and companies selected.


As you can see, this presents a great opportunity in the right circumstance, but there are limitations. For example, once the strategy is initiated there is no cash available except for the annual net income, because 100 percent of the premium used to purchase the life income immediate annuity is nonrefundable. This means the charity must be able to function with annual income for an unknown period of time without access to the original principal for the annuity. At the death of the key person the charity will receive an amount equal to its original annuity purchase payment by virtue of the guaranteed death benefit. Plus, this will only work when the charity has an established relationship with an individual who is both willing to allow the charity to own life insurance on his or her life and whose medical insurability will provide the needed spread to make the strategy meaningful. The IRS takes a dim view of charitable stranger-initiated life insurance because the investors wind up with the greatest economic benefit. Therefore, the charity should use existing funds, not borrowed or investor monies as, in this strategy, the charity gets 100 percent of the benefit.
Hopefully, you can see that there are many noncharitable applications for this strategy, including lifetime income for a widow, reducing the value of an otherwise taxable asset to zero when owned in the estate (because the life income immediate annuity has zero value at death) with asset replacement to heirs in a policy owned outside the taxable estate, and so on. But it has unique application for charities that have an existing endowment fund who desire to increase the guaranteed rate of return they earn on assets during the life of a selected donor or key employee.
I’ve touched on just a couple of the available options, but what I hope you get from this brief discussion is the important partnership role that we as financial services professionals can play in the estate planning/charitable giving arena. We offer the products that enable the use of planned gifts because we can provide for all parties at the table—charity, grantor and heirs.

Time for Disability Income Insurance?

Bob Herum, MSFS, CLU®, ChFC®, RHU®, REBC®

Bob is Second vice president of disability income sales at Union Central Life Insurance Company.

The last couple of years have been extremely difficult for many Americans. Many business segments have struggled. Your clients, both personal and business, have suffered. Each of you has likely had to retool your practice and probably made some tough decisions. So, why should you look at adding disability income insurance to your day-to-day sales efforts? First, the disability industry has righted the ship. Carriers are profitable and loss ratios are satisfactory—the number of claims hasn’t spiked de- spite the difficult economic conditions. The larger disability carriers have relaxed some of the financial documentation requirements and, particularly when combined with teleunderwriting, eased the medical requirements. There is a reduced dependency on Attending Physician Statements (APS) and paramedical exams due to other tools that have been developed to validate the proposed insured’s medical status. Another recent innovation is to simplify the medical and financial requirements through combo Life and Disability Income (DI) insurance sales. The internal underwriting efficiencies that can be exploited by the Home Offices of companies that have both life and disability income insurance policies allow you to provide streamlined underwriting processes and take care of the life and disability needs of your clients. Your clients really need both. You make two sales, your client’s family has financial protection against loss of family income due to death or disability, and you have a much stronger relationship with your client.
Another reason to re-explore disability income planning with your current clients and prospects comes from an understanding of what the last couple of years have highlighted for so many. Your clients or prospects are much more aware of the effect of lost income on their lifestyle. The need for planning and preparation is not a sales gimmick.
• According to the Social Security Administration’s Disabled Worker Beneficiary Statistics, new Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) applications increased 21 percent from 2.3 million in 2008 to 2.8 million in 2009. Two major drivers of this increase were the poor economy/high unemployment rate and the aging of America’s working population.
• According to the Council for Disability Awareness (CDA) Personal Disability Quotient calculator, 61percent of surveyed wage earners personally know someone who has been disabled and unable to work for three months or longer.
• The CDA also reports that the average long- term disability absence lasts two-and-a-half years.
• More than one in five workers will be disabled for five years or more during their working careers according to the JHA Disability Fact Book.
Product and pricing options designed to improve the offering to professionals, white- and even gray- collar business owners are now available. Unbundling the product and providing multiple product options can allow you to meet the pocketbook needs of your clients, yet provide quality products and the ability to increase their benefits as their financial situation requires or allows. Another area of tremendous opportunity exists when working with executive benefits for small- and medium-sized employers. You are uniquely positioned to look at these plans and suggest valuable product or plan design changes that provide needed and valuable benefits to the firm. These options might include executive Life and/or DI plans that supplement or augment the underlying group plans.
In many group scenarios, the decision-maker may be some- one in HR. However, when working with individual products, particularly life and disability income products designed for executives, the decision to create and implement executive- level benefits is generally made by the CEO or CFO. Design- ing and implementing executive benefits on a group basis, using individual disability products with Guarantee Standard Issue (GSI) offers, along with significant discounts for each participant, allows you to design and implement plans that the employer sees as part of their executive-level benefits. More importantly, demonstrating significant shortfalls when trying to use group products to handle the specific needs of the high net-earners within a firm is relatively easy.
Think about the non-W2 income that key executives and owners might receive that is not protected under the standard group Long Term Disability (LTD) contract. The following illustration shows an average employer-paid

Sales Opportunity 1
This first scenario is the small, closely held business. Often these firms have 25 or less employees; the most have less than 10 employees. Often this type of group has limited disability options. A few group plans are available in this market, but the need for disability planning is extremely high. These smaller employers are often without anything other than an employer-provided accumulation of sick days. Most companies limit these to 10 or 15 days, and any disability lasting longer puts the employee at financial risk. Typically, the employer is not going to be in the position to do something for everyone, but perhaps for the owner and one or two key employees. Most insurance companies have pricing breaks at three or more lives on an employer-sponsored plan. Additionally, most insurance companies use sex-neutral rates on their list bill cases. Your goal in these types of situations is to show the owner (and other key employees) how they can use individual disability policies, sold with a list bill discount and sex-neutral rates, to provide the key employees a valuable benefit. The employer can use individual disability policies as golden handcuffs. Additionally, the business owner often realizes that they would most likely (or already do) continue their own or a key employee’s salary if disabled. This is extremely common, and few business owners are aware of the tax consequences of continuing salary to a disabled employee. They also are unaware of the risk they assume if they have paid a key employee and, later, another less-key employee becomes disabled and assumes they also will have their salary continued. Once someone continues to receive a salary while disabled, a precedent is established for the firm.


Group plan covering 60 of earned income to a $5,000 monthly maximum. This is a very common scenario, and few highly compensated employees or executives fully appreciate their plan’s deficiencies, which include the is- sue of what income is covered, the fallacy of 60 percent of income and, finally, the likely taxation of benefits.
In the example to the right, the individual earning $240,000 only has 25 percent less taxes of his/her income covered ($60,000/$240,000). What do you think their response will be when confronted with this?
Following are a couple of other common disability scenarios.

 

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

What to Know About Long-Term Care and Medicaid

Shawn Britt, CLU®

Shawn Britt, CLU® Shawn is Director of Advanced Sales with Nationwide Financial in Columbus, Ohio. britts@nationwide.com.

Long-term care (LTC) concerns are growing in the United States. With the passage of the Deficit Reduction Act 2005, signed into law Feb. 8, 2006, those concerns loom even larger. This act brings new rules that make it far more difficult for seniors in need of long-term care to get assistance from Medicaid. Currently, only 10 per- cent of Americans over the age of 65 own some type of long-term care protection, and only 17 percent of baby boomers have planned for long- term care needs. People assume their health insurance will pay LTC bills, but it won’t. Even those who qualify for Medicare benefits will only be provided with a maximum of 100 days of nursing home care, and individuals are eligible only when going to a nursing home immediately after a three- consecutive-day stay in a hospital. Then the first 20 days are covered, but a co-pay ($141.50 per day for 2011) will be required for the remaining 80 days. All benefits end after 100 days.
So how have Americans been paying for long- term care needs up to this point? Currently, 49 percent of LTC recipients are relying on Medicaid, but keep in mind, while some in this group come
from our nation’s poor, many in this group start out paying out of pocket then go on Medicaid after their assets are exhausted (sometimes purposely). According to the National Clearinghouse for Long- term Care Information, only 7 percent of people are actually paying for long-term care with private insurance coverage they have purchased. The government took a step to reduce Medicaid roles with the passage of the Deficit Reduction Act (DRA) of 2005, making Medicaid eligibility more difficult. The three-year look back is gone. Under the new law, the look back period is five years for all transfers, and the beginning date for the penalty period is now the later of the date the person enters a nursing home (or begins a Medicaid waivered care pro- gram) or the date the person applies for Medicaid.

What this boils down to is the penalty period will not begin until the nursing home resident is virtually destitute. One purpose of the new legislation is to prevent the use of Medicaid as an inheritance protection program for the middle class. However, gifts made by seniors in the most innocent manner could jeopardize their eligibility for Medicaid even if it is legitimately needed. For example, a grandparent making a monetary gift to a grandchild for a wedding or college graduation present could end up delaying their Medicaid eligibility. To determine the penalty period, the amount of assets transferred will be divided by the average monthly cost of a nursing home in the area in which the applicant lives. If an individual lives in an area that averages $5,000 per month, the penalty for a $15,000 gift to a grandchild would be a waiting period of three months before Medicaid benefits would begin. If other monetary gifts had been given, the penalty period would be even longer. Some also refer to the DRA of 2005 as the “nursing home bankruptcy act.” It is illegal to force a nursing home resident out of a facility while they are waiting for Medicaid benefits to commence. For the grandparent in our example, the nursing home would have to continue care for the three- month penalty period, even though the bill could not be paid. This is where seldom enforced “filial responsibility” laws come in. Nursing homes could use these laws to go after the adult children of residents to pay their parents’ bills inflation starting 2011). This could have severe implications to older residents in California, New York and other areas of high real estate values.

• Some advantages in using interest-only annuities have also been eliminated. These annuities provided a small income during life (which did not risk Medicaid eligibility) and left the original investment to heirs upon the senior’s death. Under the new rules, the state must be named beneficiary of any leftover funds in the annuity for at least the amount of the medical assistance paid on behalf of the annuitant. The community spouse of a nursing home resident may still purchase an annuity to convert assets to noncountable income, but the state must be the first recipient of any leftover funds up to the amount Medicaid paid for the nursing home spouse. In other words, the community spouse can be protected for life, but the remaining assets may not be protected for the children.

• A senior can no longer loan money to their children to get it out of their estate, then forgive the loan. In order not to be considered a transfer of assets, the repayment of a loan or mortgage must be actuarially sound and cannot be forgiven or cancelled upon the death of the lender.

What do all these changes mean to people planning for their senior years? Projected growth in the senior population has caused states to seriously review Medicaid programs, which are consuming 32 percent of the overall Medicaid bud- get. State budgets cannot continue to sustain the expense of increasing LTC services. In addition to considering a cutback in programs, states are trying to shift LTC services from in- stitutional settings to less expensive community-based services such as assisted living or home health care, according to a 2010 article in the Columbus Dispatch. This shift could be positive not only for state budgets, but for recipients who are better suited to a more independent living arrangement. In addition, the federal government is attempting another foray into encouraging citizens to take responsibility for their own LTC expenses by including a national long-term care insurance program called Community Living Assistance Services and Support (CLASS) into the Health Care Reform Bill signed into law March 23, 2010.

Seniors still thinking about hiding assets to impoverish themselves to qualify for Medicaid may want to think again and consider the following:
• In trying to give their money away, they could be liable for gift taxes, which could cost far more than implementing another plan such as purchasing LTC coverage, assuming of course that these transfers exceed the lifetime gifting threshold.
• If you are married, the spousal impoverishment provisions limit what a nonconfined spouse may keep. The at-home spouse may keep the primary residence, a car, personal and household items, a small amount for burial and a maximum of $109,560 (in 2011) in financial assets. There are also income limitations. Social security and pension benefits count toward this limit, and these funds that can’t be hidden.
• States that have allowed the practice of spousal refusal are taking another look. This allows a healthy spouse to refuse to share marital assets. The sick spouse then assigns their right of support to the state and goes on Medicaid for LTC support. But, according to the New York Times, states are now coming back and suing the healthy surviving spouse to recover the cost of care.
• Once the money has been transferred, the senior loses legal control of the assets. Many things could go wrong here, the least of which is the possibility of needing to ask your children for your own money.
• While Medicaid may pay the bill for nursing home care, you may not get to live where you wish. Many of the nicer nursing homes require proof that the prospective resident can pay privately for a defined period of time and can refuse to take new patients on Medicaid (though they must keep current residents who can no longer private pay and go on Medicaid).
LTC protection should be looked at as a more logical inheritance protection plan. Furthermore, LTC coverage can help provide financial proof for acceptance into a care facility of choice. In addition to LTC Insurance, there are hybrid products. For a reasonable cost, life insurance with a long-term care rider can be purchased. This plan will provide funds for the insured should they need long term care, protecting the loss
of other assets they have worked so hard to accumulate. How- ever, in the event no long-term care is ever needed, the insured has a death benefit to leave to heirs, enhancing even further the legacy they will be able to leave their loved ones. This plan generates a benefit to someone no matter what circumstances ensue, and may provide the insured a measure of protection for the inheritance they hope to leave their heirs.
Riders are offered at an additional cost and may not be available in all states. A life insurance or annuity purchase should be based on the life insurance or annuity contract, and not optional riders or features. The cost of an option may exceed the actual benefit paid under the option.
Keep in mind that as an acceleration of the death benefit, the LTC rider payout will reduce both the death benefit and cash surrender values. Care should be taken to make sure that your clients’ life insurance needs continue to be met even if the rider pays out in full. There is no guarantee that the rider will cover the entire cost of all the insured’s LTC, as these vary with the needs of each insured.
Retirement and estate planning must include a serious look at long-term care needs. The changes brought about by the DRA of 2005 will make transferring assets to children much less practical with the five-year look back. And the transfer could become a moot point if filial responsibility laws are en- forced, forcing adult children to use those transferred assets after all to pay their indigent parents long-term care needs.

Life Insurance and Qualified Plans

Andrew J. Fair, JD

Founder of Fair, FitzGerald & Hershaft, P.C, Andrew is a nationally recognized attorney who specializes in the areas of estate, business and retirement planning. ajf@fair-law.com

Henry A. Deppe, CLU®

Henry A. Deppe, CLU® Former general agent of Guardian Life Insurance Company, Henry has served on the faculty at Purdue University, Farleigh Dickinson University and The American College.

he use of qualified plan funds to purchase life insurance has long been an option for those with a life insurance need. In some cases, limited liquidity dictates the use of such funds; in all cases, there can be significant tax and business ad- vantages to funding life insurance needs through a qualified plan. Premiums paid with qualified plan funds are paid with amounts not subject to income tax. As a result, the actual cost of paying the premiums is significantly lower than if after-tax funds are used. This can reduce the cash flow required to provide the benefit or permit the purchase of a greater amount of life insurance than would otherwise be possible. This also can permit the purchase of more secure forms of life insurance as the higher premiums are offset by the tax savings. With the tax leverage, it is less expensive to purchase insurance for individuals whose health is impaired because the additional cost for any rating is also paid with pre-tax funds.
While each year a policy is held in a plan an amount determined under IRS Table 2001 is taxed to the participant, this amount is usually a small portion of the actual premium cost, but in most instances the taxable amount constitutes basis to the heirs. This reduces any income tax on the death benefit and any tax should the participant receive a distribution of the policy.
When a participant dies, life insurance proceeds in excess of the cash value (and any basis in the policy) are received by the beneficiaries income tax free. The beneficiaries can transfer the cash value portion
subject to income tax to their own individual retirement accounts, permitting the heirs to take advantage of the long-term deferral opportunity available to IRA rollovers by non-spouse beneficiaries. This enhances the value of the death benefit to the heirs and permits the blending of family insurance needs with the tax deferral opportunities normally avail- able from a qualified plan. In some cases, if the qualified plan will continue after the participant’s death, the beneficiaries can leave the insurance proceeds in the plan. This permits the investment of those funds on a pre-tax basis for as long as the plan continues. The beneficiaries are required to take minimum required distributions each year, but the balance held in the plan can be invested as part of the plan assets.
Life insurance needs arise from both personal and business concerns, and the qualified plan can be used to satisfy the needs in both circumstances. Funds held in a profit-sharing plan can be used to purchase any type of life insurance, including survivorship insurance and insurance on individuals in whom the participant has an insurable interest, per- mitting planning flexibility to address both family and business needs. For example, if the insurance is needed to provide benefits on the second death of the participant and spouse, survivor- ship insurance can be purchased. This would be the case if the estate is significant enough to result in estate tax liabilities, or funds are desired to assure a college education for grandchildren or to fund a trust, including a special needs trust, for a disabled child or grandchild. For these and similar second death concerns, second-to-die insurance is often the policy of choice.
If the insurance is needed on the participant’s death, per- haps as a result of a second marriage and conflicting concerns for spouse and children by a prior marriage, insurance on the participant can be purchased.
In some cases, the need is to equalize the inheritance of children not involved in a business with that of children who are involved. The business owner can acquire life insurance inside the plan payable to the children who are not involved in the business, avoiding the need to leave some interest in the business to inactive children. In other cases, the insurance pro- vides additional security to a surviving spouse, again allowing the business to pass to the children active in the business with- out placing the spouse in a vulnerable position and dependent on the success of the children. The insurance can be used to avoid unnecessary conflicts between spouse and children.
Funds held in a participant’s account in a qualified plan can also be used to purchase life insurance to fund a buy-sell agreement. In that instance, each participant purchases insurance on the other business owners, and the insurance is paid to the participant’s account in the plan. With proper planning, the insurance proceeds other than the cash value can be distributed without tax to a surviving owner and used to purchase the interest.
A primary concern when insurance is purchased with funds in a qualified plan is the procedures involved to remove the policy from the plan in the appropriate circumstances. For example, if an insured participant terminates employment or retires, removing the policy from the plan is generally necessary. If the plan must terminate, the policy will also have to be removed.
A policy can be removed from a plan by either distribution or purchase. The policy can be distributed as part of the plan benefit any time the participant is entitled to distributions from the plan. The value of the policy at that time would be treated as a taxable distribution.
The policy may also be purchased from the plan. The law provides that policies can be purchased by the insured, a relative of the insured, or a trust created by the insured or for the benefit of the insured’s family. A purchase can be made at any
time so long as the policy can no longer be retained in the plan. The Department of Labor has ruled that a policy purchased at the direction of the participant will be treated as one no longer able to be maintained in the plan if the participant directs that this should be the case.
There is, of course, a cost involved with the distribution or purchase of a policy from a plan. If the policy is distributed, the participant is subject to income tax on the value at that time. If the policy is purchased, the purchase price must be paid to the plan. Such a purchase, however, is mostly a cash flow concern, because the amount used to purchase the policy is paid to the plan and deposited to the participant’s account. In all cases, however, the availability of the insurance at significantly lower cost while the policy is in the plan and the portability of the policy at the time of termination or retirement generally offsets the cost of distributing or acquiring the policy should the need arise to do so.
While the use of qualified plan funds to purchase life insurance is not a technique for everyone, such a purchase will of- ten permit the satisfaction of a life insurance need at a substantially reduced cost, and with the same or more flexibility as would an individual purchase of a policy. Because in a profit- sharing plan the purchase can be on the life of the participant, the joint lives of the participant and another person, or anyone in whom the participant has an insurance interest, insurance can be purchased in a qualified plan to satisfy virtually any life insurance need.
In addition, qualified plan funds are generally subject to income tax, which reduces their value to the heirs. A life insurance policy will in virtually all instances return more value when the participant dies than the investment of the funds in any other manner. The additional income tax-free amount payable as a death benefit because the funds were used to pay life insurance premiums permits more dollars to be available to the heirs.
Qualified plan funds should be recognized as another source of premium dollars, and one with a great deal more relevance in a difficult economic environment. Such funds are generally not viewed as readily available for day-to-day expenses, and their inaccessibility for those expenses makes the funds ideal for payment of life insurance premiums when personal funds are needed for other immediate purposes. Even if funds might otherwise be available for insurance premiums, the tax lever- age dictates consideration of the qualified plan funds for this purpose given the extra value for the heirs.
All planning requires a degree of care when implemented, and the purchase of life insurance in a qualified plan is no exception. But with proper planning the purchase can provide meaningful benefits to the participant and beneficiaries.

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

Indexed Universal Life

Bobby Samuelson

Bobby Samuelson Founder of Samuelson Design, and presenter to industry groups.


Indexed Universal Life (UL) has been the shining star of the life insurance industry since its resurgence in 2005, clocking double-digit growth figures in spite of a relatively stagnant overall industry environment. With its promise of market-linked upside with principal protection, Indexed UL is a compelling and unique asset class story for cautiously optimistic investors. But Indexed UL has also found favor with promoters of aggressive leveraging strategies. Amidst increasing complexity of both product and application, how do you deter- mine what is sizzle and what is steak? This article flips the normal Indexed UL sales story on its head, starting with a discussion about how a carrier hedges Indexed UL with bonds and options and ending with practical considerations for the sales process.

The Basics
Indexed UL is a general account product that offers participation in the performance of an equity index, such as the S&P 500 excluding dividends, with the safety of a guaranteed interest floor. Carriers position Indexed UL between Fixed UL and Variable UL on the risk spectrum, offering some potential long-term upside over Fixed UL with- out the downside risk of Variable UL. No Indexed UL premium dollars are directly invested in equity indices. Market upside is limited by a nonguaranteed participation rate and/or interest ceiling. Most contracts have a 0 percent to 1 percent guaranteed annual crediting floor. Like crediting rates in Fixed UL contracts, participation limits in Indexed UL contracts may float with economic conditions and carrier discretion.

Beneath the Glossy Pamphlet
What differentiates Indexed UL from Fixed UL at the carrier level? Fixed UL offers a near-perfect match of assets and liabilities on a carrier’s balance sheet, linking policy crediting rates to payment streams from fixed income assets. Indexed UL does not offer the same asset-liability match as Fixed UL because equity returns are not directly correlated to general account yields. The carrier would be ex- posed to loss in a year when equity-based returns promised through participation limits in Indexed UL outstrip general account yields.
Insurance carriers are generally in the business of taking risks they know, primarily mortality and interest rate risk, and avoiding other types. Virtually all carriers with Indexed UL products choose to offload the equity risk inherent in Indexed UL to a third party, typically an investment bank, via derivatives. The carrier’s budget for risk transfer is based on investment yields for the same period over which the risk transfer takes place. High general ac count yields mean a large hedging budget. The carrier, in effect, transforms the equity risk of Indexed UL to interest rate risk akin to Fixed UL by purchasing hedges.
This hedging transaction is at the core of understanding Indexed UL products. Everything about the product that carriers promote in their glossy pamphlets is tied, directly or indirectly, to the cost of transferring risk to a third party.

Upside Participation Limits
Participation limits on the upside of the product can float at the carrier’s discretion, subject to rock-bottom guaranteed minimums. A hedge to protect the carrier against a high participation limit is more expensive than one to protect against a low participation limit. Because the carrier offloads all of the equity risk, profitability for the hedging trade is determined by how well the cost of the hedge matches up with the general account yield. If the carrier is earning 5 percent on its general account assets, the carrier should set a participation limit that costs approximately 5 percent to fully hedge. Any negative mismatch between the general account yield and the hedging cost means retained risk or direct subsidization of the product. Sustained mismatch typically forces the carrier to change participation limits to maintain profitability.

Indexed UL Account Options
To cope with increasing competition in the Indexed UL space, carriers have built products with a dizzying array of indexed account options. Agents are often attracted to the sales spin of one particular account, such as a participation rate that is greater than 100 percent. However, the cost to hedge the indexed liability is virtually identical for each account option, indicating that the expected future return for all account options will be, at most, only marginally different. In short, don’t be fooled by a seemingly attractive account option. The math and hedging strategy is largely the same for all of them. Likewise, products with currently stated participation limits above market average are either earning higher yields on their general account assets, taking shortcuts in hedging or packing additional charges into the product to provide funding for the elevated options budget.
Illustrated Rates
Indexed UL products are commonly illustrated at rates be- tween 200 and 450 basis points above Fixed UL products, making Indexed UL appear to be an exceptionally attractive return proposition for a low interest rate environment. Carriers typically derive illustrated rates by applying currently
stated participation limits to historical equity market data. Indexed UL illustrated rates using this method range from approximately 7 percent to 10 percent. All parties admit that this method is fraught with poor assumptions. For example, participation limits would almost certainly have been different in the higher interest rate environment of the 1980s and through the 1990s’ bull market. Perhaps the biggest problem with showing an Indexed UL illustrated rate against a Fixed UL rate is the lack of comparison between Fixed UL crediting rates and hypothetical Indexed UL rates over the same period.
But why should Indexed UL be illustrated at a rate higher than Fixed UL? We’ve already determined that carriers trans- form equity risk inherent with Indexed UL products to interest rate risk by offloading the equity risk. To a carrier, there’s not much difference between profitability in Fixed UL and fully hedged Indexed UL. Both products offer effective asset- liability matching for general account yields. The only instance where an Indexed UL product would outperform its Fixed UL counterpart is by turning a consistent, long-term hedging profit against the investment bank counterpart writing the derivatives the carrier is using to offload risk. The probability of that occurring in the aggregate over a long period of time is most likely very low.
As such, Indexed UL products should be illustrated at a relatively small spread over Fixed UL. I recommend a spread of approximately 50bps to account for relatively large but highly volatile long-term hedging profit. Data released by a large insurance carrier on the actual performance of its in- force block of Indexed UL policies shows, at most, a 50bps spread over Fixed UL. The whole set of data since the year 2000 actually shows Indexed UL underperforming Fixed UL by about 35bps. “Hypothetical Historical” spreads released by carriers are just that—hypothetical. A better basis for illustrations should be long-term expected gains on options or the very limited data that carriers have released about the actual performance of their in-force blocks of Indexed UL.

Sales Applications
Accumulation
If Indexed UL were regulated to be illustrated at 25 to 50bps above Fixed UL, would it damage the appealing story of an asset class offering marketing upside potential while retaining principal protection? Absolutely not. Indexed UL is a compelling asset class for accumulation and retirement planning sales even without an illustration showing a rate higher than Fixed UL.
Death Benefit Protection
Indexed UL, as currently priced in the marketplace, is typically not an effective product for low-cost death benefit protection. The average Indexed UL product has substantially higher costs, especially at and beyond life expectancy, than its Fixed UL counterparts. However, Indexed UL products with No-Lapse Guarantee features may provide competitive death benefit-oriented coverage.
Leveraging
Most of the big-ticket sales catching the attention of agents across the country involve premium financed Indexed UL. Marketing groups and carriers are pouring into this space with different flavors of the same claim—financed Indexed UL offers more upside than financed Fixed UL. Some promoters even go so far as to claim that financed Indexed UL is so powerful that the client can pay nothing out of pocket while still retaining large amounts of insurance. Indexed UL is an inherently leveraged product based on its options and bond exposure. Financing Indexed UL adds an additional layer of leverage, creating a huge distribution of outcomes. A few clients will profit immensely from financed Indexed UL, a few will be catastrophically affected, but no one knows the average result. Illustrating Indexed UL at a rate more in line with Fixed UL almost always causes these types of hyper-aggressive financing arrangements to unwind with outstanding liability to the policy owner. Any program that purports to provide a “pay nothing out of pocket” approach based on a single spreadsheet and set of assumptions is showing but one of an infinite number of possibilities. What matters to you and your client are the outcomes that aren’t shown in the sales materials.
The simple story about Indexed UL is that it is an asset class offering a timely mix of upside potential and downside protection. There is little reason to suspect that it will underperform or drastically outperform Fixed UL. Any sales application relying on a sustainable performance spread is likely to come undone with consequences to the policy owner. Instead, position Indexed UL for its story as an asset class rather than its performance promises, and view with trepidation any strategy that can’t be replicated at Fixed UL crediting rates.

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

Five Guidelines to Achieving Success

Michael C. Davidson, CLU®

Michael C. Davidson, CLU® Chairman of the Board of Trustees at The American College, Michael is the Vice Chairman and Chief Agency and Marketing Officer at State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company®.

In the summer of 1978, I began my career as an insurance agent in Richmond, Mo., population 6,000. That summer, the Bee Gees were Stayin’ Alive, gasoline cost 63 cents a gallon and Grease was No. 1 at the box office. I shared a tiny office decorated with $200 worth of used furniture with one staff assistant. I made hundreds of sales calls, many times visiting customers and pulling up to their homes in my 1970 Ford Maverick.
Although it seems all that happened in another lifetime, I remember it like yesterday. Back then, leadership and success were just concepts. After all, I was just learning the ropes.
Today, I sit in a different, larger office. I’m proud and grateful to work with 19,000 agents and field leaders at State Farm Insurance. But, I’m still learning.
Over the years, I’ve come to realize that being a successful leader is not only mastering the business, but it is developing habits essential to success, regardless of where you are in your life and career.
Whether you’re a veteran independent producer, a corporate employee or a new member of a small office team, you can increase your chances for success. Maybe you’re a visionary. Perhaps you’re the team pacesetter. Each of us has the potential to lead in our roles.
The key is to continuously take stock of where you are, assess your progress, learn from what you discover about yourself and always ask, “How well am I serving my customers?”
Thirty-three years in business have taught me a lot. Here are five guidelines to achieve success that serve me well.

1. Keep Your Head in the Game
Long-term goals are important, but it’s just as important to keep your head in today’s game. Discipline yourself to focus on the present. Take one step at a time, one action at a time. Focus on what you need to do today to be ready for the next customer, the next assignment or the next sale.

2. Be Relevant
Find a way to distinguish yourself. The public is more discriminating than ever. People want to know, “Why should I do business with you?” Consumers are searching for experts to help them navigate the trials and tribulations of planning for the future.
Due to the recent economic crisis, people are keenly interested in talking about how they might manage their finances in thoughtful, long-term ways. This mindset has opened doors of opportunity that haven’t existed for 20 years. There’s new energy surrounding traditional products, such as whole life insurance. Make yourself relevant by helping people find a solid foundation to build their financial future.

3. Manage Technology (Don’t Let it Manage You) There’s been a phenomenal change in how people obtain and use information and in how they interpret community. In the past, “community” usually meant the town where you lived. Today, it often means an online chat group with members from across the globe.
Technology and customer needs require us to constantly look at how we do business and evaluate what we should do differently. This practice can be intimidating—even threatening—to those who do not want to change with the times. It’s critical you’re familiar with and use today’s technology. The ability to provide just-in-time information to current and potential clients is amazing.
This issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine is packed with information about leveraging technology, from using the Social Security website to social networking tips to how to use webcams in the office.

4. Keep Learning
You might expect me, as Chairman of the Board for The American College, to give a plug for continuous learning. But it’s more than just lip service. I’m a big believer in the power of education, and I still take American College courses. And customers today expect the professionals they do business with— particularly financial services agents and advisors—to be up to date on the latest information.
When it comes down to it, learning is about changing behavior. Changing behavior is paramount if you expect to keep up with emerging business practices. As a business person, you cannot afford to get left in the dust because you have not contemporized your skill set. Business people who challenge themselves to gain more knowledge make themselves more competitive. And it’s a great feeling to know your talents have been validated by a rigorous curriculum.

5. Invest in Relationships
Today, people use Twitter, Facebook, texts and e-mail to stay in touch. That’s good, but it’s all about balance. If you choose to only communicate electronically with customers, employees or superiors, you’ll miss meaningful conversations. This is particularly true if you’re helping customers plan for the future. You can’t plan a retirement in a 140-character tweet.
Technology changes constantly, but people still want to know someone cares about them. Today’s successful leaders recognize that technology can help them keep in touch but face-to-face conversation remains essential.
About six months after I started as an agent, I talked with a couple about life insurance. The customers, John and Rita, and their three children, lived in a small home on a farm. I could’ve handled the sales call over the phone, but I knew sit- ting across a kitchen table would be more meaningful.
The couple purchased a $50,000 life policy for John and, after quite a bit of convincing, they also purchased a $10,000 policy for Rita. All they could afford was term insurance. I spent hours with the couple that cold winter evening—what some people might not have considered a productive use of time. Certainly my motivation was not the commission. Rather, it was an investment in a relationship.
A few years later, John called with the sad news that Rita had passed away. “I can’t thank you enough,” he said. “It’s been a rough year on the farm. Without that $10,000, we wouldn’t have had a decent funeral for the children’s mother.” John became a lifelong client.
That’s just one story; I’m sure you have many of your own. Through professional agents, advisors and producers across the country, our industry is positioned to deliver this kind of security in a way that few other industries can.
History will look back on the past few years, and the years ahead, as a watershed period for the financial services industry. Now, more than ever, is the time for companies and producers to come together to serve the public. We are truly surrounded by opportunity, and you play a key role in this pivotal period for our industry.

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

Practical Advice for Creating a Diverse Firm

Marcia Ellett

Gerry Herbison, MSM, ChFC®, CFP®, CASL®, CLF

Gerry is Assistant Professor of Management Studies and Director of the CLF Program with The American College.

The need for diversity in the financial services realm is ever present. To stay relevant, financial advisors must be able to tailor their services to mirror the ethnic and cultural changes in society. Remaining cognizant of such changes will continue to open up new business opportunities as the years roll on.
No one knows this better than Sal Farina, MSM, CLU®, ChFC®, CLF®, an American College graduate who has been in the insurance business with New York Life for 25 years. He took over the Long Island, N.Y., agency in 2002 when it consisted of one office, three managers and 132 agents. Today, the same agency has five locations, 20 managers and 480 agents. Such enormous growth wouldn’t have been possible without a solid understanding of the diversity landscape. Particularly because when he arrived at the agency, “it was not culturally diverse,” Farina said. So he set about changing the makeup and, therefore, the outlook of the Long Island office by keeping some basic tenets in mind.

Build Trust
You’ve got to recognize cultural differences to embrace and take advantage of diversity in the market. On introducing agents with a different cultural background into the business, he said, “You need to be able to respect their culture, who they are, what they believe in and why they believe in different things.”
Language can also be a barrier, and patience is required. “People aren’t comfortable being the first at anything,” Farina explained. “People don’t like to feel isolated; they can feel uncomfortable. You also need to be respectful of people’s dietary needs.
Representatives from diverse backgrounds want to know that you understand all of these issues.”
Then you’ve got to be mindful of the potential for culture clash. “Sometimes, when you build your momentum in one ethnic group, you start adding services and support in that specific group,” he said. The danger there is that “it can be harder to get the second or third group because you are so com- mitted to the first, and they compare. They ask, ‘How come the other group gets this support and we don’t?’”

Identify Emerging Markets
Farina arrived in the Long Island office armed with the knowledge that New York Life focused internationally on the three fastest-growing emerging markets: Chinese, Indian and Hispanic. So he looked at the local landscape through this lens and found that there were agents who could serve the traditional, affluent markets but that the middle, more culturally diverse markets were being underserved. “The middle market is a large part of our community,” he said. “Rather than fight with 100 different companies for affluent business, we target the middle market. We also recruit people who have never been in the business before. They start out in the middle market, not the affluent market.”

Choose Future Leaders
By the end of 2002 Farina had promoted all of his existing managers out to lead other offices. “This is our culture,” he explained. “We promote field leaders when they are ready; we don’t hold them back.”
That meant 2003 kicked off with the opportunity to build a new management team. Farina identified a Hispanic and a Chinese agent that he believed were potential management candidates. He recalls having a candid conversation with the Chinese agent. He went to her and said, “Can you help me? I need someone who is willing to go into management and help me recruit more Chinese agents inside this community.”
His agent accepted the challenge and Farina opened a location in- side the Chinese community with three people. “They saw it as a sign of pride that we were going inside the community and becoming a part of that community by participating in cultural events and programs,” he said.

Learn to Nominate
You must get involved in the community you are trying to reach and take the time to identify local candidates to grow your business. “Let people know that you are there to serve,” Farina said. And this must be a long-term goal. To make a lasting impression, you must become a fixture, a familiar face, and only through repeatedly talking to people will you learn who would be a valuable addition to the company. “Nominating takes months, not one day,” he said. “It took me three years to build relationships in the Chinese community through nominating and word of mouth. If you have a short-term plan, it is not going to work because people will forget you.”
With representatives in the community on a regular basis, you can take advantage of the opportunities when they present themselves. For example, one individual with whom Farina had fostered a relationship lost his job when his employer was downsized. Farina was able to re- mind him of the potential job with New York Life and the relationship truly became a win-win for both parties.
“Now we have 100 Chinese agents because we became a visible presence,” he said. “We spent hundreds of thousands of dollars on rent, advertising and community affairs. People saw us as part of the community, and we kept growing from it. Now, instead of having one Chinese manager, I have eight.”
Successfully building a culturally diverse financial services firm is about tolerance and understanding. It’s about active, ongoing communication. It’s about embracing differences and keeping your eyes open to the possibilities. “You build the relationships,” Farina said, “and then you get serendipity.”

An Employer Bright Side to Healthcare Reform?

Arthur Tacchino, JD

Since the enactment of Healthcare Reform, it has been one of the most publicized and controversial topics in our nation. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act along with the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (referred to as the Affordable Care Act or Healthcare Reform), truly is a total reform of the current healthcare system. Accompanying the new law is a sense of fear felt by employers all over the country. This fear is created by rising healthcare costs associated with the new law. This reform shifts the costs of healthcare away from consumers and puts the burden of higher healthcare costs on employers and insurance companies. Employers will absorb the costs associated with several new provisions of the law, including the prohibition of lifetime maximum limits, the restriction on annual limits, the dependent coverage age extension, new patient protections, new external review requirements, new taxes and several other provisions of the law. For employers it appears to be a bleak future as far as rising costs are concerned. So, what can you as their healthcare consultant tell your client to console them? Is there any bright side to this overhaul of the healthcare industry? As luck would have it, there are a few healthcare reform bright spots on which you can focus.
the small business health care tax credit One bright spot for employers is the Small Business Health Care Tax Credit. The Affordable Care Act amended the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) and created this credit. This is a great opportunity for small employers to lower or maintain their health- care costs. This credit allows an eligible small employer to receive a credit for up to 35 percent of the nonelective employer contributions paid toward the premium costs for employee healthcare, and up to 25 percent for tax-exempt small employers.
To qualify for the tax credit, a small employer must meet the following three requirements within any given tax year:
• The employer must not have more then 25 full-time equivalent employees (FTEs) for the tax year.
• The employer’s FTEs must have annual average wages that do not exceed $50,000.
• The employer must have a contribution arrangement in effect that meets the requirements of the IRC.
Tax-exempt small employers have different eligibility requirements. Eligible tax-exempt small employers are any organization described in Code section 501(c) and are exempt from taxation under Code section 501(a).
The maximum tax credit (35 percent or 25 per- cent) is only available to employers with 10 or fewer FTEs and average annual wages of $25,000 or less. The tax credit is phased out as the number of FTEs and average annual wages increase.
Eligible small employers will use the tax credit to offset actual tax liability. They will claim the tax credit as a general business credit on their tax re- turn. The IRS has created a new Form 8941, The Credit for Small Employer Health Insurance Premiums for 2010, to help eligible small employers calculate and report their credit. This is just one bright spot in the health- care reform law that will help employers control those rising costs.

Wellness Program Grants
Preventive care and increasing wellness at a younger age are really at the heart of healthcare reform. If achieved, these two objectives would reduce healthcare costs in the long term. With that in mind, the Affordable Care Act created a grant program to assist eligible employers in providing comprehensive wellness pro- grams for their employees. These grants are available beginning this year. The law has appropriated $200 million for these grants from 2011 to 2015. Employers eligible for this grant money are those with less than 100 employees, where those employees work 25 hours or more a week. Additionally, the employer must not have provided a wellness program as of March 23, 2010. Grant eligibility also requires that the employer make the comprehensive wellness program. If properly designed and implemented, a comprehensive wellness pro- gram could help employers control and lower their healthcare costs.

The Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP)
The Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP) was created during healthcare reform to encourage employers to continue to offer healthcare coverage to their early retirees. Once accepted into the program, which is run by Health and Hu- man Services (HHS), plans may then submit qualified claims for healthcare expenses that exceed $15,000 and fall below $90,000. Eligible plan sponsors will be reimbursed 80 percent of the cost of these qualified claims. Plan sponsors that receive reimbursements are required to use the reimbursements to “lower their health benefit premiums costs,” to “lower the costs for plan participants,” or a combination of the two. This 80 percent reimbursement for qualified claims is a great way for employers to lower their healthcare costs that are spent on early retirees.

The Class Act
The Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Act portion of healthcare reform is a new long-term care program. The Affordable Care Act lays out a basic frame- work for the program. Several pieces of the law still need to be formulated before the program can take effect. What we know so far is that employers must automatically enroll employees into the program, and employees can opt out. Employees who choose to participate in the program will pay monthly premiums. Nominal premiums will be available to certain low- income employees. The first benefits of the CLASS program will be paid out after five years of collecting premiums. To qualify for benefits, participants must be unable to perform a certain number of activities of daily living (ADLs), such as bathing, dressing and so on, which will be determined by the Secretary of HHS. Participants are eligible for the benefits for as long as they meet the required standards, meaning the CLASS program could pay benefits for life. The speculation on the amount of benefits CLASS will offer is somewhere in the range of $50 to $75 a day. Employers can use this program as an opportunity to offer long-term care coverage to their employees with low or no costs at all. It will be perceived as a great benefit from the employee standpoint and is a winning situation for the employer.

These four provisions of Healthcare Reform are bright spots for employers under the new law. By most indications healthcare costs are going to rise for employers, but these pro- visions of the law offer employers the opportunity to lower or control those rising costs.

To learn more about the provisions mentioned in this article and for a comprehensive overview of healthcare reform, consultants should sign up for HS 345 Essentials of Healthcare Reform. This new course is just one piece the of The American College’s new premier healthcare designation, the Chartered Healthcare ConsultantTM (ChHCTM). This course will be followed by HS 346 The Healthcare Consultant, which will provide agents and brokers the skills to shift from a commission-based model to a fee-based consultants model. These new courses, and this new designation, will provide industry members with the knowledge and tools needed to survive in the new landscape of the healthcare industry.

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

Retirement Perspectives

David Littell, JD, ChFC®, CFP®

David Littell, JD, ChFC®, CFP® David is Professor of Taxation and holds the Joseph E. Boettner Chair in Research at The American College. He also serves as the Co-Director of the New York Life Center for Retirement Income. david.littell@ theamericancollege. Edu

When we think of financial software, we don’t often think about programs available through the government. However, over the last several years the Social Security Administration has added a number of useful calculators at www.ssa.gov.
Being able to calculate Social Security benefits under a variety of scenarios can be quite helpful. The Social Security statements your clients receive are based on certain assumptions—they assume that participants will continue to work, earning today’s salary until benefits begin. But what if your client would like to know what his benefits would be if he stopped work now and began benefits later? Or maybe your client would like to start working part- time and see how this impacts her benefits. Also, Social Security statements only illustrate retirement at specified ages—maybe your client wants to begin benefits at a different age.
Here are brief descriptions of the four calculators Social Security has made available for determining benefits. Each has its strengths and limitations.

Retirement Estimator
The most recent addition to the Social Security site is the Retirement Estimator. After a secure login requiring the recipient’s name, Social Security number, date and place of birth, and mother’s maiden name, the estimator:
• Provides an estimate of retirement benefits based on the individual’s actual Social Security wages, which is comparable to the estimate provided on the Social Security Statement each year.
• Lets the taxpayer create additional “what if ” retirement scenarios based on current law.
One limitation of this calculator is that it will not include the possible effect of the Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP), which can reduce benefits for those who work for an employer who does not withhold Social Security taxes, such as a government agency.
Advisors should note that the WEP also is not considered on the benefit estimates provided on annual Social Security Statements. This means that those affected could be quite surprised when their Social Security benefits are lower than the estimate they have been seeing for many years.
Social Security offers three other calculators to estimate potential benefit amounts. These calculators show retirement benefits as well as disability and survivor benefit amounts.

Quick Calculator
The Quick Calculator provides a simple, rough estimate after inputting a date of birth and current year’s earnings. As its name implies, this is the easiest to use, but also provides the roughest estimate. The Quick Calculator also does not include reduction for WEP. However, this calculator may be helpful to an advisor meeting with a potential client for the first time, before extensive fact-finding has been done. It can provide at least a ballpark estimate.

Online Calculator
The Online Calculator allows the user to input a date of birth and complete earnings history to get a benefit estimate. This calculator also allows for projections of future earnings until retirement date. This is clearly more accurate than the Quick Calculator—and it can be completed on line. If the advisor has the client’s Social Security Statement, benefits can be estimated under various scenarios.

Detailed Calculator
Finally, the Detailed Calculator provides the most precise estimates. This calculator must be downloaded and in- stalled on a computer. Unlike the others, this calculator does allow consideration of a reduction for the WEP. This is probably the most useful calculator for the advisor. With this program and your client’s current benefit statements, you can model the widest number of alternatives and be sure to get the most

Accurate Numbers.
If you haven’t visited the Social Security website recently, it’s definitely worth the visit to take a look at these calculators and other available tools. For the technically minded, the Social Security Handbook contains all the details, while other publications address specific issues. Maybe one of these publications would be helpful to your clients facing specific situations. Finally, note that much of the information is available in Spanish, as is the Online Retirement Estimator.

Myths and Realities of the New Estate Tax Changes

Ted Kurlowicz, JD, LLM, CLU®, ChFC®, CAP®

Ted Kurlowicz, JD, LLM, CLU®, ChFC®, CAP® Ted is the Charles E. Drimal Professor of Estate Planning and a Professor of Taxation at The American College.

Now that the initial shock and surprise resulting from the long-overdue estate tax reform has subsided, there’s been some time to pause and reflect. At first glance, the immediate reaction of many estate planners that I spoke with was that Armageddon had arrived. This certainly is not the case, but paralysis or procrastination will result in lost opportunity. In the discussion that follows, I’ll try to debunk some of the myths that have been offered in the immediate after- math of the new estate tax rules. The implications of the law will be viewed prospectively and I will, by design, ignore 2010’s rather interesting situation where the compromise bill provided a choice to be made by executors on whether to elect the federal estate tax with the basis step- up or no federal estate tax with a modified carryover basis for assets left to heirs.

MYTH: The increase in the exemption amount to $5 million and the reduction in the estate tax rate to 35 percent were the biggest surprises in the estate tax compromise.

REALITY: The attempts by some in Congress to reach a more timely compromise in the 2008 to 2010 interval revealed that there would not be enough votes in the Senate to fix the federal estate tax at the 2009 levels of a $3.5 million exemption and a 45 percent tax rate. In fact, the Senate had previously agreed in principle to these critical components of the law as finally enacted.
The biggest surprise in the new legislation was the reunification of the estate and gift tax systems with the increase in the gift tax exemption to $5 million. This presents many tax-saving opportunities. Table 1 on the opposite page provides the recent history and projected path of some critical numbers with respect to the federal wealth transfer taxes.

MYTH: At least the uncertainty has been solved and clients can plan their estates without the questions that have been haunting us for a decade.

REALITY: This compromise bill was enacted for a two-year period, so we face the same scenario of a return to the June 2001 tax law in 2013. If Congress handles this new sunset in the same manner as the estate tax repeal of 2010, the next resolution will not be provided until the eve of 2014 and won’t be permanent then either.

MYTH: The $5 million exemption ($10 million for a married couple) is large enough that estate planning can be ignored for 99 percent of the U.S. population.

REALITY: Estate planning should never have been driven by taxes, and ignoring the estate plan to concentrate on other agendas would be a real dis- service to most clients. We still need to discuss the client’s legacy plans and assist the client in answering the who, how and when with respect to both accumulated wealth and wealth added by death benefits from life insurance or employee benefits.

Many risks other than federal estate tax could diminish the efficiency of the client’s estate plan. For example, the client may wish to plan for long-term care or capacity issues. Most people will want to distribute their estate with the mini- mum of delay or probate costs. Perhaps the intended heirs have creditor problems or lack the capability for managing the inherited assets. Finally, many people will have testamentary charitable intentions irrespective of the federal estate tax.
Another important tax issue to ad- dress with many clients well below the $5 million threshold is the state-level inheritance or estate taxes. In states with a separate inheritance tax (such as Pennsylvania) a tax is imposed on estates for assets left to anyone but the surviving spouse without a significant exemption. A number of states that decoupled from the federal exemption and impose what was formerly known as the credit estate tax or sponge tax have state estate tax rates up to 16 percent with exemption amounts either at $675,000 or $1 mil- lion depending upon how their law is structured.

MYTH: The $5 million exemption will eliminate the need for filing gift or estate tax returns for most Americans.

REALITY: This is no time to get sloppy with estate and gift tax compliance. The rules with respect to filing Form 709 for lifetime gifts have not changed. Any taxable gift requires a federal gift tax return. Hence, any gifts that are not excluded (those under the $13,000 annual exclusion) or deducted from the gift tax base must be reported even though the exemption for taxable gifts is $5 million. In addition, the three- year statute of limitations that prevents the IRS from disputing a gift after the statutory period only applies if a return was filed. We will continue to recommend filing gift tax returns to secure this protection. In some instances, filing a gift tax return is prudent even if the return is unnecessary to receive protection from the statute if the asset transferred lends itself to valuation disputes. For example, a gift tax return should be filed for gifts of units in a family limited partnership (FLP) even if the donor believes the gifts fall below the $13,000 annual exclusion.
The Form 706 federal estate tax re- turn has been made more important by the new law in many otherwise nontax- able estates. The portability of the ex- emption between spouses requires the filing of the federal estate tax return for the first spouse to die to report the Deceased Spousal Unused Exclusion Amount (DSUEA) that is being transferred to the surviving spouse.

MYTH: The portability provision will dramatically simplify planning.

REALITY: “How do I love thee? Let me count your DSUEA.” The portability provision contains a serial remarriage prevention clause. The surviving spouse does potentially (if the return is filed) take the deceased spouse’s un- used exemption. However, a subsequent marriage and death of the new spouse eliminates the first deceased spouse’s exemption and leaves the two-time survivor with the second spouse’s unused exemption. Confused yet? The DSUEA is not indexed for inflation and this re- marriage issue would seem to indicate that the survivor ought to make a gift first from the DSUEA available if there is the inclination and capability of making gifts. This will have to be somehow cleared up by IRS guidance and a timely filed gift tax return.

MYTH: The portability provision will make the unified credit (exemption) trust extinct.

REALITY: The portability provision al- lowing the surviving spouse to inherit the deceased spouse’s unused exemption does present a tempting opportunity to simplify the estate plans of couples whose wealth is sufficient to consider federal estate tax planning. Remember, the $5 million exemption is only enacted for two years and many couples may find themselves more concerned about the estate tax again in 2014.
The use of the traditional marital deduction and unified credit (exemption) trusts would still be indicated in many circumstances. In the estate plan of a couple with $10 million or more in assets, the use of the exemption trust funded with $5 million at the death of the first spouse to die creates an estate freeze. The $5 million exemption amount could be applied at the first death to the value of the assets at the time of that death, and any subsequent appreciation would avoid tax later. The use of the $5 million exemption at the time of the first death would be particularly beneficial if Congress decides later to allow these provisions to lapse and the exclusion goes back to some lesser amount.

MYTH: The use of trusts will decrease dramatically.

REALITY: Most trusts are designed for reasons other than the federal estate tax. The most substantial trusts in terms of value were created by families who view the difference between the $3.5 million and $5 million exemptions as a rounding error. And the reduction in the number of Americans subject to the federal estate tax will not change the fundamental reasons for creating trusts. That is, the need still exists to provide creditor protection, defer the distribution of assets to beneficiaries until appropriate ages, delegate distribution decision-making authority to independent third parties, reduce probate costs and manage assets for heirs with special needs.

MYTH: The use of life insurance for estate planning purposes has diminished in importance.

REALITY: There are two estate planning purposes for life insurance. First, there is the estate enhancement need to increase the insured’s estate to some desired level. This purpose could be as simple as providing income replacement for someone who dies prematurely prior to accumulating enough wealth to provide for his or her family. In some instances, the estate enhancement need extends beyond the insured’s working years because of the need to support one or more heirs after the insured’s death. For example, the client could have one or more children or grandchildren who will be unable to support themselves due to a disability or other cause. The estate enhancement use of life insurance is unaffected by the federal estate tax.
The second estate planning purpose for life insurance is wealth replacement/estate liquidity. One major need for wealth replacement is the estate or inheritance taxes imposed on the client’s estate. To some degree, this need has been diminished for estates between $3.5 million and $5 million as a result of the increased exemption. The wealth replacement target amount is reduced for all taxable estates as a result of the reduction in the rate from 45 percent to 35 percent. However, the federal estate tax change does not sound the death knell for wealth replacement cover- age. My experience has shown me that wealth replacement coverage in estates that are somewhat marginal with respect to the exemption amount often face persistency problems. For estates well over the $5 million exemption amount, the federal estate tax remains a significant risk.
The estate liquidity needs for life insurance often apply even in nontax- able estates. The lessons learned from the recent past with respect to the large reduction in asset values indicates the problems an estate might face holding assets during a market crash. For ex- ample, there must’ve been a lot of dis- appointed heirs of estates holding real estate during the last three or four years. The federal estate tax or other inheritance taxes only exacerbate the liquidity problems because assets must be sold to pay these taxes. The need for life insurance for estate liquidity purposes continues to be a viable planning solution.
Certainly, the change in the federal estate tax laws presents an opportunity to revisit clients with existing life insurance. Examining the existing coverage
with respect to the estate planning purpose and the current status of the policy is fitting. Now is the best time to discuss the value of the policy as an asset class with the client and make adjustments to the policy or the estate planning structure as appropriate.

MYTH: The $5 million federal estate tax exemption has diminished the importance of lifetime gifts in the estate planning process.

REALITY: The single largest opportunity created by the new estate tax law is the ability to make $5 million of taxable or generation-skipping gifts without paying gift or GST taxes. Remember that this change potentially has a two- year shelf life. Although the estate tax exemption had risen as high as $3.5 mil- lion in 2009, the gift tax exemption was permanently set at $1 million. While the rollback of the gift tax exemption is certainly possible, it seems very un- likely that Congress would attempt to later tax gifts made in 2011 and 2012 under the temporary $5 million exemption. Following is a list of suggested opportunities for using the $5 million gift tax exemption:
• Transfer substantial interests in the closely held family business to successor generations sooner than otherwise possible.
• Use valuation discounts to transfer wealth as efficiently as possible for high net worth families.
• Make use of both spouses’ $5 million gift and GST tax exemptions in high net worth families. The ability for a high net worth couple to fund a $10 million generation-skipping trust during their lifetimes is an incredible opportunity. This trust could be funded with life
insurance or assets that have been discounted to further leverage the exemption amounts into greater wealth transfers.
• Use the $5 million exemption amount to make larger life insurance purchases in irrevocable life insurance trusts (ILITs) than could otherwise be supported by the available $13,000 annual exclusion Crummey powers.
• Use the $5 million exemption amount to repair previous estate planning efforts that have gone awry. Manyestate planning techniques previously implemented have not performed as planned. For example, the policy performance in an ILIT may be below the initial illustrations, and additional contributions may be required to support the policy. Perhaps a split dollar life insurance plan needs to be terminated. Maybe a policy was funded through premium financing and the outstanding loans are substantial. Or, the grantor retained annuity trust (GRAT) created by the client is underperforming as a result of the drop in value of the underlying trust assets. The $5 million exemption can be used as a repair tool to make sizable additional gifts to address these and a multitude of other scenarios.

In the wake of the federal estate tax reform, being mindful of what is true and what is misconception about the impact of the changes on estate planning is crucial to capitalize on the opportunities available to clients.

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

Key Competencies for Proper Retirement Income Planning

Kenn B. Tacchino, JD, LLM

Kenn is Professor of Taxation and Financial Planning at Widener University and Co- Director of the New York Life Center for Retirement Income at The American College. kenn.tacchino@ TheAmericanCollege. edu

David Littell, JD, ChFC®, CFP®

David Littell, JD, ChFC®, CFP® David is Professor of Taxation and holds the Joseph E. Boettner Chair in Research at The American College. He also serves as the Co-Director of the New York Life Center for Retirement Income. david.littell@ theamericancollege. Edu

The New York Life Center for Retirement In- come at The American College recently brought together retirement experts and practitioners from various branches of the financial services industry to discuss the knowledge, skills and competencies needed to provide successful retirement income planning, or decumulation planning, for a client. The conversation was fascinating as the group discussed their thoughts about what it takes to provide answers and strategies for clients dealing with the financial planning challenge of maintaining their standard of living throughout retirement in the face of unknown longevity, inflation, market conditions and other variables.
Not all members of the group agreed on every is- sue, nor were they representing their official company position during the frank discussions. However, all participants agreed that further examination of the emerging field of retirement income planning is essential and timely.
We decided it might be enlightening to pose some of the issues discussed as a series of questions. If you’re working in the decumulation area, or are
planning to go into it, these questions can be a checklist to test your knowledge. If you find gaps, you can learn more about many of these subjects at no cost by viewing the videos available at The American College’s New York Life Center for Retirement Income Web site (www.theamericancol- lege.edu/retirement-income-center). You may also want to consider earning a Chartered Advisor for Senior Living (CASL®) designation to raise your level of expertise.

What is a Retirement Income Plan?
Most planners are aware of what needs to be in an estate plan or the steps required for a comprehensive financial plan, but one major topic of the day was that we don’t yet in the industry have a clear consensus of what is retirement income planning. Everyone did agree that a retirement income plan was not handing a client a computer spreadsheet showing that they had an 83 percent chance of not outliving their assets. We all saw the need for retirement income planning to go beyond industry bias (investment-only solutions from wire houses and insurance-only solutions from insurance companies).
During perhaps the most interesting part of the day the group decided to tackle a definition of retirement income planning. What resulted was the following:
• A retirement income plan develops stable sources to meet the client’s income needs.
• The plan must ensure that stable sources of income can last a lifetime.
• The retirement income plan should optimize the remaining portfolio so that it addresses the client’s ability to meet discretionary spending or legacy goals.
• The plan must address the major risks that retirees face.
• Because retirement income planning is process- oriented, dynamic and holistic, comprehensive planning is required.
Developing a plan requires following the steps of the financial planning process, from forming a client relationship, identifying goals and gathering data, to analyzing the client’s situation, offering alternatives, implementing and monitoring the plan. With retirement income planning, there needs to be an increased emphasis on understanding the client and helping the client to determine goals and objectives. Another intensified focus of retirement income planning centers around monitoring the client’s plan and making adjustments. Unexpected investment events, spending too much, health changes and other changes in the client’s situation can all require plan modification. Maybe more than any other planning process, retirement income planning requires a lifetime partnership be- tween the advisor and the client.

Does the Advisor Understand What Motivates Their Clients?
Retirement income planning means wading into issues such as what money means to your client. A client’s “money personality,” risk tolerance, level of anxiety about outliving income and general psychological makeup need to be understood and factored into the decision process. Planners need to delve into what motivates clients to save, spend and to feel secure financially. This process may be more difficult when working with couples, as each partner may have totally different ideas and concerns. All of this requires a tremendous amount of communication and may require discussing uncomfortable issues with clients. It can help a planner to have some background in the field of behavioral finance. In the end, if the plan doesn’t meet the clients’ psychological needs it will not be perceived as successful.

Has the Advisor Taken the Time to Understand the Client’s Retirement Vision?
A successful retirement income plan must meet the client’s goals and objectives. Some clients will be able to clearly state what they want to achieve, but many others are going to need some help in shaping a picture of their retirement. A successful financial advisor can, and should, help the client identify their goals, envision their retirement years and help them set up a blueprint for the rest of their lives. The group agreed that this process is time-consuming but critical for success. The process can be facilitated through a systematic approach using sophisticated fact-finding and planning tools.
Also, clients may have an easier time envisioning the first few years of retirement. That may include work for some, or an extended trip around the world for others. However, planning for issues that occur later in retirement, which are not al- ways pleasant, is also critical. Caregiving for the client’s frailty or the frailty of a loved one may not be on a client’s radar. But it needs to be. Planning must include the go-go, slow-go, and no-go phases of retirement, and apply appropriate strategies and products for each.
Have advisors helped a client develop a budget that identifies both basic and discretionary expenses?
Retirement income planning is about budgeting for the remaining years. While a client is still working, the budget process is not as rigid because the client can recover from over- spending by earning more future income and adapting living circumstances to income limitations. The group agreed that many Americans today are not budgeting at all.
Developing a reliable budget for the early years in retirement, having a sense of changes in lifestyle that will occur over time and distinguishing between necessary and discretionary expenses is a monumental task—and one that your clients may not look forward to. However, all of this really is required to develop a retirement income plan.
Each client is going to have a different interpretation of what are necessary and what are discretionary expenditures— and that is ok—as the goal is to meet their individual planning needs.

What Major Risks Does the Retiree Face?
One of the recurring themes for the day was that a retirement income plan must address the risks and uncertainties of retirement. One panel defined this as “stress-testing” the plan. The risks discussed included:
• Longevity risk
• Early death of a partner
• Rising health care costs
• Increased need for health care
• Expense of long-term care
• Impact of market volatility
• Sequencing of returns risk
• Liquidity risk
• Inflation risk

What are the Key Differences Between the Accumulation Process and the Decumulation Process?
The accumulation phase of retirement focuses on encouraging clients to save to meet a targeted amount. The investment recommendations center on maximizing return within the clients’ risk-tolerance parameters. The decumulation process is entirely different. The focus is on ensuring that clients can meet their income needs and maintain their standard of living throughout their lifetime. Even the risk/return paradigm is different in retirement income planning. Return is measured as the amount that can be withdrawn from the portfolio each year, and risk is the possibility that the portfolio will be exhausted before the end of the client’s life.
The panelists at the Retirement Income Summit were concerned that while many planners were familiar with the tactics and strategies for the accumulation phase of retirement, they were less familiar with the vastly different process of planning for retirement income needs. Carrying forward the same accumulation strategies into decumulation planning will not be successful. For example, investing regularly using the dollar cost averaging strategy can work well when accumulating as-
sets, but taking systematic withdrawals over time as the price of assets varies will have the effect of spending down assets more quickly. Additionally, time horizon and tax planning considerations change significantly from the pre-retirement to the post-retirement period.

Does the Advisor Understand the Strategies and Products Available to Solve Retirement Income Issues?
The advisor needs to be familiar with a wide range of strategies used to create and protect retirement income, including the following:
• The systematic withdrawal strategy: choosing an appropriate withdrawal rate and ways to modify the strategy to increase portfolio sustainability.
• Lifetime income annuities: understanding the implications of mortality credits.
• Longevity insurance: how deferred life annuities can limit the client’s risk and increase portfolio sustainability.
• Deferred annuities with lifetime guaranteed benefit provisions: understanding how this strategy allows for growth and protection.
• Multiple portfolios: creating different portfolios (buckets) to address different time periods and/or concerns in retirement.
• Noninsurance approaches to creating stable sources of income, including laddered bonds, Treasury Inflation- Protected Securities (TIPs), structured products (synthetic annuities) and mutual fund income funds.
• Long-term care insurance and other funding methods to address the added expense of long-term care.
• Medicare supplement options, as well as controlling retiree health-care costs through appropriate choices under Medicare.
• Life insurance: appropriate uses to provide for survivor income and/or legacy objectives.
• Reverse mortgages: appropriate uses for tapping into home equity to meet current income or liquidity needs.
• Techniques to protect assets from claims of creditors or lawsuits: for example, incorporation and contract provisions.
• Strategies for maximizing Social Security benefits:
for example, choosing a start date or options available to working couples.
• Strategies for maximizing pension distributions: for example, timing and the form of payment.
• Tax harvesting strategies: what types of accounts should be withdrawn first (e.g. taxable, tax deferred [IRA], tax exempt [Roth]).
• Legacy strategies: strategies to insure that a client’s estate plan is meeting its goals and objectives.

Does the Advisor Understand What the Software Program is Illustrating?
We discussed concerns that advisors may not understand what the retirement software they are using is illustrating. For ex- ample, many programs today use Monte Carlo analysis, but whether advisors understand what the output from such pro- gram means is unclear. Also, advisors should be using software tools that are consistent with their planning process.

Does the Advisor Have Sufficient Product Knowledge?
Retirement income planning requires expert product knowledge. New products are being designed constantly in this evolving field and advisors need to keep up. One concern here is that advisors are only familiar with product options from their own part of the industry. For example, those in the brokerage industry may not be familiar with insurance solutions, and insurance professionals may not be familiar with investment products that can provide for stable income. Another concern is that advisors get in a comfort zone with certain products and offer only those to their clients.

Does the Retirement Income Plan Ensure Enough Liquidity?
A key to retirement planning is balancing finances so that the client has enough income and available assets to meet contingent events. Having an emergency fund continues to be an important consideration in retirement. Also, careful fact- finding is required to determine whether a client may have future liquidity needs to purchase a second home, to pay for long-term care expenses or to help a grandchild pay for college education expenses. In addition, certain retirement in- come solutions, such as life annuities, are an inexpensive way to guarantee lifetime income, but may come at the price of the loss of liquidity.

Can an Advisor Help a Client Maximize Social Security Benefits?
Retirement income planning means properly appreciating the relevance of Social Security benefits in the overall plan.
It also calls for a full understanding of Social Security rules and planning strategies. One critical choice for clients will be when to start Social Security benefits. Recently, many experts have been writing about the advantages of deferring benefits, but more than half of Americans are beginning benefits as early as they can, at age 62. For married couples this decision affects benefits throughout their joint lifetime. When men have the larger Social Security benefit, choosing to begin benefits early may harm their wives because women tend to live longer and will inherit (as the death benefit) the reduced Social Security benefit that their husband was receiving.

Does the Retirement Income Plan Address the Contingencies of Unexpected Health - Care Costs and Long-Term Care needs?
Clients must be counseled on risk-management techniques to address rising health-care and long-term care costs in retirement. This starts with making the appropriate health insurance choices. Those eligible for Medicare can choose between the original program and a managed care program. They also can choose from a number of Medicare Part D drug plan options. Most choose to supplement Medicare through a supplemental policy, a managed care plan or through an employer-provided retiree health-care plan. Clients also should plan for the possibility of needing extended long-term care at some point in their lives. This planning requires consideration of long-term care insurance and other ways of funding long-term care. Counseling clients also can include discussing risk-avoidance techniques to help avoid health problems from falls and other physical infirmities.
What is the Best Strategy for Tax Harvesting?
An important part of retirement income planning involves tax planning. Today clients have accumulated assets in taxable (brokerage) ac- counts, tax deferred accounts (IRAs and qualified plans) and tax-exempt accounts (Roth IRAs). Choosing which account to withdraw first and which to defer depends on the client’s current tax situation as well as an expectation of tax rates in the future. There are some rules of thumb. For example, in most cases, withdrawing taxable accounts first, saving tax-deferred and tax-exempt accounts until later is most tax efficient. These choices are important because they have an impact on how long retirement as- sets will last.
As co-directors of the New York Life Center for Retirement Income at The American College, we want to thank all the participants of the Retirement Income Summit for their valuable time and expertise. As we hope you have found, this group took tremendous strides in helping to define the field of retirement income planning.
We hope meetings like this continue to in- form this interesting and evolving field. As knowledge in this area grows, company training, The American College courses and the New York Life Center for Retirement Income can incorporate these valuable new insights into their programs—which will help us all better serve clients’ needs.

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you can use.

Clients, Cloud Computing and CTOs

Craig Lemoine, CFP®

Craig is an Assistant Professor of Financial Planning at The American College and holds the Jarrett Davis Distinguished Professorship in Finance and Accounting.

January 1, 2011 marked the death of the hundred- page financial plan. The date may have passed you by; there were a limited number of Hallmark cards marking the event. Even if you did not get a card in the mail, your smart phone likely sent you a text, perhaps “OMG PLN :- x.” Technology continues to march forward in the financial services industry. This year advisors will continue adapting how and where they engage, gather data, analyze plans and present recommendations to clients.
Last year saw arching trends continue from 2009. iPhones gained momentum, with CNN estimating sales of more than 30 million iPhones and 40 million BlackBerrys. These trends support a market reality: Your clients have smartphones. iPads raced onto the scene, with sales estimates around 10 million. You likely have a smartphone or iPad, as well. More importantly, your clients use these de- vices to follow up on sales, fact check, shop, dine out and engage in on-the-spot financial literacy. Clients continue to use technological tools to search for information and are less dependent on financial service professionals to provide knowledge. Instead, they rely on professionals to help them sort, filter and prioritize all that they find online.
Last year was a year of changing expectations for clients and advisors. Smartphone and instant communication have created a culture of now. Clients want instant access to their advisors through texts, social networking and e-mail. Advisors must balance immediate client satisfaction with compliance consideration and thoughtful answers. Establishing communication expectations and boundaries is critical for success with today’s client.
Advisor expectations also have taken a step for- ward. Advisors not only want to work in their office or the office of their clients, but also meet with clients at third-party locations—“Starbucks Planning.” “Cloud computing” became a buzzword last year and can help advisors satisfy their urge to plan with a cappuccino. Cloud computing allows users to work together simultaneously on a remotely located computer. Companies and individuals can efficiently outsource processing power to the cloud (a group of remote accessible computers) and dedicate their personal desktop or laptop computers to more immediate or local tasks. Financial advisors are be- ginning to benefit from cloud computing applications in home office environments, and will begin to realize the power of sharing software platforms with support staff and working in simultaneous and interactive software environments with clients. Independent advisors can benefit from innovations in cloud computing by downsizing their personal system. Paying monthly access fees to share part of a cloud-computing environment may be more cost effective than purchasing top-of-the-line PCs or notebooks.
Google continued to dominate the technology landscape and will likely continue to in 2011. Google Documents follows a cloud computing model and allows users to edit and share word processing, spreadsheets and limited presentation documents in a secure environment. A small firm may find Google Documents or a similar service a refreshing alternative to hosting a server and dedicated network computers at each financial advisor and support employee’s desk.
As markets slowly gain ground lost over the past few years, financial service professionals continue to be cost sensitive. Financial professionals must approach their communication and analytical needs with the same planning and diligence that they approach selecting mutual fund or variable annuity products for their clients. Financial service firms should use 2011 as the opportunity to charge a key employee or agent with the role of chief technology officer (CTO). A CTO must be responsible for answering key technology questions for any financial advisor or firm.

1. How do we communicate, plan and advise? What tools do we need to adopt to realize our ideal atmosphere?
Financial advisors have been challenged with hurdles in how to present information, case facts, documents and outcomes to clients. Is presenting a 200-page written financial plan the most effective method of coaching a client to act? Would a concise multimedia presentation and a shorter executive summary have a more meaningful impact? Firms must determine their culture before deciding on what tools they need to achieve it. Will clients call, e- mail, message or text advisors? Calling and e-mailing may not require any more than a phone and netbook, while video chat, messaging or secure texting could require firms to adopt BlackBerrys and high-bandwidth communication systems.

2. How much will we spend on technology, from computers to phones?
Generally, financial service firms should budget between 5 percent and 15 percent of gross revenue to technology costs. Consider investments in technology to have a tangible return on investment from one of two perspectives, time or referrals. A firm may choose to make an investment in camera phones to replace in-person office meetings. Assuming an upfront cost of $300 per phone, a CTO makes a $3,000 investment for a firm of 10 advisors. Each advisor saves about two hours a week commuting to the office. This $3,000 investment would save the firm about 1,000 hours of productivity annually—well worth the cost! Alternatively, returns on investments can be measured in referrals. Spending $20,000 to equip a conference room with an 80-inch plasma television and sound equipment may seem excessive, but the wow factor from using those tools in a financial planning presentation will help the firm generate referrals.

3. Can we buy the latest and greatest toys, that is, are new technologies in compliance?
Unfortunately, a CTO must live in the reality of their home office. FINRA rules and recordkeeping are often well behind the latest and greatest communication tools and techniques available in the market. Consult the most technologically savvy compliance officer at your home office before adopting radical changes.


4. How will the firm implement changes and new acquisitions?
Firms often consider the financial cost of adopting new hardware, software or communication systems, but they rarely consider the lost productivity associated with updating and installation. A change as simple as migrating from an iPhone to a BlackBerry could present potential hurdles. How will the contacts be imported? How will e-mails be checked on the new system? Will my passwords change? Can I sync the new system with my old calendar? Consider the actual time costs associated with making any technology changes.

The CTO plays an important role in any financial services firm, and that role cannot be understated in 2011. Today’s average million-dollar client has a home theater system, smartphone and more than 100 cable channels. Financial advisors must be able to create an experience to wow this client and make an impact in a very busy and cluttered world.

Originally published in the Spring 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Tune in Turn On: Technology you Can Use.

Washington Surprise: A Glimmer of Agreement in the Fiduciary Wrangle?

It’s common knowledge these days that the right and left never agree on anything. So why is Barney Frank writing letters to the SEC cautioning them on overreach in their extension of the fiduciary standard? Why are House Republicans and some Security and Ex- change Commission (SEC) com- missioners expressing concerns? It’s becoming increasingly clear that it’s middle-income Americans who may get hurt by an unreasoned, one-size-fits-all approach to a fiduciary standard that could force brokers and dealers into a new business model.

What’s an Average Investor to Do?
This change is much more of a problem for those making $50,000 a year than for those making $250,000 a year. Let’s suppose a broad fiduciary standard is put in place for broker-dealers, creating additional compliance costs, potentially limiting the distribution of proprietary products and resulting in more financial professionals moving to a fee- based model. Would an investor of average income want to pay for a standalone financial plan? Would she meet the required asset threshold to be a meaningful client for a

Fee-Based Advisor?
For average investors, the consequences could include fewer individuals seeking qualified financial advice. In fact, a recent study suggests that the cost of advice could double for those at the lowest end of the investment spectrum. According to a high-ranking official at Morgan Stanley Smith Barney in a recent issue of Investment News, the first signs of the business-model shift may already be occurring as brokers work to get ahead of the coming regulatory change. It quickly becomes clear why neither liberals nor conservatives want to be tagged with this one.
runaway regulation is the order of the day The Dodd-Frank bill took a decidedly odd approach to regulation, missing an opportunity to do more on derivatives or with the government- sponsored entities that helped cause the mortgage crisis while meddling in everything from debit card fees to creating an unwieldy new consumer agency. One result of the massive legislation was to send government agencies scurrying off to conduct studies and write rules ad infinitum.
The mandated SEC staff study on standards of care came back advocating a single standard of care for investment advisors and broker-dealers, after spending dozens of pages explaining why they weren’t sure what the impact of the change would be. Nowhere did they identify the specific consumer harm they hoped to mitigate. Still, they thought implementing a uniform standard of care was a good idea. The proposed standard would require broker- dealers and investment advisors providing personalized investment advice to retail clients to “act in the best interest of the customer without regard to the financial or other interest of the broker, dealer, or investment advisor providing the advice.” Certainly sounds good, doesn’t it?

Let’s Play the Best-Interest Game
Every successful financial professional works hard to serve clients effectively and well, and acting in the long-term interest of clients is the only path that leads to customer satisfaction, retention and referrals. Using the legal definition the SEC staff study suggests, however, creates some issues. There’s nothing in the language about risk tolerance, client circumstances or the financial professional’s best knowledge at the time the ad- vice is delivered. There is also no suggestion as to when best interest might be determined: Over the next quarter? The next year? The next 20 years?
Consider the timing of making that best interest determination as it might relate to the sale of a variable life insurance product. If the client were to die within a few years after the sale, in hindsight, a policy with the highest death benefit would have been in the client’s best interest. If a raging bull market occurs over an extended period, an aggressive variable policy with exposure to a portfolio of equities might have been the best choice for the client. Were the market to fall, stronger guarantees would have been a better choice. What seems simple—a noble concept of client best interest—is actually very complicated as the basis for regulation. It’s easy to see the increased litigation potential, as well.
Remember, too, that the uniform standard will technically change the existing definition for investment advisors. Even though the SEC has suggested interpretive guidance may not change, the core language that drives regulation and litigation will be transitioning for both business models, advisors and broker-dealers.
Broker-dealers work now under a suitability standard, with clear rules established before the fact that govern their bus ness activities. Advisors working under the fiduciary standard, however, face conduct evaluation after the fact. Regulating a principles-based fiduciary standard based on the lack of clear
rules for action is much harder. Currently, broker-dealers are inspected every two years, while investment advisors are inspected only once every 10 years on average. In fact, according to the SEC, one-third of investment advisors have never been inspected. Fiduciaries like Bernie Madoff can escape detection for a long time, creating considerable investor harm in the interim.

Where’s the Consumer Benefit?
The oversight disparity between the two models leads to a fundamental question: will consumers be better off practically with more financial professionals working under a fiduciary standard? Ask advocates of a universal fiduciary standard for a concise description of how consumers will benefit, and you’ll get few solid answers. Most will say that eliminating consumer confusion is important. There’s some truth to the fact that consumers are confused by the entire issue of standards of care, but they also indicate that they are happy with their financial professionals and their level of market choice. Any issue of consumer confusion—if that’s really the core issue— could be solved much more easily, with less potential harm, through more robust disclosure requirements.
Consumer advocates also talk vaguely about increased consumer protections of the standards change, but pushed for details they offer few. Strangely, these same advocates mention none of the potential harm to consumer choice, costs and access—harm that could be significant and hit middle-income consumers hardest.

Has the Department of Labor (DOL) Seen the Light? The Employee Benefits Security Administration (EBSA) has also been working to update its definition of which retirement plan professionals are fiduciaries. The long-standing multi-part test could be broadened, with potentially negative impact to investors with IRAs or employer-sponsored plan participants who are seeking professional advice.
The fundamental issue is the same as in the SEC debate: the “fiduciary” concept may sound appealing, but without careful attention to the way consumers access advice and the business models that make that advice readily available, consumers at the lower end of the in- vestment spectrum could be harmed— especially those with IRAs. Less access to professional advice and products is a critical concern when families are facing significant retirement income shortfalls over the coming decades.
Finally, following wave after wave of protests from virtually every quarter, the DOL is backing down. They’ve agreed to re-propose their rule sometime early next year, hopefully in a more acceptable form that does less harm to consumers.

Where Do We Go From Here?
As the debt and deficit discussions continue in Washington, the SEC has slowed somewhat their work on the fiduciary issue because of the emerging complexity of their regulatory challenge, limited resources, and the pursuit of (at last!) a stronger cost/benefit analysis. They have indicated that they will study the potentially negative impact to consumers of their staff proposal, but it is unclear how extensively they might apply their limited resources to that important work.
Congress recently held hearings that touched on these important issues – with fewer of the same tired groups chanting the word “fiduciary” while offering no supporting consumer benefits or analysis of potential consumer harm. The testimony and dialogue began to generate a greater understanding of the real issues at play for middle-income investors. Good intentions have never protected consumers. Well-reasoned public policy can, and there’s a glimmer of hope now that more nuanced and practical thinking may ultimately prevail.

Originally published in the Fall 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Retirement won’t go away: Strategies you and your clients can’t ignore.

Debt Reduction Roundup

David J. Stertzer, FLMI

As CEO of AALU, and top staff officer for more than 20 years, David has provided continuity, leadership and strategic vision to AALU’s Board of Directors and has worked directly with nearly half of AALU’s 50 Presidents.

Our country is arguably at a cross- roads—one with difficult choices and daunting challenges in all di- rections. Congress just wrapped up months of haggling over an agree- ment to raise the U.S. debt limit while at the same time making a down payment on our long-term debt dilemma. What some may not realize is that this is only one check- point in a long debate over the future of our fis- cal and tax policies. As time goes by, and in more ways than one, the life insurance industry and its products could be at risk—and the cost of watching from the sidelines is steep.

Where Do we Stand?

This past summer, and for the second time in 18 months (and the 11th time in the past decade), the U.S. hit its debt limit. In February 2010, Congress agreed to raise the debt ceiling on the condition that President Obama task a group of current and former lawmakers and budget experts to evaluate our fiscal problems and construct a comprehensive solution that could be considered by Congress. As a result, the National Commission on Fiscal Re- sponsibility and Reform—or the so-called “Bowles- Simpson Commission,” named after its co-chairs Erskine Bowles and Alan Simpson—was born. The Commission’s December 2010 report, entitled “The Moment of Truth,” contained a series of il- lustrative proposals aimed at reducing our national debt by more than $4 trillion through 2020. Why is this so compelling for life insurance agents? Well, one proposal sought to modify or eliminate all tax expenditures, which are deviations from normal in- come and corporate income tax treatment. Among the hundreds of tax expenditures recognized by the Congressional Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) is the tax-deferred growth of life insurance inside build-up and the tax-free death benefits provided by these policies. The JCT projects that nearly $150 billion could be raised over five years by eliminat- ing these specific tax provisions from the Internal Revenue Code. This means that, at least from a revenue perspective, the tax treatment of life in- surance products is one of the most appealing tax expenditures on the books for fiscal hawks seek- ing to reduce our soaring debts. And the Bowles- Simpson proposal is just one of dozens that have been floated in Washington containing vague and imprecise changes to tax expenditures. The bottom line is straightforward—the preservation of these provisions for the benefit of the 75 million Ameri- can families that rely on life insurance for financial protection and retirement savings will require wide- spread and proactive political engagement from all of the industry’s stakeholders.

What Now?

Congress never faced their “moment of truth” fol- lowing the release of the “Bowles-Simpson” re- port. Despite a majority agreement among the 18 Commission members, no vote was taken in either chamber. This past summer, as we reached our $14.3 trillion debt limit, Congressional leaders and the White House negotiated through fits and starts in an effort to avoid facing the prospect of default and the economic and market-based ramifications that were expected to fol- low.

In the end, an agreement to raise the debt ceiling was reached and approved by Congress in an overwhelmingly bipartisan manner. However, don’t let the bipartisan support fool you—while the Budget Control Act of 2011 will save $1.2 trillion through discretionary budget caps, much of the deficit reduction was left up to a Super Committee of Congress to decide, which means there will continue to be partisan gridlock on the best approach towards controlling our long-term structural debt.
While the August 2, 2011, debt ceiling deadline came and went without a domestic debt crisis, the mechanics of the Budget Control Act will ensure that addressing our fiscal problems will remain the top priority in Washington for the remainder of 2011 and well into 2012. The biggest question over the next several months will be, “What will the Super Committee do?” Despite continued calls for the implementation of pro-growth tax and fiscal policies amid a worsening economic landscape and volatile financial markets, ongoing political divides coupled with the strict timeline on which the Committee will be working makes enacting any big-ticket reforms (comprehensive tax or entitlement reform) very unlikely. That said, the pressure on this Committee will be great, and the January 15 trigger—$1.2 trillion in domestic discretion- ary and defense department cuts—will be something that both parties will aim to avoid. In any event, what we know is that momentum for tax reform is building. Whether the Super Committee takes up the task or Congress waits until 2013 to do so, the life insurance industry must be prepared when the day does come. This is where the direct advocacy has proven to be so effective.

Putting Our Model to Work

This summer’s debt showdown is only one step in the contentious process of establishing fiscal stability. The byproduct is and will continue to be a fluid and unpredictable environment that mandates active, diligent engagement by practitioners and the industry to guard against any possible tax threat. These would include not only the aforementioned threat to inside build-up and death benefits, but also possible threats to business uses of life insurance products. Additionally, it is worth noting that while much of the rhetoric around the Budget Control Act trended away from imposing higher taxes or eliminating certain tax preferences, over the long-run—and particularly in the context of comprehensive tax reform—significant changes to the tax code, especially in the area of tax expenditures, are likely to be much more palatable for members of both parties. The environment may seem slightly muddled, but that we are facing an indefinite and dynamic tax challenge is clear.
The insurance industry’s tax threats will not soon disappear. Any debt re- duction agreement reached in the coming weeks and months will only be a down payment towards effectively reversing current unsustainable fiscal trends, and a broad tax reform effort may also be in our future. Put simply, as long as revenues are in demand, changing the tax treatment of life insurance products will always be on the table. Standing on the sidelines is really not an option.

Originally published in the Fall 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Retirement won’t go away: Strategies you and your clients can’t ignore.

Edward Woods

Virginia E. Webb

Virginia E. Webb Managing the Knowledge Center at The American College, Virginia does research for faculty, students and graduates, as well as administers the technical services department of the Vane B. Lucas Memorial Library.

Andrew Carnegie once said: “Team- work is the ability to work together toward a common vision. The ability to direct individual accom- plishment toward organizational objectives. It is the fuel that allows common people to obtain uncom- mon results.” Edward Woods, as one of our College’s founding fa- thers, brought to the table his vast life underwriting and industry success, a passion for the art of salesmanship and love of country. He saw life insurance as being essential for those in old age, widows, for education of chil- dren, protection of home, philanthropy, payment of debt and as an estate-planning tool.
Woods stressed that “salesmanship is not the same as selling,” and pointed to many fields where professionals were trained without salesmanship being included. He presented many of his research findings at the NALU annual meetings and served on the NALU Committee on Scientific Salesman- ship for many years. Traits Woods felt essential for a salesman included: appearance and manner; school- ing or education; system; health; industry; convinc- ingness; knowledge; character; thrift and initiative. He felt it was his patriotic duty to educate and train successful insurance agents.
He wrote books including: Life Underwriting as a Career (1923), America’s Human Wealth: The Money Value of a Human Life (1927) and The Sociology of Life Insurance (published posthumously by Dr. Huebner in 1928).
He served as president of NALU (now NAIFA) from 1915-1916, addressing 23 associations, travel- ing 26,679 miles and making 48 addresses during the course of his presidency.
He began the Carnegie Bureau of Salesmanship Research in 1916 and helped to create the Carnegie
School of Life Insurance Salesmanship in 1919 (known today as University of Pittsburgh). This marked the first formal insurance education train- ing and preceded the formation of
The American College. Edward Woods was born in
1865 in Pittsburgh. He attended school but left at age 15 to go into the life insurance business with his father at the Equitable Life Assurance Company (now known as AXA Equitable). When his father retired in 1890, Woods became a general agent. Later he established his own agency,
The Edward A. Woods Company. For some 20 years his insurance agency was the
largest life insurance agency in the world. Woods was also active in the Pittsburgh area and gave back to his community with his time and treasure.
On March 25, 1927, Woods was elected the first president of The American College and served on the Board of Directors. He died on November 30 that same year. The College established the Edward Woods Foundation, the school’s first endowment fund. When announced at the 1928 NALU Con- vention, the response was immediate and generous. More than $50,000 was pledged. Some of those funds later helped to finance The College’s first headquarters building in Philadelphia. Woods’s es- tate included insurance on members of his family as well as those in his company. He even included a policy to provide a $100 Christmas present for his wife each year.
The American College awarded its highest honor (The Huebner Gold Medal) posthumously to Ed- ward Woods in 1978. We owe him a debt of grati- tude for his energy, foresight and service.

Originally published in the Fall 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Retirement won’t go away: Strategies you and your clients can’t ignore.

TAC Knows Retirement Planning!

Allen McLellan, CLU®, ChFC®, CASL®, CFP®, LUTCF

Allen is the Associate Dean and Assistant Professor of Insurance at The American College. allen.mclellan@TheAmericanCollege. edu

Understating it, we live in extremely uncertain times! That uncertainty is transparently manifested in planning for retirement. Your clients are, or will be, concerned about it—and they will approach you for advice. How do we account for a long retirement, perhaps 30 years or more, in making assumptions about investment markets, inflation and stability of income? How do we address the most pressing concerns of retirees, such as outliving their income, healthcare, long-term care and lifestyle? The stakes are high, and there is no redo on the client’s retired years—get it right or face a devastating financial future. Complex issues demand in-depth knowledge and sharpened skills for anyone holding out to be a financial advisor, and The American College meets today’s challenge of preparing financial advisors to excel in the retirement planning arena.
The competencies required in a retirement planner are broad and deep. Just a partial list includes:
•  Investment planning (accumulation for retirement).
•  Decumulation (lifetime withdrawals from retirement assets).
•  Social Security (when to take it).
•  Healthcare (especially Medicare for seniors).
•  Long-term care (the biggest threat to security for most retirees).
This list does not include the soft skills so important to advisors such as communication, active listening and interviewing techniques. Clearly, there is much to learn for the retirement planner, and there are no shortcuts to learning the material and mastering the skills. Enter The American College.

For decades, The American College has been the leader in financial services education. We are particularly strong in our retirement planning curricula, as evidenced by Matthew Wade, LUTCF, a financial services representative in Ocala, Fla., who said, “That module, specifically, crystallized my decision to pursue the retiree market as my primary market. As a result, I am now on pace for Presidents’ Conference in my second full year in the business.”

The American College has developed content from some of the nation’s best thought leaders who have experience as financial planners, served on the faculty, published their work in scholarly journals and have been interviewed by our staff. The College also listens to our students and incorporates their feedback into frequent revisions of our courses. The following are five of our most popular courses in our Financial Advisor series and are tremendously valuable to advisors who focus on the retirement population.
• FA 261-Foundations of Retirement Planning. The course addresses all steps in the retirement planning process, fact- finding, analysis and financial assumptions, Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, tax policies and suitability of investment vehicles such as stocks, bonds, mutual funds and annuities. Alicia Coleman, CPA, a financial advisor with Metlife Financial Group of the Southwest, said, “FA261 was a very helpful course for me. My best clients have been pre- retirees. I feel very comfortable talking with them because of the knowledge gained in the course. I really liked the format and the content was great.”
• FA 262-Foundations of Financial Planning: An Overview. Delves deeply into the components of a comprehensive financial plan, including retirement planning, risk management, income tax planning and estate planning.
• FA 263-Foundations of Financial Planning: The Process. Guides the advisor through identifying markets and prospects, communication skills with clients, developing and presenting a comprehensive financial plan, and providing superior service. Includes in-depth coverage of time- value-of money, financial risk tolerance and asset allocations.
• FA 255-Essentials of Long-Term Care Insurance. Long-term care insurance is all about asset protection, usually throughout the retirement period. This course explains the need, describes coverage provided by long-term care insurance and describes how to tailor an LTC insurance policy to a client’s needs. A focused education in long-term care issues.
•  FA 256-Essentials of Annuities. Studies show that more retirees fear outliving their assets than fear death. Financial scholars are increasingly recommending annuities as a means of providing guaranteed lifetime income for clients. This course presents the characteristics of fixed, indexed and variable deferred annuities for accumulation of wealth on a tax-favored basis, and it discusses immediate annuities to provide income security for retirees.

The true success of The American College retirement planning courses is measured in the success of the individuals who have taken them, such as Colin Edding- ton, LUTCF, a financial advisor in Houston. He said, “The knowledge I gained helped me grow my practice by many multiples and taught me details about retirement planning that I did not get from any of my college classes. I recommend it to anyone who is serious about their career as an agent, and who wants to have a foundation to build a successful practice.”
Jason King, LUTCF, agency sales director for Creative Financial Solutions, agreed, saying the program’s “focus on both the process of fact finding and on the activities that are essential in this business contributed greatly to my early success. In my current role as sales director for our New Orleans office, I see our newest advisors benefiting from the LUTC program, as the assignments and course materials align with and complement our agency’s training and development programs.”
Upon completing American College retirement planning courses such as FA261, professionals also take with them practical tools they can use in the course of their everyday business. “Using a questionnaire form from the course, I was able to finally land a nice size annuity, which I had been trying to get for a year,” said Marco Giglio, a financial services representative with Tampa Bay Financial.
“The questionnaire further uncovered two other needs I had not been pursuing with the same client,” he added. “While we are still working to get the other two pieces in place, I did find it to be a helpful tool and one I will continue to utilize going forward.”
In closing, the retirement planning courses mentioned here and other courses offered by The American College can lead to the Life Underwriter Training Council Fellow (LUTCF) and Financial Services Specialist (FSS) designations—both worthy goals. In addition, the knowledge, skills and confidence derived from successful completion of these courses will change and lift your professional careers in many ways. More satisfied clients, more referrals, more income and more recognition from your peers will surely result. Armed with the knowledge from these courses, you can easily write your value proposition and explain why clients should call on you rather than the other guy.
“It is not an understatement to say that the LUTC curriculum should be required learning for any advisor coming into this business,” said King.
For more information, check out our website at TheAmericanCollege.edu or call our Professional Education counselors at (888) 263-7265. Good luck in your career!

Originally published in the Fall 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Retirement won’t go away: Strategies you and your clients can’t ignore.

Mastering the Science of Financial Services

Glenn Boseman, DBA, CLU®, CLF®

Glen serves at the Dean of the Irwin Graduate School and Roger Hull-James S. Bingay Chair of Leadership at The American College. glenn.boseman@ TheAmericanCollege. edu

The American College’s Master of Science in Financial Services (MSFS) degree provides the in-depth knowledge and skills that allow a financial services professional to serve the public more effectively. The curriculum emphasizes analysis, planning and implementation of strategies for individuals, families and businesses to protect, conserve and distribute financial assets. The program further emphasizes the role of the financial services professional in developing a synthesis of financial resources, needs, objectives and appropriate alternative plans for achieving the economic ends desired by today’s clients. Graduates and students active in the program enhance their professionalism while gaining skill and confidence in implementing complex strategies resulting in increased value to their clients.
“The impact of my Masters degree is immeasurable,” said current MSFS student Leasha West. “The MSFS has allowed me to gain entry to advanced markets, acquire corporate clients and obtain much larger cases. The applied knowledge from this program has catapulted my bottom line.”
The MSFS degree requires a total of 36 credits or 12 courses to complete the program, and the student has five years to complete the program requirements from the time of admission. Eight of the 12 courses are required of everyone, followed by two elective courses for individuals who wish to specialize in a specific area. Finally, students will take two courses in a required on-campus, four-day residency program. As part of the MSFS, each student is required to complete a Case Study Project towards the end of the program to demonstrate an understanding of and the ability to apply the major concepts learned throughout the MSFS. Individuals who have earned the ChFC® or the CFP® designation may request permission to challenge or test out of any two of the required or elective courses. Eligible student must request the challenge within 90 days of being admitted into the program.
The College began teaching many of the MSFS courses live online in 2010. Each course is taught for two hours (usually in the evenings) for a period of 10 weeks, and concludes with the traditional multiple-choice test administered by Pearson Vue or, in some cases, the professor will test using either a short-answer essay exam or project. Student enrollment in each of these courses is limited to allow professors to have significant interaction with the students and to facilitate student interact on a peer basis. Student feedback on the online courses has been outstanding.
The College offers the online webinar courses in open enrollment, meaning anyone in the MSFS program may enroll in the webinar, except when webinars are presented for a specific company with only individuals from that company participating.
In November 2011 we will publish the online teaching schedule for all MSFS courses for 2012. The schedule will be developed in such a way that a student may schedule the complete program through online classes, excepting, of course, the residency courses.
The MSFS program is demanding and challenging, as it presents financial concepts, skills and education at the highest level in the financial services industry, but the benefits derived from the MSFS far outweigh the time and expense associated with obtaining it.
Jim Peterson, a recent MSFS graduate, said, “Be- cause I train and coach a lot of advisors, the MSFS has allowed me to grow professionally and provide the kind of information that my advisors need, particularly the ones who have been around for a long time and are looking for different ways to approach the business.”
Visit The College’s website at TheAmericanCollege.edu and see how easy it is to get started in the program.

Originally published in the Fall 2011 issue of The Wealth Channel Magazine, Retirement won’t go away: Strategies you and your clients can’t ignore.